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  • 1. City of ChicagoCity of Chicago Style Guide Style Guide Linscott R. Hanson Arc 125
  • 2. American Four-Square This post-Victorian style of single-family house, prized for its ease of construction, practicality, and roomy interior, is found throughout Chicago. The largest concentrations are in community areas developed during the styles heyday (1900- 1930), such as Beverly, Norwood Park, Rogers Park, and South Shore. ▸Cubic shape Broad front porch, sometimes enclosed Built in wide variety of materials,ncluding wood, brick, and stucco
  • 3. ART DECO - MODERNEIn the 1920s and 30s, Art Deco and Moderne achieved greatpopularity as modern architectural styles. Although somewhat different in their overall appearance, both styles share stripped down forms and geometric-based ornament. A limited number of examples are found in Chicago, withconcentrations located in the Loop, the Near North Side, and along some commercial streets.rounded edges, corner windows, and glass block walls
  • 4. ARTS and CRAFTSOriginating from the teachings of William Morris, John Ruskin,and other late-19th century English Theorists, the Arts &Crafts movements emphasis was on "humanizing" designthrough simple, crafted forms and honest expression ofmaterials. use of brick, wood and carved stone naturalistic and geometric forms
  • 5. ChateauesqueThe Chateauesque style became fashionable in the 1880sdue to the influence of New York Citys famed Vanderbiltmansion (1879, Richard Morris Hunt). The style, which wasbased on 16th century French chateaux, was initially used inChicago for the mansions of the citys social elite, on suchSouth Side streets as Prairie Avenue. It later became popularfor smaller houses throughout Chicago. mix of "Gothic" and "Renaissance"ornament high-peaked hipped roofs,
  • 6. Chicago SchoolDuring the 1880s and 90s, Chicago architects designedbuildings with exteriors clearly expressing their innovativesteel-frame construction. These "Chicago School" buildingshave been praised as important precursors to 20th-centurysteel-and-glass skyscrapers. In Chicago, most examples ofthe style are office buildings in the Loop. masonry cladding, usually terra cotta, clearly emphasizing the steel framing distinctive three-part windows, with large central fixed panes flanked by smaller double- hung sash windows ▪minimal use of ornament
  • 7. CCarson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building One of the most important structures in early modern architecture, famed for its influential modular construction and design. Visionary architect Louis Sullivan shaped this commercial building--originally built for the Schlesinger and Mayer department store--into a dramatically animated structure that inseparably merges beauty and function. The ornament of the lower two stories is frozen in cast iron, while at the same time giving the impression of being in fluid motion. It is an excellent example of Sullivans genius for architectural ornament.
  • 8. Classical RevivalThe Classical Revival, based on thearchitecture of ancient Greece andRome, was one of the most widespreadstyles in the United States during the late1800s and early 1900s. Its versatility wasadaptable to a wide range of buildingtypes and budgets. Found throughoutChicago, the Classical Revival style wasoften used for churches and publicbuildings.
  • 9. Colonial RevivalA revival of interest in the architecture of colonial Americaoccurred between the 1880s and World War II. Known asColonial Revival, the style combines elements of bothFederal and Georgian architecture, which were popular stylesin America in the 1700s and early 1800s. In Chicago,examples can be found in such areas as South Shore, ForestGlen and Beverly. ▸Symmetrical facades, often with side porches ▸Red brick or wood clapboard walls Entrances decorated with sidelights, transoms,columns, and pediments
  • 10. Dutch RevivalBased on the style of housed built by the Dutch settlers onNew Amsterdam (New York) in the 1600s, this style acquiredpopularity between 1900 and World War II. In Chicago, thestyle can be found in such community areas as South Shore,Norwood Park, and Morgan Park. Doorways ornamented with columns, sidelights and transoms Gambrel roofs (i.e., a curving roof with a shape similar to a barn roof)
  • 11. Eastlake/Stick Style The decorative possibilities inherent in machine-manufactured wood were promoted by late 19th-century architects working in the Eastlake/Stick style. The name refers to both Charles Eastlake, an English architect who advocated the use of wooden decoration, and the use of wooden "stick work". In Chicago, houses of this style can be found in Lakeview, Englewood, and Hyde Park. ▸Wood construction ▸Decorative wooden planks (or "stickork") which outline the underlying woodame structure ▸Intricate wooden details, such as he-turned spindles and jigsaw-cut
  • 12. All Saints Church and RectoryThis church, constructed when the surrounding community of Ravenswoodwas still an independent suburb, is a rare local example of the Stick Style, apicturesque architectural style used primarily for suburban residences in theEastern United States in the 1860s. It remained popular in the Midwestthrough the 1880s.The rectory, which was built in 1905, was designed in a simplified Tudorstyle; the church entry was added at the same time.
  • 13. Gothic RevivalA rise of interest in the church architecture of medieval France, England,and Germany during the 19th century inspired the Gothic Revival, a popularstyle until the 1930s. Because it was used frequently in Chicago forreligious buildings, examples can be found in most community areas. Thecampus of the University of Chicago, however, is the citys outstandingensemble of Gothic Revival buildings. tall pointed windows, often filled with stained glass and elaborate tracery carved stone ornament, including gargoyle-like heads and figures
  • 14. Greek RevivalThis style, based on ancient Greek temples, is considered the first trulyAmerican architectural style. Americans associated the style with the idealsof Greek democracy and linked it with the similar aspirations of Americangovernment. In its early years, Chicago had many Greek Revival houses,but only a handful remain. Classical Greek ornament, such ascolumns Gable roofs combined with pediments
  • 15. IInternationalThe International style was developed in the 1920s by European architectsin search of a style suitable for a modern society. Many American architectslearned of the style through an influential exhibit in 1932, at New York CitysMuseum of Modern Art. There are few pre-World War II examples inChicago--most were built after 1950--although a handful can be found inHyde Park, South Shore, and West Town. Windows wrapping around corners ▸Flat roofs
  • 16. IItalianate One of Americas most popular 19th-century styles, the Italianate was derived from the architecture of Italian villas. Chicago architects used the style between the 1860s and 1890s for a wide variety of building types, from houses and small apartment buildings, to institutional structures. Surviving examples can be seen in most community areas developed during the period, although the greatest concentrations can be found in Lincoln Park, the Lower West Side, and West Town. ▸Vertical proportions Tall, rounded windows and doors Stone trim with incised foliatedornament Intricate wood or pressed metalcornices
  • 17. Middle EasternMiddle Eastern-style buildings are an eclectic combination of building formsand exotic details derive from the architecture of the Byzantine and Islamicempires. Although few Middle Eastern buildings were built in Chicago, thestyle was most typically used for clubs, theaters, and religious buildingsbetween 1910 and 1930. Colorful terra cotta and cerami tile ornament forming complex geometric patterns Elaborate rooflines of towers and domes
  • 18. Asian StyleThis style is comprised of buildings whose appearances wereinfluenced by Chinese or Japanese forms or decoration. InChicago, this style is rare and found chiefly in such Asian-American areas as Chinatown (Armour Square communityarea), where it was used for buildings constructed between1910 and 1930. Stone or terra cotta ornamentbased on Chinese or Japanesedecorative motifs (dragons, dogs,alphabet symbols)
  • 19. Prairie Style The Prairie style was developed in the late-19th and early-20th centuries by Frank Lloyd Wright and other architects as "a modern architecture for a democratic American society." Because it was largely developed in the Chicago area, this style is well represented here by some of the most important buildings of the early-20th century. Significant examples can be found in Rogers Park, Hyde Park, and Beverly. Flat brick or stucco walls, often outlined with wooden strips ofcontrasting color ▸Hip or gable roofs with wide, overhanging eaves
  • 20. Queen Ann StyleThis picturesque style, popular in the 1880s and 90s, is foundin almost every city and town in the United States. Buildingsin the Queen Anne style have asymmetrical shapescharacterized by bays and prominent, varied rooflines. InChicago, it was used for many houses and commercialbuildings, with concentrations found in Hyde Park andLakeview. ▸Rich but simple ornament ▸Variety of materials, including wood, terra cotta, stone, and pressed metal Irregular roofline with many dormers and chimneys
  • 21. Renaissance StyleThe churches and palaces of Renaissance Italy were theinspiration for this revival style. In Chicago, it mainly wasused for churches and institutional buildings, between 1890and 1930. round-arched windows andarcades (i.e., covered walkwaysor porches, formed by rows ofarches resting on columns) profusion of triangular andround-arched pediments
  • 22. Romanesque RevivalThe forms of the Romanesque Revival actually derive from the 11th and12-century architecture of France and Spain, although the style enjoyed aresurgence in the 1880s due to the work of architect H. H. Richardson. Itwas used for many building types, including houses, clubs, and commercialbuildings, before its popularity ended in the late 1890s. Examples can befound in many community areas, including Douglas, Grand Boulevard, andKenwood. ▸heavy, rough-cut stone walls
  • 23. Second EmpireThe elaborate architecture of Paris in the 1850s and 60swhen it was rebuilt by Napoleon III became the inspiration forthe Second Empire style. Popular in Chicago during the1870s and early 80s, relatively few examples of the style,mostly houses survive. intricate stone ornamentsurrounding doors and windows sloping "mansard" roofs, oftenwith multi-colored slate shinglesand elaborate dormers ▸ prominent cornices
  • 24. Spanish StyleThis style is based on Spanish colonial and Mexicanbuildings that were built in California, Texas and theAmerican Southwest between the early 1600s and the 1840s.The style regained popularity as a revival style during the1920s. Chicagoans used it for houses and religious buildingsin several community areas, including Beverly, Edison Park,and South Shore. ▸Brick or stucco walls Twisting columns and decorative shields made of terra cotta ▸ round arched windows ▸Elaborately rounded roof parapets based on Spanish
  • 25. SullivanesqueLouis Sullivan, one of Chicagos most influential architects,developed a unique form of decoration that he used for many ofhis buildings, beginning in the 1890s. This Sullivanesque stylewas imitated by other architects, using terra cotta designed andmanufactured by the Midland Terra Cotta Company in Chicago.Sullivanesque buildings can be found in the Loop, LincolnSquare and North Lawndale. ▸Terra cotta ornament composed of lushly intertwining vines and leaves combined with sharp-edged geometric figures
  • 26. Tudor Revival Based on English domestic architecture from the 1500s and 1600s, Tudor Revival gained great popularity as a residential style in America during the early 20th century. It can be found in such Chicago community areas as Beverly, Forest Glen and South Shore. ▸Use of stucco, particularly inends of gables ▸Irregular massing
  • 27. CottageThis is a common, "vernacular" residential style that was builtin working-class Chicago neighborhoods in the yearsfollowing the Chicago Fire of 1871. Examples can be found inthe community areas of Lincoln Park, the Lower West Side,and West Town. ▸One-and-a-half stories, set atop a raised basement Ornament restricted to around windows and beneath the roof line (cornice)
  • 28. Chicago Invites You to Return