Building an Integrated Agriculture and Health Agenda: Issues for International Research and Policy - An Agricultural Persp...
Overview  <ul><li>(re-) defining “agriculture“ </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture‘s nutrition and health roles – enhancing good...
Defining agriculture <ul><li>Traditional:  farm sector </li></ul><ul><li>More:  + forests + fish  </li></ul><ul><li>and mo...
Food value chain offers partners and points of entry for a perspective to serve health of  the bottom 2 billions Source: v...
Re-defining agriculture: The new bio-economy, driven by changed prices and technology  Biomass Foods and beverages _______...
Raw Material Supply Health Biodiversity Food Safety Energy Supply Food Safety Waste Material Waste Material BioEconomy red...
Scientific Activities in BioEconomy <ul><li>Land use and soils  </li></ul><ul><li>Water  </li></ul><ul><li>Economics and i...
Implications of re-definig agriculture for agriculture – health research 1.  A broad inter-disciplinary perspective 2.  A ...
Overview  <ul><li>(re-) defining “agriculture“ </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture‘s nutrition and health roles – enhancing good...
Agriculture affects health by …  [a simple contrast] <ul><ul><li>goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increasing availability ...
Agriculture-health linkages Source: Hawkes and Ruel, WHO Bull. 2006. Agricultural  Producers   (farmers & workers) Occupat...
Pointing at the large agriculture issues  that have implications for health <ul><li>Poverty is mainly rural and linked to ...
Land use, productivity and health / nutrition the next “green revolutions”
Urbanization, food systems, and health
Agriculture, energy, consumption, climate change and the nutrition/health environment
Volatility – the price spike of 2008 Source: compiled with data from FAO 2008 and IMF 2008 .
In sum: chronic problems  <ul><li>Population growth remains high </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources constrained (land, wa...
Overview  <ul><li>(re-) defining “agriculture“ </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture‘s nutrition and health roles – enhancing good...
Challenges to linking agriculture  and health / nutrition in policy processes <ul><li>Institutional divisions </li></ul><u...
Global – weak links among organizations for agriculture and health  <ul><li>FAO: info on food and agr. and advice; some nu...
National and Local: Success factors in  inter-sectoral nutrition / health - agric. collaboration <ul><li>Shared objectives...
Spatial dimensions  <ul><li>Need for spatial dimension of any agenda, because agriculture is local and many health issues ...
Spatial Dimensions:  Development   Domains – Combining Agricultural Systems with Infrastructure Source: Stan Wood et al. (...
Sticky problem: Child Malnutrition: (Stunting) Source: FAO 2004.
Food and health problems are where the Poor are  Sub-national poverty ca. 2005 ($1.25/day) Prevalence Number Source:. J. v...
Overview  <ul><li>(re-) defining “agriculture“ </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture‘s nutrition and health roles – enhancing good...
Thoughts on Agenda of a Centre for Integrative Research in Agriculture and Health <ul><li>There are very few institutes th...
Some suggestions for an agenda for integrated  agriculture and health research <ul><li>Basic:  </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Diet ...
How to set priorities in  Agriculture – Health/Nutrition action? <ul><li>Options for criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>focus on ...
and agriculture – health researchers  may like to … <ul><li>…  take an interest in economic and agricultural technology is...
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Building an Integrated Agriculture and Health Agenda: An Agricultural Perspective - Professor Joachim von Braun, University of Bonn

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Building an Integrated Agriculture and Health Agenda: An Agricultural Perspective - Professor Joachim von Braun, University of Bonn

  1. 1. Building an Integrated Agriculture and Health Agenda: Issues for International Research and Policy - An Agricultural Perspective - Joachim von Braun Center for Development Research (ZEF) University of Bonn Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research in Agriculture and Health London June 23, 2010
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>(re-) defining “agriculture“ </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture‘s nutrition and health roles – enhancing goods and preventing bads </li></ul><ul><li>Rethinking institutional arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Research agenda </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining agriculture <ul><li>Traditional: farm sector </li></ul><ul><li>More: + forests + fish </li></ul><ul><li>and more: + ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>and more: the bioeconomy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Food value chain offers partners and points of entry for a perspective to serve health of the bottom 2 billions Source: von Braun 2008. Food retailers top 10: $1,091 bln • Wal-Mart • Carrefour • Metro G • Tesco • Seven & I C o n s u m e r s $4.000 bln Food processors and traders top 10: $409 bln • Nestle • Cargill • ADM • Unilever • Kraft Foods Agricultural input industry top 10: $40 bln • Syngenta • Monsanto • Bayer C • BASF AG • Dow Agro Farms Agricultural value added: $1,592 bln No. of farms: ca. 450 mln Size distr. >100 ha: 0.5% < 2 ha: 85%
  5. 5. Re-defining agriculture: The new bio-economy, driven by changed prices and technology Biomass Foods and beverages ______________ Bio-energy Staples / animal feeds Bio materials Bio chemicals Market price Market volume
  6. 6. Raw Material Supply Health Biodiversity Food Safety Energy Supply Food Safety Waste Material Waste Material BioEconomy redefines agriculture within lots of interlinked value chains Earth Agriculture Water Culture Media Fishery & Aquaculture Forestry Microbial Production Waste Industry Food and feeding stuff technologies Biotechnology Process Technology Biocatalysis Production, Exploitation and Utilisation of Biomass … Application and Processing Products Foodstuffs Biobased chemicals Biofuels Biomaterials Knowledge … by Media … in the Sectors of … by Application Animal feed Source: Bioökonomie Rat, Berlin, 2010
  7. 7. Scientific Activities in BioEconomy <ul><li>Land use and soils </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Economics and institutional </li></ul><ul><li>Crops </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass (terrestrial / marine) </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock(terrestrial / marine) </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling and energy biomass conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition and Health </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity (terrestrial / marine) </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic resources (terrestrial / marine) </li></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology (plant, animal, industrial) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Implications of re-definig agriculture for agriculture – health research 1. A broad inter-disciplinary perspective 2. A strong focus on positive and negative externalities of agriculture 3. A research strategy based on foresight of complex changes
  9. 9. Overview <ul><li>(re-) defining “agriculture“ </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture‘s nutrition and health roles – enhancing goods and preventing bads </li></ul><ul><li>Rethinking institutional arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Research agenda </li></ul>
  10. 10. Agriculture affects health by … [a simple contrast] <ul><ul><li>goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increasing availability / affordability of foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing access to micronutrient-rich foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowering women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raising income and employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound ecosystems services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>bads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food scarcity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply of bad diets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food borne diseases, pests and pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marginalizing women and engaging in child labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverse ecosystems effects </li></ul></ul>Strategic decision needed on what research agenda may have highest expected payoff: more goods or/and less bads
  11. 11. Agriculture-health linkages Source: Hawkes and Ruel, WHO Bull. 2006. Agricultural Producers (farmers & workers) Occupational health Agricultural Systems (type, method, practice, location) Agricultural outputs (qty, qual, price, diversity) Labor (energy, time, amount) Environment (water, air, soil) Income (amount, type, control) Access (food, medicine, health services) Water-associated vector-borne diseases (e.g. malaria) Nutrition <ul><li>Under-nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Diet-related dischronic ease </li></ul>Food-borne illnesses HIV/AIDS Livestock-related illnesses Policy and Policy Process/Governance Agricultural Supply Chain Intermediary Processes Health Outcomes
  12. 12. Pointing at the large agriculture issues that have implications for health <ul><li>Poverty is mainly rural and linked to agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>small farms will last long (as opportunity and constraint) </li></ul><ul><li>Rural services are weak </li></ul>
  13. 13. Land use, productivity and health / nutrition the next “green revolutions”
  14. 14. Urbanization, food systems, and health
  15. 15. Agriculture, energy, consumption, climate change and the nutrition/health environment
  16. 16. Volatility – the price spike of 2008 Source: compiled with data from FAO 2008 and IMF 2008 .
  17. 17. In sum: chronic problems <ul><li>Population growth remains high </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources constrained (land, water) </li></ul><ul><li>Change in demand (urbanization and income) </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural productivity challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Market institutions and barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Governance failures in supply and markets </li></ul><ul><li>Disregard of agriculture - health linkages </li></ul>
  18. 18. Overview <ul><li>(re-) defining “agriculture“ </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture‘s nutrition and health roles – enhancing goods and preventing bads </li></ul><ul><li>Rethinking institutional arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Research agenda </li></ul>
  19. 19. Challenges to linking agriculture and health / nutrition in policy processes <ul><li>Institutional divisions </li></ul><ul><li>Selective world views </li></ul><ul><li>Differing functions </li></ul><ul><li>These institutional and governance issues require attention in research for impact </li></ul><ul><li>Research attention to scale (local, national, global) </li></ul>Source: based on Benson (2006)
  20. 20. Global – weak links among organizations for agriculture and health <ul><li>FAO: info on food and agr. and advice; some nutrition, some health </li></ul><ul><li>WFP: food assistance, and some nutrition actions </li></ul><ul><li>IFAD: finances agricultural development projects </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank: poverty and agriculture, health and some nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>WTO: trade agreements and trade disputes </li></ul><ul><li>WHO: leadership on global health, including some on nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>UNICEF: rights of children, incl. child nutrition and child health </li></ul><ul><li>CGIAR: reduce poverty and improve food security through research, some nutrition and health </li></ul><ul><li>All provide important services, but do not function as a system and agriculture - health linkages have no, or too many homes </li></ul>
  21. 21. National and Local: Success factors in inter-sectoral nutrition / health - agric. collaboration <ul><li>Shared objectives of collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Early inclusive engagement with relevant partners </li></ul><ul><li>Established mechanisms for horizontal & vertical communication </li></ul><ul><li>Models, tools, & mechanisms for working together </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling policy environment – making links with inter-sectoral bodies </li></ul>See T. Benson, IFPRI 2006
  22. 22. Spatial dimensions <ul><li>Need for spatial dimension of any agenda, because agriculture is local and many health issues are too: </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>National </li></ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul>
  23. 23. Spatial Dimensions: Development Domains – Combining Agricultural Systems with Infrastructure Source: Stan Wood et al. (IFPRI) 2009.
  24. 24. Sticky problem: Child Malnutrition: (Stunting) Source: FAO 2004.
  25. 25. Food and health problems are where the Poor are Sub-national poverty ca. 2005 ($1.25/day) Prevalence Number Source:. J. von Braun et.al. IFPRI), 2009. Based on Stan Wood et al
  26. 26. Overview <ul><li>(re-) defining “agriculture“ </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture‘s nutrition and health roles – enhancing goods and preventing bads </li></ul><ul><li>Rethinking institutional arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Research agenda </li></ul>
  27. 27. Thoughts on Agenda of a Centre for Integrative Research in Agriculture and Health <ul><li>There are very few institutes that have a research agenda in agriculture and health </li></ul><ul><li>Implications: </li></ul><ul><li>a niche strategy would not be appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>A contribution to strategizing and networking would have high payoff at global level </li></ul><ul><li>Combined with a small set of interdisciplinary research projects on key issues in key regions / systems </li></ul>
  28. 28. Some suggestions for an agenda for integrated agriculture and health research <ul><li>Basic: </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Diet and Health linkages of agriculture in diverse systems </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Behavioral change related to diets and lifestyles </li></ul><ul><li>2. Innovation leading: </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 Food value chains, technology, and health in the bio-economy </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 Animal production, animal diseases and livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>3. Enhancing results-orientation: </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 Economic impact research of health benefits of agricultural change (technological and institutional) </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 Health and nutrition enhancing food and agricultural policies (taxation and subsidies addressing externalities) and corporate strategies </li></ul>
  29. 29. How to set priorities in Agriculture – Health/Nutrition action? <ul><li>Options for criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>focus on lives saved and livelihoods improved (mortality, morbidity, DALYs), </li></ul><ul><li>focus on economic productivity, growth, returns to investment (expected benefit–cost ratios; human productivity, live time earnings). </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion: dual framework approach with both of these concepts for an informed policy discourse for priority setting </li></ul>
  30. 30. and agriculture – health researchers may like to … <ul><li>… take an interest in economic and agricultural technology issues (build it into curricula and research), and join forces with economic and agricultural disciplines in policy consultations </li></ul><ul><li>… recognize the broad synergies, such as that poverty is basic for health and nutrition problems and that economic growth especially in LDCs, supported by agricultural growth, is relevant for health and nutrition </li></ul>

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