PROGRAMA PRONUNCIACIÓN INGLESA II
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  • 1. UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLÓGICA DE PEREIRA FACULTAD DE BELLAS ARTES Y HUMANIDADES LICENCIATURA EN LICENCIATURA EN LENGUA INGLESA Asignatura: Pronunciación Inglesa II Código: LI223 Intensidad: 3 horas semanales Pre-requisito: LI133 Créditos: 3 "With suprasegmentals and connected speech, however, the misunderstanding is apt to be of a more serious nature [than with segmentals]. Learners who use incorrect rhythm patterns or who do not connect words together are at best frustrating to the nativespeaking listener; more seriously, if these learners use improper intonation contours, they can be perceived as abrupt, or even rude, and if the stress and rhythm patterns are too nonnative like, the speaker who produce them may not be understood at all.” Joan Morley 1. General Description The course of pronunciation II mainly intends to provide the student with useful strategies to acquire an intelligible pronunciation of English in terms of the suprasegmental features of the language; namely, r h y t h m a n d intonation, stress connected speech and accents. This course requires the students to have a good theoretical and practical command of the segmental parts (phonemes) regarding the accuracy in the production of individual sounds and words in isolation. The second course of pronunciation includes prosody, or functional intelligibility, comprising the following interacting phonological aspects: the stress patterns of phrases, the interaction of sounds between ending, and beginnings of words, and the resulting pronunciation, rhythm, and intonation of these phrases. In addition, this course also attempts to develop an awareness of the codes governing the language so as to improve pronunciation, as well as the ability to explain the subject coherently. Accordingly, some pedagogical aspects of how to teach pronunciation will be considered and discussed throughout the course with the purpose of providing a useful basis on different strategies to guide pronunciation learning. The course will also aim to encourage students to be aware of their own learning strategies and styles, so that they can eventually reach the stage of autonomous learning and be conscious of their ongoing process as teachers of English. 2. General competences As stated in the pronunciation I course, students will: - Acquire a standard and communicative English pronunciation. - Draw on linguistic, phonetic and phonological theories of speech in formulating pedagogical criteria for the teaching of pronunciation in communicative contexts.
  • 2. - Apply strategies for learning and teaching pronunciation. - Vary intonation and place sentence stress correctly in order to express finer shades of meaning. 3. Linguistic Components Skills Competences Evidence Reading Identify the production of the phonetic composition of words (syllable structure, the sequence of phonemes, word stress, word tones); sentence phonetics (prosody), sentence stress and rhythm, intonation. - Reading articles related to pronunciation concepts and also reading of short articles on topics of common interest. Writing - Use the International Phonetic Alphabet to learn appropriate pronunciation of words in dictionaries. - Write complete phonetic transcriptions of utterances and phrases using the IPA. - Identify defined phonemic problems caused by mother tongue interference. - Transcription of extracts of the book and identification of - Use the specific terminology to refer to the basic concepts regarding pronunciation. - Make use of strategies targeted at phonetic reduction, vowel reduction, strong and weak forms, assimilation, elision, linking, intrusion and contractions. - Identify and use connected speech through the correct pronunciation of words in phrases and sentences. - Recognize and produce different kinds of intonation patterns. - Explain pedagogical concepts concerning - Short oral presentations that allow the facilitator monitor the studied topics. - Oral recordings - Role plays and spontaneous speech. Speaking English Pronunciation. - Recognize and produce different kinds or stress patterns. mistakes. - Transcription of words and extracts of songs.
  • 3. Listening - Identify and use connected speech through the correct pronunciation of words in phrases and - Completion of quizzes, worksheets or online tasks. sentences. - Identify the differences between the pronunciation of sounds in common accents. - Recognize and produce different kinds of intonation patterns. - Recognize and produce different kinds or stress patterns. 4. Didactic component At the end of the course, the students of this course will be able to: - Propose ideas to focus on the suprasegmental aspects of the language in an EFL classroom. - Suggest what type of strategies work better for certain population when learning pronunciation. - Report on useful ideas for addressing suprasegmental features in the classroom. - Defend the strategies that might benefit their future learners The following chart makes evident the four pedagogical models that underlie the execution of this program. Pedagogical models Competences Critical- Reflect on learning processes and reflective model identify strategies that contribute to develop oral competences. - Develop critical thinking skills in the learning process - Apply metacognitive strategies that allow them to reflect on their own learning process. Evidence Completion of the reflection assessment in the course of the reading project. Suggesting strategies for dealing with common pronunciation challenges
  • 4. Socioconstructivist model Develop group work s k i l l s t h a t . Implementation of a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o b e p a r t o f study collaborative study groups as a groups. mechanism to enhance metacognitive processes in learning. Humanistic approach Develop skills for working Ethical considerations collaboratively, respecting others’ are included in the syllabus and will be views and considering the ethical taken into account along the course aspects in the completion of the course. Content- based instruction The courses of Pronunciation are content- driven and languagedriven Pronunciation courses elaborate on specific content that is taught in English, students are evaluated in both areas content and language. 5. Cultural component The cultural component of the course is mainly concentrated on the variations in pronunciation at the segmental a n d s u p r a s e g m e n t a l level, depending on the most common accents student are exposed to as speaker of English as a foreign language. Likewise, in Pronunciation courses, students are part of a reading project, in which they have initial approaches to Anglophone literature. 6. Methodology and strategies Considering the number of factors that influence adult L2 pronunciation acquisition, such as language aptitude, phonemic coding ability, developmental readiness, working memory (Celce-Murcia et al., 2010; Juffs & Rodriguez, 2007), motivation and amount of L2 exposure, instruction, and use (Lightbown & Spada, 2006); specific actions need to be designed in order to prompt learners to enhance their phonological abilities. Among these actions, collaborative study groups have been regarded as a meaningful tool, since research has proved collaborative work effective inasmuch learners have the opportunity to express themselves, discuss their ideas, and find solutions towards specific problems (Johnson & Johnson, 1989). It has also been found that learning within a group helps students develop higher-order thinking skills such as; critical thinking, skills of self-reflection, coconstruction of knowledge and meaning and problem solving skills. (Brindley, Walti, & Blaschke, 2009; Moller, 1998). Consequently, the course of pronunciation II has an especial emphasis on the the application of pronunciation learning strategies (PLS) in collaborative
  • 5. study groups (CSG), students will be instructed on the use of these strategies and they will reflect and analyze the effectiveness of their use. The course will be carried out by using different techniques, such as: changing the meaning (read words and phrases using contrastive stress and discuss the meanings (e.g., green house and greenhouse, exaggeration) (encourage learners to exaggerate their production of stress and rhythm), identification of content and function (learners underline content words in sentences), use of limericks (use rhyming verses to teach stress and rhythm), marking syllables (read a list of words or sentences and have learners count syllables and mark which syllables are stressed), rules (provide rules for dividing words into syllables), questionnaires and surveys (prepare questions for learners to use in pairs and instruct them to ask the questions politely, and ask follow-up questions to keep the conversation going), contractions, reduced expressions, linking, and pausing dialogues and role-plays, dictation, gap fill, word counting, contrastive stress, reading aloud, drama, acting out rehearsed scenes. 7. Thematic Units The c h a r t b e l o w shows the aspects of pronunciation that will be studied during the course. The chart indicates the number of weeks, the thematic units intended to cover and the products expected from students. Week Topic Product 1 Program presentation, revision exercise 2 Learning pronunciation strategies Reflection on one learning pronunciation strategy 3 Connected speech: weak forms and assimilation Worksheets 4 Connected speech: elision, linking, Listening exercise intrusion, junctures and contractions 5 Practice: connected speech 6 Teaching connected speech 7 Partial exam 8 Rhythm and intonation: Tones- tonic Listening exercise, role-plays syllables and tone units. Grammar rules for intonation. Attitude and discourse intonation 9 Intonation practice, strategies and Identification of aspects of connected speech in an excerpt taken from a movie or TV show Oral and written test Storytelling
  • 6. techniques for learning and teaching intonation 10 Word stress: Rules of word stress, levels of stress, strategies for learning and teaching word stress 11 Sentence stress: stress timing, Worksheets syllable timing, tonic syllables, tone units. Strategies for teaching and learning sentence stress. 12 Second partial Project defense on learning pronunciation strategies 13 Comparing and contrasting accents Identification of differences between two different accents 14 Overall revision Identification of suprasegmental aspects in an authentic speech 15 Final written test 16 Final oral test 8. Evaluation Three types of evaluation will be implemented during the course: - Formative evaluation: this will be an ongoing process and students are expected to take control of their own learning. - Summative evaluation: this includes quantitative data on what students have achieved. - Metacognitive evaluation: students are expected to reflect on their own learning. Item Percentage Description First partial evaluation 30% Oral and Written exam Second partial evaluation 20% Project defense Final evaluation 30% Oral and written exam In and out of class work 20% Quizzes, workshops, homework, oral presentations 9. Ethical considerations
  • 7. In the courses of pronunciation, students should consider the subsequent ethical aspects for its completion. 1. Students should be respectful, tolerant and polite with the professor and their peers. 2. Students should be punctual and responsible with the assigned material. 3. Students should be active, reactive and proactive; they should view the teaching practicum in the courses in which they participate, as an experience toward their own training as English teachers to be. 10. Technological component Students will be asked to make use of different technological tools in order to develop the established competences of the course; also, they will have to make use of those online resources, so that they can carry out the online collaborative study group. http://www1.voanews.com/english/news/ http://dictionary.cambridge.org/ http://www.pronuncian.com/assess.aspx http://www.manythings.org/pp/ American English Pronunciation Practice (For ESL/EFL); Gamelike Minimal Pair Practice using Flash and MP3 Files; Minimal pair practice and quizzes (24 lessons); Listen and repeat videos; Songs and poems; Tongue twisters. http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/ The sounds of English (videos for each sound, activities to practise identifying the difference between certain sounds which may sound similar); Features of English (Information about different elements of English pronunciation; Interactive and downloadable exercises); Quizzes; Programmes (Three radio programmes on the topic of pronunciation. You can download the full programmes along with the script and audio examples). http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/phonemic-chart Phonemic chart (You can hear the sounds of English by clicking on the symbols; each symbol have sample words including the sounds). http://funeasyenglish.com/new-american-english-pronunciation-introduction.htm American English pronunciation; 44 lessons (vowels 20, consonants 24; Videos: how to spell each sound, the sound type, proper mouth position; practice pronouncing each sound and take a test). http://www.learnersdictionary.com/pronex/pronex.htm Perfect Pronunciation practice exercises, including 15 sessions in all, each featuring a different set of sounds and five exercises for each. Students first listen to a set of words with the same sound, then listen again and repeat each one. Finally, there’s a quiz to test a student’s ability to recognize different sounds. There are also exercises for syllable stress and those labeled as sentence practice, review everything learned during the session. http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html Flash interactive guide to American English pronunciation. It is a complete guide to phonetics, presented in a clear, concise manner that even ESL students should be able to grasp. A series of buttons help students navigate the
  • 8. different aspects of vowel and consonant sounds, which are demonstrated with animation with sound and video. http://www.spokenskills.com/index.cfm?type=15&content=studentactivities Exercises for vowel and consonant sounds. For each sound, there are lists of practice phrases that students can hear. They may also record their own voice and repeat the process till they are satisfied with the results. There are also intonation exercises and minimal pairs for practice. http://davidbrett.uniss.it English Phonetics and Phonology consists mainly of interactive exercises (with sound) for the teaching of English pronunciation for ESL students. Vowel sounds, perception and production, weak forms, problematic minimal pairs, the various types of assimilation and yod coalescence are all covered, as are intonation and other prosodic factors. http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/index.htm Online articles and exercises on various topics are presented: accentuation, homophones, chains, pronunciation of "-ed", pronunciation of "the", tongue twisters, etc. Some basic facts about pronunciation are also shown, mainly rules and a few word stress exercises. http://international.ouc.bc.ca/pronunciation/ 13 units. Each topic deals with the analysis and practice of various sounds. The subject of articulation and minimal pair exercises and dictations are also included. The minimal pairs activities may be suitable from the initial stages of phonetic study. A more advanced level is required for dictations. Complete lessons with audio (MP3) and a PDF version with the theoretical principles from each unit as well as examples and exercises are available. It is complemented with a video of a teacher explaining articulation and providing examples. Activities are also suggested. http://www.shiporsheep.com/ English language pronunciation practice with minimal pairs. http://www.english-online.org.uk/pronounce/pronounce5.htm based on audio exercises; 24 units. Simple pronunciation course http://www.soundsofenglish.org/pronunciation/sounds.htm English pronunciation: How to pronounce specific sounds in English; English word stress; English sentence stress and intonation; Pronunciation exercises and activities. (Text, audio and graphic formats). http://www.eslstation.net/quia-pron-activities.htm Games and activities to review features of pronunciation (Flashcards, matching, concentration, word search). http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronunc-practice.htm Practice pronouncing English words and phrases by Tomasz P. Szynalski: How to practice pronouncing English words; Tools for official practice; Tips for practicing English pronunciation. http://esl.about.com/od/speakingenglish/ Speaking English - Pronunciation and Conversation Skills: English pronunciation and speaking help including exercises, IPA help, lesson plans, conversation tips and strategies for ESL EFL classes and teachers. A web page organized as a somewhat disjointed list. A classification of levels is presented in the initial sections. Each section includes a brief explanation of the content that is repeated in other parts of the page (vowels, consonants, accent, intonation, minimal pairs, chainss, phonetic transcription, glossary of pronunciation terminology) audio files and suggestions for activities and practical tips on how to improve pronunciation. British and American English examples. http://busyteacher.org/classroom_activities-pronunciation-worksheets/ worksheets. Pronunciation http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/johnm/eptotd/tiphome.htm English pronunciation tips.
  • 9. http://www.eslgold.com/pronunciation/sound_w.html Practice in specific aspects of pronunciation (consonants, vowels, accent and intonation and reduction) with links to other web pages. VOCAROO http://vocaroo.com En este sitio web podemos grabar muy fácilmente cualquier mensaje y obtener un archivo de audio descargable. No hace falta registrarse y es gratuito. VOICETHREAD http://voicethread.com Sitio web que nos permite participar en diferentes grupos de conversación, enfocándonos en imágenes u objetos. No es necesario instalar algún tipo de software. Esta es una plataforma interactiva y colaborativa que nos brinda la posibilidad de navegar y comentar algunos documentos, imágenes y vídeos. Es necesario registrarse. ESL GALAXY http://www.esl-galaxy.com/speaking.html Página web que nos permite descargar ejercicios y juegos para realizar actividades de producción oral en clase. Estos archivos se encuentran en formato PDF. VOKI http://voki.com Esta página web es una herramienta ideal para practicar y mejorar las habilidades de producción oral. Nos permite crear nuestro propio avatar y hacer parte de una gran variedad de actividades. Se requiere crear una cuenta. DAILY PRONUNCIATION PRACTICE http://www.manythings.org/lar Sitio web que nos permite escuchar y repetir diferentes oraciones para mejorar algunos aspectos como entonación, ritmo y pronunciación. VOXOPOP http://www.voxopop.com Esta página está enfocada en poner en práctica las habilidades orales de los aprendices, creando diferentes ambientes y temas para discutir. Podemos dejar comentarios sin necesidad de registrarnos, pero para establecer un tema es necesario crear una cuenta. PHONETICS http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics En esta página podemos practicar los diferentes fonemas del inglés americano. Cada consonante o vocal contiene un diagrama de articulación, una breve descripción y unvídeo del sonido puesto en contexto. TEACHING PRONUNCIATION http://www.eslflow.com/pronunciationlessonplans.html Este sitio web contiene un gran numero de tips y ejercicios de pronunciación en formato PDF. SOUNDS OF ENGLISH http://goo.gl/JFMdf Este sitio web nos ofrece una gran cantidad de ejemplos y actividades, sobre los diferentes fonemas del inglés. Nos brinda una breve explicación de cada uno y aclara la diferencia entre aquellos fonemas que son similares. BBC-PRONUNCIATION TIPS http://goo.gl/QF21w En este sitio web podemos encontrar ejercicios, programas de radio y actividades sobre pronunciación. VIDEOS ABOUT PRONUNCIATION http://www.youtube.com/user/evaeaston Gran variedad de vídeosque pueden ser de gran utilidad tanto para profesores como para los estudiantes. 11. Bibliography and resources - Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D. M., & Goodwin, J. M. (2010). Teaching pronunciation: A course book and reference guide (2nd Ed.). Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press. - Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 22(1), 13-24. - Chela-Flores, B. (2001). Pronunciation and language learning: An integrative approach. IRAL, 39, 85-101. - Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies in learning and using a second language. Harlow, England: Longman. - Cohen, A. D. (2007). Coming to terms with language learner strategies: surveying the experts. In A. D. Cohen & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language learner strategies (pp.9-28). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. - Derwing, T.M., & Munro , M. J. (1997). Accent, intelligibility, and comprehensibility:
  • 10. Evidence from four L1s. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 1-16. - Dickerson, W. B. (1994). Empowering students with predictive skills. In J. Morley (Ed.), Pronunciation pedagogy and theory: New views, new directions (pp. 17-33). Alexandria, VA: TESOL Publications. - Dickerson, W. B. (2000 March). Covert rehearsal as a bridge to accurate fluency. Paper presented at International TESOL, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Dickinson, L. (1987). Self-instruction in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. - Eckstein, G. T. (2007). A correlation of pronunciation learning strategies with spontaneous English pronunciation of adult ESL learners. MA Thesis, Brigham Young University. - Ingels, S. A. (2011). The effects of self-monitoring strategy use on the pronunciation of learners of English. Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. - Jones, R. H. (1997). Beyond “listen and repeat”: Pronunciation teaching materials and theories of second language acquisition - Morley, J. (1991). The pronunciation component in teaching English to speakers of other languages. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3), 481-520. - O’Malley, J. M. (1987). The effect of training in the use of learning strategies on learning English as a second language. In Wenden, A. and Rubin, J., editors, Learning strategies in language learning, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice Hall, 133-4. - O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. - Osburne, A. G. (2003). Pronunciation strategies of advanced ESOL learners. IRAL, 41, 131-143. - Pawlak, M. (2010). Designing and piloting a tool for the measurement of the use of pronunciation learning strategies. Research in Language, 8, 189-202. - Peterson, S. S. (2000). Pronunciation learning strategies: A first look. Unpublished research report. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED 450 599; FL 026 618). - Sardegna, V. G. (2009). Improving English stress through pronunciation learning strategies. Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UMI No. 3363085). - Sardegna, V. G. (2011). Pronunciation learning strategies that improve ESL learners’ linking. In. J. Levis & K. LeVelle (Eds.). Proceedings of the 2nd Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference, Sept. 2010. (pp. 105-121), Ames, IA: Iowa State University. - Sardegna, V. G. (2012). Learner differences in strategy use, self-efficacy beliefs, and pronunciation improvement. In. J. Levis & K. LeVelle (Eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference, Sept. 2011. (pp. 39-53), Ames, IA: Iowa State University.
  • 11. - Kelly, Gerald. How to Teach Pronunciation. Longman, 2000. 154 pp.