Collaborative Learning                  Learning Theory and Pedagogical Use of Technology                                 ...
During this lecture we will explore…      • What is collaborative learning?      • How does collaboration improve learning...
What is collaborative learning?          How does collaboration improve learning?Venla VallivaaraLET – Learning and Educat...
What is collaborative learning?       ” a situation in which two or more people learn or       attempt to learn something ...
• When have you experienced  truly collaborative learning?• Do you think your learning was  more efficient due to that  co...
Why does collaboration                              improve learning?      • Opportunity to externalize your thinking and ...
What is the main theoretical background              of collaborative learning research?Venla VallivaaraLET – Learning and...
Socio-constructivist                                       approach on learning       • Piaget  ”The Genevan School”     ...
Socio-cultural                                       approach on learning       • Vygostsky  Socio-cultural perspective  ...
Shared cognition                                       approach on learning       • Perspectives of sociology and anthropo...
• What are the challenges  you have faced in  collaborative learning  situations?• What things or  circumstances have  com...
What are the prerequisities                           for collaborative learning?Venla VallivaaraLET – Learning and Educat...
Prerequisities for                          collaborative learning• Equality and symmetry                                 ...
How can we support collaborative learning?                    How can we script collaboration?Venla VallivaaraLET – Learni...
Supporting collaborative                                       learning       • Because collaboration in learning situatio...
Supporting collaborative learning                                 with technology       • Computer-Supported         Colla...
Questions?                     Comments?Venla VallivaaraLET – Learning and Educational Technology Research UnitUniversity ...
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Theory collaborative learning

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  • Luennolle varattu aika: 10:00-10:45Aloitus: 3 min (10:00-10:03)
  • Ensimmäinen osio: luento 3 min, keskustelutehtävä purkuineen 10 min (10:03-10:16)
  • Konstruktivistinen oppimiskäsitys – tietoa ei voi siirtää suoraan opettajalta oppijalle, vaan oppilas itse aktiivisesti rakentaa tietoa. Aiemmat tiedot ja kokemukset ohjaa, aiemmat väärinymmärrykset haastetaan (käsitteellinen muutos). Mahdollisuus oppia monimutkaisiakin asioita opettamatta niitä suoraanOpettajan rooli: Oppimisprosessin suunnittelija ja ohjaaja. Asiantuntijaresurssi. Perinteisessä mallissa opettaja tekee suurimman oppimistyön
  • Oppijalla mahdollisuus ulkoistaa ajatteluaan ja sitä kautta kehittää edelleen ideoitaan ja käsityksiäänOsallistujat tulevat tietoisiksi ajatteluprosesseistaan ja havaitessaan eroja omien ja toisten näkemysten välilläKeskustelu motivoi osallistujia selittämään ja selkeyttämään omia ajatuksiaan muille, elleivät ne vielä ole muiden mielestä tarpeeksi selkeitä tai tarkkojaIlmiöitä käsitellään abstraktimmalla tasolla, koska ryhmän tulee löytää yhteinen ja tarpeeksi yleinen pohja ongelmanratkaisulle
  • Toinen osio: luento 3 min, keskustelutehtävä purkuineen 10 min (10:16-10:29)
  • Kolmas osio: luento 3 min, (10:29-10:32)
  • Tiedon ja toiminnan symmetrisyys ja tasavertaisuus Toimiva ryhmäytyminen (grounding)Yhteisöllinen tiedonrakentelu edellyttää sitoutumista koordinoituun, tavoitteelliseen ja jaettuun ongelmanratkaisuunAvoimet kysymykset vs. faktakysymyksetSijaa myös väärinymmärryksille ja erimielisyyksilleOsittain päällekkäinen asiantuntijuus. Tarpeeksi yhteistä ymmärrystä, mutta riittävän erilaiset näkökulmat.Tavoitteena tutkiva puhe (vs. kiistelevä tai kumulatiivinen puhe)Yksilötasolla ryhmän jäseneltä vaaditaan mm. motivaatiota yhteistyöhön, riittäviä opiskelutaitoja, rohkeutta ja avoimuuttaTeknologian tarjottava joustavat monipuoliset välineet vuorovaikutukseen ja ryhmän työskentelyyn. Toimivuus, helppous ja luotettavuus tärkeällä sijallaOhjaaminen ja opettaminen eivät ole kollaboraatiotajoka edellyttää muiden yhteisön jäsenten toiminnan ja ajattelun tapojen tuntemusta Kaikki ryhmässä opiskelu ei ole yhteisöllistä oppimista. Ryhmässä työskenteleminen ei takaa automaattisesti laadukasta ja syvällistä oppimista sekä parempia oppimistuloksiaKaikki oppimisen ja ongelmanratkaisun muodot eivät ole tehokkaimmillaan ryhmässä – myös itsenäistä opiskelua tarvitaan.Tehtävä voi jakautua siten, että yksittäisen oppilaan kokemus osista muodostuvasta kokonaisuudesta hämärtyyVääränlainen sosiaalinen ilmapiiri tukahduttaa ideoinnin, eivätkä kaikki uskalla kertoa vapaasti ennakkokäsityksistään, ideoistaan ja näkökulmistaanTavoitteena tutkiva puhe (vs. kiistelevä tai kumulatiivinen puhe)Vallitsevan oppimiskulttuurin tuomat rajoitukset todella yhteisöllistä oppimista tukevien oppimisympäristöjen luomiseeen
  • Neljäs osio: luento 3 min, esimerkit kursseilta yht. 10 min (10:32-10:45)
  • Theory collaborative learning

    1. 1. Collaborative Learning Learning Theory and Pedagogical Use of Technology 2012-09-27 Venla VallivaaraVenla VallivaaraLET – Learning and Educational Technology Research UnitUniversity of Oulu2012-09-27
    2. 2. During this lecture we will explore… • What is collaborative learning? • How does collaboration improve learning? • What is the main theoretical background of collaborative learning research? • What are the prerequisities for collaborative learning? • How can we support collaborative learning?Venla VallivaaraLET – Learning and Educational Technology Research UnitUniversity of Oulu2012-09-27
    3. 3. What is collaborative learning? How does collaboration improve learning?Venla VallivaaraLET – Learning and Educational Technology Research UnitUniversity of Oulu2012-09-27
    4. 4. What is collaborative learning? ” a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together” ”A coordinated synchronous activity that is the result of a continued attempt to construct and maintain a shared conception of a problem” collaborative learning vs. cooperative learningDillenbourg, P. (1999). What do you mean by collaborative learning? In Dillenbourg, P. (Ed.) Collaborative learning: Cognitive and ComputationalApproaches.Roschelle, J. & Teasley S. (1996). The construction of shared knowledge in collaborative problem solving. Venla Vallivaara LET – Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit University of Oulu 2012-09-27
    5. 5. • When have you experienced truly collaborative learning?• Do you think your learning was more efficient due to that collaboration? Why?• What things or circumstances supported your collaboration in that situation? Venla Vallivaara LET – Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit University of Oulu 2012-09-27
    6. 6. Why does collaboration improve learning? • Opportunity to externalize your thinking and by that develop them further • Awareness of your own thoughts, realizing the differences between viewpoints • Motivation to explain your thougths when they are not clear enough for the others to understand • Discussing on more abstract level to find the common ground for the joint discussion and problem solving • Utilizing the variety of knowledge andHäkkinen, P. & Arvaja, M. (1999). Kollaboratiivinen the group expertise within oppiminen teknologiaympäristöissä. Teoksessa Eteläpelto, A. & Tynjälä, P. Oppiminen jaasiantuntijuus. Venla Vallivaara LET – Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit University of Oulu 2012-09-27
    7. 7. What is the main theoretical background of collaborative learning research?Venla VallivaaraLET – Learning and Educational Technology Research UnitUniversity of Oulu2012-09-27
    8. 8. Socio-constructivist approach on learning • Piaget  ”The Genevan School” • How social interactions affect individual cognitive development? • ”it is above all through interacting with others, coordinating his/her approaches to reality with those of others, that the individual masters new approaches” • Individual cognitive development as a result of spiral causality • Socio-cognitive conflictsDoise, W. & Mugny, W. (1984). The Social Development of the Intellects.Doise, W. (1990). The development of individual competencies through social interaction.Dillenbourg, P., Baker, M, Balye, A. & O’Malley, S. (1996). The evolution of research on collaborative learning. Venla Vallivaara LET – Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit University of Oulu 2012-09-27
    9. 9. Socio-cultural approach on learning • Vygostsky  Socio-cultural perspective • Causal relationship between social interaction and individual cognitive change? • Genetic law of cultural development: – Inter-psychological processes (social speech) – Intra-psychological processes (inner speech) • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and Society: The development of Higher Psychological Processes.Dillenbourg, P., Baker, M, Balye, A. & O’Malley, S. (1996). The evolution of research on collaborative learning Venla Vallivaara LET – Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit University of Oulu 2012-09-27
    10. 10. Shared cognition approach on learning • Perspectives of sociology and anthropology shared cognition and situated cognition • Environments as a integral part of cognitive activity – Physical context – Social context • Culture, social communities, language, structure of social meanings and relationshipsDillenbourg, P., Baker, M, Balye, A. & O’Malley, S. (1996). The evolution of research on collaborative learning. In E. Spada & P. Reimans (Edls)learning in Humans and Machine: Towards an interdisciplinary learning science (pp 189-211). Oxford: Elsevier. Venla Vallivaara LET – Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit University of Oulu 2012-09-27
    11. 11. • What are the challenges you have faced in collaborative learning situations?• What things or circumstances have complicated or hindered the collaboration? Venla Vallivaara LET – Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit University of Oulu 2012-09-27
    12. 12. What are the prerequisities for collaborative learning?Venla VallivaaraLET – Learning and Educational Technology Research UnitUniversity of Oulu2012-09-27
    13. 13. Prerequisities for collaborative learning• Equality and symmetry • Individual prerequisities• Grounding • If technology is used:• Commitment – Support for fluent• Certain way of discussing interaction things – Diversity, flexibility• Misconceptions and – Usability disagreements allowed – Reliability• Open questions vs. factual questions• Partly overlapping areas of expertise Häkkinen, P. & Arvaja, M. (1999). Kollaboratiivinen oppiminen teknologiaympäristöissä. Teoksessa Eteläpelto, A. & Tynjälä, P. Oppiminen ja asiantuntijuus.. Venla Vallivaara LET – Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit University of Oulu 2012-09-27
    14. 14. How can we support collaborative learning? How can we script collaboration?Venla VallivaaraLET – Learning and Educational Technology Research UnitUniversity of Oulu2012-09-27
    15. 15. Supporting collaborative learning • Because collaboration in learning situations does not often occur spontaneously, there’s a need for instructional support • With scaffolding we can support learners as they accomplish tasks that they would not be able to accomplish on their own (Zone of Proximal Development) • Scaffolds can provide support – On a content-related or conceptual level – Related to the interactive processes between studentsKollar, I; Fisher, F & Hesse, F. W. (2006). Collaboration scripts - A Conceptual Analysis. Educational Psychology Review 18:159-185. Venla Vallivaara LET – Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit University of Oulu 2012-09-27
    16. 16. Supporting collaborative learning with technology • Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) – Technology can support collaborative problem solving by making thinking visible and by fostering the discussion during the learning process – The cognitive load can be shared with technology as well as with other peopleHäkkinen, P. & Arvaja, M. (1999). Kollaboratiivinen oppiminen teknologiaympäristöissä.Teoksessa Eteläpelto, A. & Tynjälä, P. Oppiminen ja asiantuntijuus. Venla Vallivaara LET – Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit University of Oulu 2012-09-27
    17. 17. Questions? Comments?Venla VallivaaraLET – Learning and Educational Technology Research UnitUniversity of Oulu2012-09-27
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