Embedding Agricultural Research in a System of Innovation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Embedding Agricultural Research in a System of Innovation

on

  • 4,111 views

Systems views of innovation are becoming increasingly important to agricultural research. 'New' Agriculture is situated in a global context that is evolving very rapidly with many different players. ...

Systems views of innovation are becoming increasingly important to agricultural research. 'New' Agriculture is situated in a global context that is evolving very rapidly with many different players. It requires rapid response and adaptation to this complex and changing context. Innovation Systems is thus critical as it is a means of organising thinking on ways of promoting innovation in complex, continuously changing environments with many actors and where straightforward technology transfer approaches are unlikely to work

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,111
Views on SlideShare
3,534
Embed Views
577

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
98
Comments
0

28 Embeds 577

http://paepard.blogspot.com 292
http://www.innovationstudies.org 140
http://innovationstudies.org 35
http://paepard.blogspot.in 16
http://paepard.blogspot.nl 13
url_unknown 13
http://paepard.org 11
http://paepard.blogspot.de 8
http://www.slideshare.net 7
http://paepard.blogspot.fr 6
http://paepard.blogspot.be 5
http://paepard.blogspot.co.uk 5
http://paepard.blogspot.fi 4
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 4
http://paepard.blogspot.ca 3
http://paepard.blogspot.com.au 3
http://paepard.blogspot.cz 1
http://paepard.blogspot.sg 1
http://paepard.blogspot.co.il 1
http://paepard.blogspot.com.es 1
http://paepard.blogspot.hk 1
http://localhost 1
http://paepard.blogspot.se 1
http://paepard.blogspot.ru 1
http://paepard.blogspot.kr 1
http://paepard.blogspot.com.br 1
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com 1
http://paepard.blogspot.pt 1
More...

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Embedding Agricultural Research in a System of Innovation Embedding Agricultural Research in a System of Innovation Presentation Transcript

    • Embedding Agricultural Research in a System of Innovation Andy Hall LINK Coordinator, UNU-MERIT Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • Main Messages
      • The recognition of two theories about how to promote innovation
      • The first relies on transferring knowledge, technology and information
      • The second relies on a social process of interactive learning
      • Both are important, but the dynamics of ‘new agriculture’ demand a more dynamic, interactive approach
      • Suggests that research increasingly needs to be situated in a boarder set of relationships within a system of innovation
      • Implications for the way research organisations operate and the ways capacities for innovation and impact can be built
      • What do the critics say?
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • Why are we interested in Innovation?
      • Innovation: The process of creating and putting into use combinations of knowledge from different sources
      • Putting knowledge into use adds value to existing resources and creates IMPACT
      • Research creates knowledge and technology
      • The process of innovation goes further and also includes putting that knowledge into use
      • But how can innovation be promoted?
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • Theories on how to promote Innovation Specific/ contextual Knowledge only has meaning in its domain of existence Generic/ a-contextual Knowledge is universally valid and can be transferred Assumptions about the nature of knowledge Interactive learning give rise to concerted action Diffusion processes organised by extension/ the market Assumptions on how impact is achieved Structured around action Research-to-“extension”-to-farmer Communication Multiple sources including research Centralised, scientific research Sources of ideas Systems Linear Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • Where do Systems Views of Innovation come from?
      • Stephen Biggs — Multiple sources of agricultural innovation
      • The Dutch School — Agricultural extension origins. Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems (AKIS), Niels Roling. Also Paul Engel and others. Focus on actors in the rural domain
      • National Systems of Innovation — Innovation networks. Freeman, Lundval and others. SPRU, UNU-INTECH and many others
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • National Systems of Innovation
      • Empirically-based — Observations of successful industrial economies
      • Innovation not related to levels of R&D investment, per se
      • Success comes from patterns of organisation and ways of working that support an interactive process of knowledge sharing and learning
      • In practice — There are partnerships between public research and private enterprise, creating both technological and institutional change
      • A key feature of interactive learning processes is the ability of these arrangements to adapt rapidly to changing market, policy and technological conditions
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • Why are these Systems Views of Innovation becoming important to Agricultural Research?
        • Mandate articulated in impact terms:
          • economic growth, poverty reduction and environment, and the complexity of these impact domains
        • The emergence of a new, post-Green Revolution Agriculture
        • New agriculture in situated in a global context that is evolving very rapidly with many different players
        • Requires rapid response and adaptation to this complex and changing context
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • New Agriculture
      • Sectors
        • Livestock and aquaculture
        • Flowers, horticulture, medicinal plants
        • Agro-processing, bio-fuels, fibers, forest products
      • Drivers
        • Access to regional and global markets
        • New technology
        • Changing consumer preferences associated with rising incomes and urbanisation
        • Industrialisation of the food chain and the emergence of international value chains
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • Features of the New, Post-Green Revolution Agriculture
        • Reaches the poor through non-food routes
        • Many different players involved, particularly the private sector
        • Embedded in the global context of trade rules, consumer demands and competition and as a result changes very rapidly in unpredictable ways
        • Innovation to cope with the global context requires knowledge from many different branches of science as well as management and empirical knowledge
        • Requires unprecedented rates of innovation to cope with the rapidly-evolving context
        • But this needs continuous incremental innovation more than revolutionary innovation
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • What is an innovation system?
      • Definition : A system of innovation is all the actors and their interactions involved in the production, use of knowledge, and the institutional and policy context that shapes the processes of interacting, knowledge-sharing and learning
      • It is a way of organising thinking on ways of promoting innovation in complex, continuously-changing environments with many actors and where straightforward technology transfer approaches are unlikely to work
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • Basic Innovation Systems Principles
      • Research as part of a wider process of innovation
      • Innovation requires interaction and this is only productive if it is supported by the right sort of relationships
      • Interaction is not only important for problem-solving , but also to identify and respond to new challenges and opportunities. Interaction helps rapid response
      • The process of interacting and innovating is shaped by the context – the way organisations work, national and regional characteristics and the policy environment
      • It’s a social process. Participating in the creation and use of knowledge gives lessons on how to do this better
      • Learning causes the evolution of patterns of interaction and ways of working.
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • Most Important Principle
      • The capacity to innovate is a combination of:
        • Skills
          • Scientific, Entrepreneurial, Managerial and others
        • Patterns of interaction
          • Partnerships, alliances and networks
        • Ways of working
          • Routines, organisational culture, traditional practices
        • Policies
          • Clusters of supportive policies and the nature of the policy process
        • Learning
          • The ability to continuously learn how to use knowledge more effectively at the organisational level, at the sector level and at the national level
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • What does this mean for Research Organisations?
      • Centrality of partnerships
      • Network development
      • Development of a stakeholder dialogue
      • *Setting and implementing priorities
      • *New agenda of systems of capacity development
      • *New Research
      • *New Roles
      • Explicit efforts to reassess roles
      • *New organisational culture and ILAC
      • *New skills and disciplinary mixes
      • * Elaborated further
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
      • Governance
        • Situating research organisations in a broader set of relationships brings with it an expectation of participation in initiatives to address the concerns of these stakeholders
      • Priority setting
        • The network becomes an important mechanism for setting priorities and these are likely to be dynamic and evolving and relate to specific stakeholder domains
      • Local vs. Central
        • Potential tension exists between research systems, strategic priorities and local stakeholders’ immediate, new or unexpected priorities
      • New role of priorities
        • Centrally-defined priorities start to resemble broad framework for action
      • Implementation of priorities
        • Requires the creation of broad-based consortia around these thematic priorities and a continuous process of evaluating their relevance and the effectiveness of processes in addressing them. Priorities and approaches in a system of innovation are always contestable
      4. Setting and Implementing Priorities Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
      • Beyond knowledge inputs
        • It is not just knowledge and technology inputs that are needed, but also important are the processes necessary to make knowledge available and to enable its use
      • Systems strengthening
        • Research organisations operating in a system of innovation need to work in ways that contribute to strengthening these processes and the wider system
      • Nature of capacity
        • New linkages, new institutions (i.e., new forms of behaviour, routines, norms) as well as new enabling environments policy)
      • Challenges
        • Raises questions about when linear-like approaches are more effective and when systems-like approaches are more effective. And how to make decisions about the nature of the capacities that have to be strengthened
      5. New Agenda of Systems Capacity Development Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
      • Investigating how to strengthen Innovation Systems Capacity in appropriate ways needs to be part of the research task
      • Not as a specialist social science or policy research endeavour, but as core element of research in different technological sectors seeking to bring about innovation and impact
      • The main way of investigating this is through an action research methodology whereby new capacities are developed experimentally and lessons learnt
      • This may involve doing developmental-like activities in order to learn lessons on how to deploy science and other knowledge more effectively
      • These lessons are international public goods
      • Will only produce IPGs if processes and capacities are investigated rigorously
      6. New Research Agenda Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
      • Research role will remain important, although this will have to contribute to institutional change as well as technological change
      • Knowledge brokers ensuring that reliable knowledge and information is available to each other where it is needed
      • Catalytic role stimulating networking where it is needed
      • Network participants to access knowledge from others or to ensure that knowledge produced is accessible by others
      • Context-specific roles. These roles are determined by particular contexts and fields of action and all are legitimate roles for research organisations, contributing to developing the capacity of the innovation system in which they are embedded
      7. New Roles Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • 8. New Organisational Culture and ILAC
      • Elements of this culture include:
        • Openness to partnership
        • Consensus and dialogue
        • A willingness to respect the views of stakeholders
        • A willingness to participate in knowledge-sharing and exchange
        • A recognition that ways of working and institutional arrangements are inherently experimental with the scope for continuous improvement
        • The recognition that innovation can involve technology transfer
        • Participatory development
        • Interactive learning
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • 8. ILAC (contd.)
      • Institutional learning and change
        • i.e., incrementally changing habits and practices to better achieve a goal is an incremental process of reflection and learning and is central to building the capacity of organisations and the systems to innovate
        • The process of helping evolves the way research organisations work
        • Implies new professional and project evaluation criteria
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
      • Soft skills will be required to work in new ways
        • Partnering skills
        • Facilitation skills
        • Reflection and learning skills
        • Networking skills
      • Scientists with research skills relating to understanding innovation process and capacities
      10. New Skills and Disciplinary Mixes Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • What the critics say
      • Linear approach not that bad. It worked well in the past and actually (!) research organisations don’t work like that, anyway
      • It’s nothing new. We are already doing that
      • Innovation doesn’t sound much like research so doesn’t distract us from our main work
      • It’s expensive
      • It doesn’t produce (international) public goods
      • It’s about innovation and not development, so will it reduce poverty?
      Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation
    • Learning INnovation Knowledge Policy-relevant Resources for Rural Innovation LINK is a specialist network of regional innovation policy studies hubs established by the United Nations University-MERIT (UNU-MERIT) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to strengthen the interface between rural innovation studies, policy and practice and to promote North-South and South-South learning on rural innovation.