PROGRAMA PRONUNCIACIÓN INGLESA IIDocument Transcript
UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLÓGICA DE PEREIRA
FACULTAD DE BELLAS ARTES Y HUMANIDADES LICENCIATURA EN
LICENCIATURA EN LENGUA INGLESA
Pronunciación Inglesa II
3 horas semanales
"With suprasegmentals and connected speech, however, the misunderstanding is apt to be
of a more serious nature [than with segmentals]. Learners who use incorrect rhythm
patterns or who do not connect words together are at best frustrating to the nativespeaking listener; more seriously, if these learners use improper intonation contours, they
can be perceived as abrupt, or even rude, and if the stress and rhythm patterns are too
nonnative like, the speaker who produce them may not be understood at all.” Joan Morley
1. General Description
The course of pronunciation II mainly intends to provide the student with useful strategies
to acquire an intelligible pronunciation of English in terms of the suprasegmental features
of the language; namely, r h y t h m a n d intonation, stress connected speech and accents.
This course requires the students to have a good theoretical and practical command of the
segmental parts (phonemes) regarding the accuracy in the production of individual sounds
and words in isolation. The second course of pronunciation includes prosody, or functional
intelligibility, comprising the following interacting phonological aspects: the stress patterns
of phrases, the interaction of sounds between ending, and beginnings of words, and the
resulting pronunciation, rhythm, and intonation of these phrases.
In addition, this course also attempts to develop an awareness of the codes governing the
language so as to improve pronunciation, as well as the ability to explain the subject
coherently. Accordingly, some pedagogical aspects of how to teach pronunciation will be
considered and discussed throughout the course with the purpose of providing a useful
basis on different strategies to guide pronunciation learning. The course will also aim to
encourage students to be aware of their own learning strategies and styles, so that they can
eventually reach the stage of autonomous learning and be conscious of their ongoing
process as teachers of English.
2. General competences
As stated in the pronunciation I course, students will:
- Acquire a standard and communicative English pronunciation.
- Draw on linguistic, phonetic and phonological theories of speech in formulating
pedagogical criteria for the teaching of pronunciation in communicative contexts.
- Apply strategies for learning and teaching pronunciation.
- Vary intonation and place sentence stress correctly in order to express finer shades of
3. Linguistic Components
Identify the production of the phonetic composition
of words (syllable structure, the sequence of
phonemes, word stress, word tones); sentence
phonetics (prosody), sentence stress and rhythm,
- Reading articles related to
pronunciation concepts and
also reading of short articles
on topics of common
- Use the International Phonetic Alphabet to learn
appropriate pronunciation of words in dictionaries.
- Write complete phonetic transcriptions of
utterances and phrases using the IPA.
- Identify defined phonemic problems caused by
mother tongue interference.
- Transcription of extracts of
the book and identification of
- Use the specific terminology to refer to the basic
concepts regarding pronunciation.
- Make use of strategies targeted at phonetic
reduction, vowel reduction, strong and weak forms,
assimilation, elision, linking, intrusion and
- Identify and use connected speech through the
correct pronunciation of words in phrases and
- Recognize and produce different kinds of
- Explain pedagogical concepts concerning
- Short oral presentations that
allow the facilitator monitor
the studied topics.
- Oral recordings
- Role plays and spontaneous
- Recognize and produce different kinds or stress
- Transcription of words and
extracts of songs.
- Identify and use connected speech through the
correct pronunciation of words in phrases and
- Completion of quizzes,
worksheets or online tasks.
- Identify the differences between the pronunciation
of sounds in common accents.
- Recognize and produce different kinds of
- Recognize and produce different kinds or stress
4. Didactic component
At the end of the course, the students of this course will be able to:
- Propose ideas to focus on the suprasegmental aspects of the language in an EFL
- Suggest what type of strategies work better for certain population when learning
Report on useful ideas for addressing suprasegmental features in the classroom.
Defend the strategies that might benefit their future learners
The following chart makes evident the four pedagogical models that underlie the execution
of this program.
Critical- Reflect on learning processes and
reflective model identify strategies that contribute to
develop oral competences.
- Develop critical thinking skills in the
- Apply metacognitive strategies that
allow them to reflect on their own
reflection assessment in the course
of the reading project.
Suggesting strategies for
dealing with common
Develop group work s k i l l s t h a t
a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o b e p a r t o f study collaborative study groups as a
mechanism to enhance
metacognitive processes in
Develop skills for working
collaboratively, respecting others’
are included in the syllabus and
views and considering the ethical
taken into account along the course
aspects in the completion of the course.
The courses of Pronunciation are
content- driven and languagedriven
Pronunciation courses elaborate
content that is taught in
English, students are evaluated in
both areas content and language.
5. Cultural component
The cultural component of the course is mainly concentrated on the variations in
pronunciation at the segmental a n d s u p r a s e g m e n t a l level, depending on the most
common accents student are exposed to as speaker of English as a foreign language.
Likewise, in Pronunciation courses, students are part of a reading project, in which they
have initial approaches to Anglophone literature.
6. Methodology and strategies
Considering the number of factors that influence adult L2 pronunciation acquisition, such
as language aptitude, phonemic coding ability, developmental readiness, working memory
(Celce-Murcia et al., 2010; Juffs & Rodriguez, 2007), motivation and amount of L2
exposure, instruction, and use (Lightbown & Spada, 2006); specific actions need to be
designed in order to prompt learners to enhance their phonological abilities. Among these
actions, collaborative study groups have been regarded as a meaningful tool, since research
has proved collaborative work effective inasmuch learners have the opportunity to express
themselves, discuss their ideas, and find solutions towards specific problems (Johnson &
Johnson, 1989). It has also been found that learning within a group helps students develop
higher-order thinking skills such as; critical thinking, skills of self-reflection, coconstruction of knowledge and meaning and problem solving skills. (Brindley, Walti, &
Blaschke, 2009; Moller, 1998). Consequently, the course of pronunciation II has an especial
emphasis on the the application of pronunciation learning strategies (PLS) in collaborative
study groups (CSG), students will be instructed on the use of these strategies and they will
reflect and analyze the effectiveness of their use.
The course will be carried out by using different techniques, such as: changing the meaning
(read words and phrases using contrastive stress and discuss the meanings (e.g.,
green house and greenhouse, exaggeration) (encourage learners to exaggerate their
production of stress and rhythm), identification of content and function (learners underline
content words in sentences), use of limericks (use rhyming verses to teach stress and
rhythm), marking syllables (read a list of words or sentences and have learners count
syllables and mark which syllables are stressed), rules (provide rules for dividing words
into syllables), questionnaires and surveys (prepare questions for learners to use in pairs
and instruct them to ask the questions politely, and ask follow-up questions to keep the
conversation going), contractions, reduced expressions, linking, and pausing
dialogues and role-plays, dictation, gap fill, word counting, contrastive stress, reading
aloud, drama, acting out rehearsed scenes.
7. Thematic Units
The c h a r t b e l o w shows the aspects of pronunciation that will be studied
during the course. The chart indicates the number of weeks, the thematic units intended to
cover and the products expected from students.
Program presentation, revision
Learning pronunciation strategies
Reflection on one learning
Connected speech: weak forms and
Connected speech: elision, linking, Listening exercise
intrusion, junctures and contractions
Practice: connected speech
Teaching connected speech
Rhythm and intonation: Tones- tonic Listening exercise, role-plays
syllables and tone units. Grammar
rules for intonation. Attitude and
Intonation practice, strategies and
Identification of aspects of connected
speech in an excerpt taken from a
movie or TV show
Oral and written test
techniques for learning and teaching
Word stress: Rules of word stress,
levels of stress, strategies for
learning and teaching word stress
Sentence stress: stress timing,
syllable timing, tonic syllables, tone
units. Strategies for teaching and
learning sentence stress.
Project defense on learning
Comparing and contrasting accents
Identification of differences between
two different accents
Identification of suprasegmental
aspects in an authentic speech
Final written test
Final oral test
Three types of evaluation will be implemented during the course:
- Formative evaluation: this will be an ongoing process and students are expected to take
control of their own learning.
- Summative evaluation: this includes quantitative data on what students have achieved.
- Metacognitive evaluation: students are expected to reflect on their own learning.
First partial evaluation
Oral and Written exam
Second partial evaluation
Oral and written exam
In and out of class work
Quizzes, workshops, homework, oral
9. Ethical considerations
In the courses of pronunciation, students should consider the subsequent ethical aspects
for its completion.
1. Students should be respectful, tolerant and polite with the professor and their
2. Students should be punctual and responsible with the assigned material.
3. Students should be active, reactive and proactive; they should view the teaching
practicum in the courses in which they participate, as an experience toward their
own training as English teachers to be.
10. Technological component
Students will be asked to make use of different technological tools in order to develop the
established competences of the course; also, they will have to make use of those online
resources, so that they can carry out the online collaborative study group.
http://www.manythings.org/pp/ American English Pronunciation Practice (For ESL/EFL); Gamelike Minimal Pair Practice using Flash and MP3 Files; Minimal pair practice and quizzes (24
lessons); Listen and repeat videos; Songs and poems; Tongue twisters.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/ The sounds of English
(videos for each sound, activities to practise identifying the difference between certain sounds which
may sound similar); Features of English (Information about different elements of English
pronunciation; Interactive and downloadable exercises); Quizzes; Programmes (Three radio
programmes on the topic of pronunciation. You can download the full programmes along with the
script and audio examples).
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/phonemic-chart Phonemic chart (You can hear the
sounds of English by clicking on the symbols; each symbol have sample words including the
English pronunciation; 44 lessons (vowels 20, consonants 24; Videos: how to spell each sound, the
sound type, proper mouth position; practice pronouncing each sound and take a test).
http://www.learnersdictionary.com/pronex/pronex.htm Perfect Pronunciation practice exercises,
including 15 sessions in all, each featuring a different set of sounds and five exercises for each.
Students first listen to a set of words with the same sound, then listen again and repeat each one.
Finally, there’s a quiz to test a student’s ability to recognize different sounds. There are also exercises
for syllable stress and those labeled as sentence practice, review everything learned during the
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html Flash interactive guide to
American English pronunciation. It is a complete guide to phonetics, presented in a clear, concise
manner that even ESL students should be able to grasp. A series of buttons help students navigate the
different aspects of vowel and consonant sounds, which are demonstrated with animation with sound
vowel and consonant sounds. For each sound, there are lists of practice phrases that students can
hear. They may also record their own voice and repeat the process till they are satisfied with the
results. There are also intonation exercises and minimal pairs for practice.
http://davidbrett.uniss.it English Phonetics and Phonology consists mainly of interactive exercises
(with sound) for the teaching of English pronunciation for ESL students. Vowel sounds, perception
and production, weak forms, problematic minimal pairs, the various types of assimilation and yod
coalescence are all covered, as are intonation and other prosodic factors.
http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/index.htm Online articles and exercises on various
topics are presented: accentuation, homophones, chains, pronunciation of "-ed", pronunciation of
"the", tongue twisters, etc. Some basic facts about pronunciation are also shown, mainly rules and a
few word stress exercises.
http://international.ouc.bc.ca/pronunciation/ 13 units. Each topic deals with the analysis and
practice of various sounds. The subject of articulation and minimal pair exercises and dictations are
also included. The minimal pairs activities may be suitable from the initial stages of phonetic study.
A more advanced level is required for dictations. Complete lessons with audio (MP3) and a PDF
version with the theoretical principles from each unit as well as examples and exercises are available.
It is complemented with a video of a teacher explaining articulation and providing examples.
Activities are also suggested.
http://www.shiporsheep.com/ English language pronunciation practice with minimal pairs.
based on audio exercises; 24 units.
Simple pronunciation course
English pronunciation: How to
pronounce specific sounds in English; English word stress; English sentence stress and intonation;
Pronunciation exercises and activities. (Text, audio and graphic formats).
http://www.eslstation.net/quia-pron-activities.htm Games and activities to review features of
pronunciation (Flashcards, matching, concentration, word search).
http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronunc-practice.htm Practice pronouncing English words and
phrases by Tomasz P. Szynalski: How to practice pronouncing English words; Tools for official
practice; Tips for practicing English pronunciation.
http://esl.about.com/od/speakingenglish/ Speaking English - Pronunciation and Conversation
Skills: English pronunciation and speaking help including exercises, IPA help, lesson plans,
conversation tips and strategies for ESL EFL classes and teachers. A web page organized as a
somewhat disjointed list. A classification of levels is presented in the initial sections. Each section
includes a brief explanation of the content that is repeated in other parts of the page (vowels,
consonants, accent, intonation, minimal pairs, chainss, phonetic transcription, glossary of
pronunciation terminology) audio files and suggestions for activities and practical tips on how to
improve pronunciation. British and American English examples.
http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/johnm/eptotd/tiphome.htm English pronunciation tips.
http://www.eslgold.com/pronunciation/sound_w.html Practice in specific aspects of pronunciation
(consonants, vowels, accent and intonation and reduction) with links to other web pages.
VOCAROO http://vocaroo.com En este sitio web podemos grabar muy fácilmente cualquier
mensaje y obtener un archivo de audio descargable. No hace falta registrarse y es gratuito.
VOICETHREAD http://voicethread.com Sitio web que nos permite participar en diferentes grupos
de conversación, enfocándonos en imágenes u objetos. No es necesario instalar algún tipo de
software. Esta es una plataforma interactiva y colaborativa que nos brinda la posibilidad de navegar
y comentar algunos documentos, imágenes y vídeos. Es necesario registrarse.
ESL GALAXY http://www.esl-galaxy.com/speaking.html Página web que nos permite descargar
ejercicios y juegos para realizar actividades de producción oral en clase. Estos archivos se
encuentran en formato PDF.
VOKI http://voki.com Esta página web es una herramienta ideal para practicar y mejorar las
habilidades de producción oral. Nos permite crear nuestro propio avatar y hacer parte de una gran
variedad de actividades. Se requiere crear una cuenta.
DAILY PRONUNCIATION PRACTICE http://www.manythings.org/lar Sitio web que nos
permite escuchar y repetir diferentes oraciones para mejorar algunos aspectos como entonación,
ritmo y pronunciación.
VOXOPOP http://www.voxopop.com Esta página está enfocada en poner en práctica las habilidades
orales de los aprendices, creando diferentes ambientes y temas para discutir. Podemos dejar
comentarios sin necesidad de registrarnos, pero para establecer un tema es necesario crear una
PHONETICS http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics En esta página podemos practicar los
diferentes fonemas del inglés americano. Cada consonante o vocal contiene un diagrama de
articulación, una breve descripción y unvídeo del sonido puesto en contexto.
TEACHING PRONUNCIATION http://www.eslflow.com/pronunciationlessonplans.html Este
sitio web contiene un gran numero de tips y ejercicios de pronunciación en formato PDF.
SOUNDS OF ENGLISH http://goo.gl/JFMdf Este sitio web nos ofrece una gran cantidad de
ejemplos y actividades, sobre los diferentes fonemas del inglés. Nos brinda una breve explicación de
cada uno y aclara la diferencia entre aquellos fonemas que son similares.
BBC-PRONUNCIATION TIPS http://goo.gl/QF21w En este sitio web podemos encontrar
ejercicios, programas de radio y actividades sobre pronunciación.
VIDEOS ABOUT PRONUNCIATION http://www.youtube.com/user/evaeaston Gran variedad de
vídeosque pueden ser de gran utilidad tanto para profesores como para los estudiantes.
11. Bibliography and resources
- Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D. M., & Goodwin, J. M. (2010). Teaching pronunciation: A
course book and reference guide (2nd Ed.). Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.
- Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction.
Foreign Language Annals, 22(1), 13-24.
- Chela-Flores, B. (2001). Pronunciation and language learning: An integrative approach.
IRAL, 39, 85-101.
- Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies in learning and using a second language. Harlow,
- Cohen, A. D. (2007). Coming to terms with language learner strategies: surveying the
experts. In A. D. Cohen & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language learner strategies (pp.9-28). Oxford,
UK: Oxford University Press.
- Derwing, T.M., & Munro , M. J. (1997). Accent, intelligibility, and comprehensibility:
Evidence from four L1s. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 1-16.
- Dickerson, W. B. (1994). Empowering students with predictive skills. In J. Morley (Ed.),
Pronunciation pedagogy and theory: New views, new directions (pp. 17-33). Alexandria,
VA: TESOL Publications.
- Dickerson, W. B. (2000 March). Covert rehearsal as a bridge to accurate fluency. Paper
presented at International TESOL, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Dickinson, L. (1987). Self-instruction in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge
- Eckstein, G. T. (2007). A correlation of pronunciation learning strategies with
spontaneous English pronunciation of adult ESL learners. MA Thesis, Brigham
- Ingels, S. A. (2011). The effects of self-monitoring strategy use on the pronunciation of
learners of English. Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign.
- Jones, R. H. (1997). Beyond “listen and repeat”: Pronunciation teaching materials and
theories of second language acquisition
- Morley, J. (1991). The pronunciation component in teaching English to speakers of other
languages. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3), 481-520.
- O’Malley, J. M. (1987). The effect of training in the use of learning strategies on learning
English as a second language. In Wenden, A. and Rubin, J., editors, Learning
strategies in language learning, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice Hall, 133-4.
- O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language
acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Osburne, A. G. (2003). Pronunciation strategies of advanced ESOL learners. IRAL, 41,
- Pawlak, M. (2010). Designing and piloting a tool for the measurement of the use of
pronunciation learning strategies. Research in Language, 8, 189-202.
- Peterson, S. S. (2000). Pronunciation learning strategies: A first look. Unpublished
research report. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED 450 599; FL 026
- Sardegna, V. G. (2009). Improving English stress through pronunciation learning
strategies. Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
(UMI No. 3363085).
- Sardegna, V. G. (2011). Pronunciation learning strategies that improve ESL learners’
linking. In. J. Levis & K. LeVelle (Eds.). Proceedings of the 2nd Pronunciation in
Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference, Sept. 2010. (pp. 105-121),
Ames, IA: Iowa State University.
- Sardegna, V. G. (2012). Learner differences in strategy use, self-efficacy beliefs, and
pronunciation improvement. In. J. Levis & K. LeVelle (Eds.). Proceedings of the
3rd Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference, Sept.
2011. (pp. 39-53), Ames, IA: Iowa State University.
- Kelly, Gerald. How to Teach Pronunciation. Longman, 2000. 154 pp.