Teachers’ learning                                                4.10.2012                                               ...
Content      • Teachers’ knowledge      • Teachers’ collaboration      • Teachers’ technological pedagogical        conten...
Changes at teachers’ work•     There is ongoing pressure for developmental changes in education (e.g.      educational inn...
• When there is need to change the pedagogy of the school, teachers are  expected to adapt their way of teaching according...
Teachers’ Learning • In recent years, teacher learning has become an   important topic in educational research. • How teac...
Teachers’ Learning• Teachers’ conceptions of learning direct their teaching practices, it  providing a pedagogical frame f...
• Pedagogical knowledge (PK)     – is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of       teach...
• Content Knowledge (CK)     – is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught     – would include...
• Collaboration and it’s impact on pedagogical practices is important for  teachers’ professional development.   (Barab & ...
COLLABORATIVE LEARNING    (e.g. Dillenbourg, 1999; Roschelle & Teasley, 1995)•    “a coordinated synchronous activity that...
E6  Asking and explaining                                                                   Knowledge sharing             ...
Learn to work collaboratively!                               Teachers are more willing and       Teachers feel that due to...
Collaboration among teachers    (Little, 1990; Rosenholtz, 1989)•    FIRST LEVEL ”storytelling and scanning”       – occur...
Multilevel model of           The goals of the school                                      5      an innovative,          ...
TEACHERS’ NETWORKS     Example 1Kaisto, Hämäläinen & Järvelä. (2007)http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9789514286780/
Example 3Example 2            Kaisto, Hämäläinen & Järvelä. (2007)            http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9789514286780/
Technology has increased                    networking and                  collaboration among                        tea...
TPACK Framework (Koehler & Mishra 2009)•    describe how     teachers’     understanding of     educational     technologi...
1. Technology knowledge (TK)        – is knowledge about standard technologies such as books and          chalk and blackb...
2.Technological content knowledge (TCK)        – is knowledge about the manner in which technology knowledge          (TK)...
3.Technological pedagogical knowledge      – an understanding of various technologies as they are used in teaching and    ...
LET.OULU.FI                       niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
THANK YOU!                                         Niina Impiö                                    (niina.impio@oulu.fi)   ...
References•    Fullan, M. (2002). The Role of Leadership in the Promotion of Knowledge Management in Schools. Teachers    ...
What is the role of ICT in teachers’ collaborative practices?                             CONTENT                         ...
What is the role of ICT in teachers’          collaborative practices?                              TOOL                  ...
How teachers’ collaboration supports them expanding their expertise?                            Example 6:        “I like ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Teachers learning 2012

708 views
665 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
708
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • In recent years, teachers’ ways of working have developed from being independent experts to active members of collaborative knowledge sharing. Studies focusing on teachers’ professional development have emphasized the importance of collaboration and it’s impact on pedagogical practices. Teachers who have an important role in a school’s community are more likely to use collaborative instructional strategies in their classrooms . TÄHÄN JOTAKIN KOKOAVAA!
  • Pedagogical content knowledge has been developed further to include a view of using ICT in teaching, resulting in the concept of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) (Mishra & Koehler, 2006; Koehler & Mishra, 2009).
  • Teachers learning 2012

    1. 1. Teachers’ learning 4.10.2012 Niina ImpiöLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
    2. 2. Content • Teachers’ knowledge • Teachers’ collaboration • Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
    3. 3. Changes at teachers’ work• There is ongoing pressure for developmental changes in education (e.g. educational innovations, technology-enhanced learning).• This require both changes in teachers’ ways of thinking about student learning and changes in their teaching practices.• There is a need for changes in knowledge, beliefs, emotions and teaching practices (Bakkenes, Vermunt & Wubbels, 2010).• These changes require continuous teacher professional development (e.g. Sahlberg & Boce, 2010).• Too often educational innovations have failed because they did not recognize the need for teacher learning (c.f Lieberman & Pointer Mace, 2008) niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
    4. 4. • When there is need to change the pedagogy of the school, teachers are expected to adapt their way of teaching accordingly. They have to – develop another vision on learning and teaching – be motivated to learn about the new pedagogy – understand what the innovation is good for – develop skills to bring the innovation into practice – form experiments with the new pedagogy in order to learn – form part of a community of teachers who all are learning new things  Teaching is highly demanding, high-performance profession in which teachers must rapidly make many decisions in a highly complex and time- pressured conditions  We have to see teachers as the adaptive expertisers (e.g. Crawford, Schlager, Toyama, Riel & Vahey, 2005) niina.impio@oulu.fi Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
    5. 5. Teachers’ Learning • In recent years, teacher learning has become an important topic in educational research. • How teachers learn at work? – learning by experimenting – learning in interaction – using external sources – consciously thinking about one’s own teaching practices (Kwakman 2003, Lohma & Woolf 2001, Van Eekelen et al. 2005) niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
    6. 6. Teachers’ Learning• Teachers’ conceptions of learning direct their teaching practices, it providing a pedagogical frame for teaching methods they use.• Conceptions of learning relate closely to the concept of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (Shulman 1986; 1987) – Three components of knowledge Pedagogical knowledge (PK) Content Knowledge (CK) Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
    7. 7. • Pedagogical knowledge (PK) – is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning – applies to understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson planning, and student assessment – A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge undestands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills and how they develop habits of mind and positive dispositions towards learning. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of learning and how they apply to students in the classroom. niina.impio@oulu.fi Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
    8. 8. • Content Knowledge (CK) – is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or taught – would include knowledge of concepts, theories, ideas, organizational frameworks, knowledge of evidence and proof, as well as established practices and approaches toward developing such knowledge• Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) – transformation of the subject matter for teaching – transformation occurs as the teacher interprets the subject matter, finds multiple ways to represent it, and adapts and tailors the instructional materials to alternative conceptions and students’ prior knowledge – covers the core business of teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment and reporting, such as the conditions that promote learning and the links among curriculumn, assessment, and pedagogy niina.impio@oulu.fi Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
    9. 9. • Collaboration and it’s impact on pedagogical practices is important for teachers’ professional development. (Barab & Squire, 2002; Barab, Makinster & Scheckler, 2003; Goddard, Hoy & Woolfolk Hoy, 2004 Yuen, Law & Wong, 2003).• Despite increased collaboration between teachers and between schools, it seems that teachers’ collaborative working culture still needs to be developed (e.g. Ilomäki, 2008). niina.impio@oulu.fi Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
    10. 10. COLLABORATIVE LEARNING (e.g. Dillenbourg, 1999; Roschelle & Teasley, 1995)• “a coordinated synchronous activity that is the result of continued attempt to construct and maintain a shared conception of a problem” (Roschelle & Teasley, 1995)• “is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together” (Dillenbourg, 1999)• Activities characterized as teachers collaboration – Joint teaching and collaborative teaching methods – Interaction between colleagues and others – F2f and computer-mediated interaction – Joint problem solving processes  pedagogical innovations niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
    11. 11. E6 Asking and explaining Knowledge sharing Collaborative working starts effective learning mechanism. Learn from othersArgumentation and learning and teachinggiving feedback strategies (esim. Dillenbourg, 1999; Roschelle & Teasley, 1995) niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
    12. 12. Learn to work collaboratively! Teachers are more willing and Teachers feel that due toTeachers’ attitudes toward being familiar with feel more capable to usecollaborative work has collaborative learning both in collaborative teaching methods inchanged, which has theory and practice, they are their work after they have hadinfluenced to their work more confident to own experiences fromboth in teaching methods recommend collaborative learning, and afterand collaboration with collaborative working they have studied theories ofcolleagues. methods while working collaborative learning. together with colleagues. (Impiö, 2011)
    13. 13. Collaboration among teachers (Little, 1990; Rosenholtz, 1989)• FIRST LEVEL ”storytelling and scanning” – occurs in staff rooms or in hallways – moment-by-moment exchanges• SECOND LEVEL ”aid and assistance” – critically look one’s teaching practice• THIRD LEVEL ”sharing” or ”exchaning instructional materials and ideas” – regularly sharing materials, methods an opinions – allow teachers to make their daily teaching routines accessible to other teachers which promotes productive discussions of the curriculum• FOURTH LEVEL ”joint work” or ”instructional problem-solving and planning” – teachers feel a collective responsibility for the work of teaching niina.impio@oulu.fi Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
    14. 14. Multilevel model of The goals of the school 5 an innovative, The content of the vision, The vision of using ICT, knowledge-creating The content of schools strategy for using school ICT, The importance and centrality of the visions and strategies.Expert-like working culture in Pedagogical practices The ICT resourcesthe school Pedagogical conceptions in Adequateness of the ICT-Practices for sharing knowledge general, resources,and distributing expertise, Conceptions of the pedagogical Technical equipment,Networking: principal, teachers use of ICT, The level of students’ andand students; both internal and Learning tasks that exploit ICT, teachers’ skills and use ofexternal, Support for knowledge ICT,Commonly agreed and management skills, Technical and pedagogicalappropriate ways of working, ICT as schools common support availableCommunitys collective pedagogical toolmemory,common development projects. Leadership Teacher communitys working culture The role of the principal, Uniformity of the visions, Pedagogical collaboration and its density, Shared leadership and Sharing of expertise, responsible teams, Community’s internal networking, Principals networking. Discussion culture, Development culture. Ilomäki and Lakkala, 2005
    15. 15. TEACHERS’ NETWORKS Example 1Kaisto, Hämäläinen & Järvelä. (2007)http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9789514286780/
    16. 16. Example 3Example 2 Kaisto, Hämäläinen & Järvelä. (2007) http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9789514286780/
    17. 17. Technology has increased networking and collaboration among teachers E4 E5LET.OULU.FI niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
    18. 18. TPACK Framework (Koehler & Mishra 2009)• describe how teachers’ understanding of educational technologies and PCK interact with one another to produce effective teaching with technology http://tpack.org/ LET.OULU.FI niina.impio@oulu.fi Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
    19. 19. 1. Technology knowledge (TK) – is knowledge about standard technologies such as books and chalk and blackboard, as well as more advanced technologies such as the Internet and digital video – indicates teachers’ skills to use different technologies and awareness of the different possibilities and constraints that technologies have – indicates also interest in technological development and different technologies – knowing what kind of software there are, for what purposes and how to use them niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
    20. 20. 2.Technological content knowledge (TCK) – is knowledge about the manner in which technology knowledge (TK) and content knowledge (CK) are reciprocally related to each other – refers to understanding of the connection between different technologies and knowledge about the content area – means teachers’ understanding of which technologies and software work with certain topics, how the technology used and content to be taught influence and possibly constrain each other niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
    21. 21. 3.Technological pedagogical knowledge – an understanding of various technologies as they are used in teaching and learning settings, and conversely, knowing how teaching might change as the result of using technologies – means understanding how teaching and learning changes when introducing and using different technologies – refers to understanding of the benefits and constrains of different technologies when using them in teaching, indicating deep understanding of the characteristics of technologies available.• This area of knowledge is important when we consider software used in teaching. Software such as social software or office tools is rarely designed specifically for teaching. This leaves the teacher to decide and apply them in teaching based on his or her judgment on the benefits of different tools for learning (Valtonen, 2011). niina.impio@oulu.fi Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
    22. 22. LET.OULU.FI niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
    23. 23. THANK YOU! Niina Impiö (niina.impio@oulu.fi) niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology ResearchUnit
    24. 24. References• Fullan, M. (2002). The Role of Leadership in the Promotion of Knowledge Management in Schools. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 8(3/4), 411-419.• Hargreaves, A. (1994). Changing Teachers, Changing Times:Teachers Work and Culture in the Postmodern Age. London, Cassell.• Hargreaves, D. (1999). The knowledge-creating school. British Journal of Educational Studies, 47(2), 122-144.• Ilomäki, L., & Lakkala, M. (2005, August). A framework for investigating school development through ICT. A paper presented at the 11th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Nicosia, Cyprus.• Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32 (2), 131-152.• Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70. Retrieved from: http://www.citejournal.org/vol9/iss1/general/article1.cfm• Mishra, P., & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for integrating technology in teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.• Shulman, L. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4- 14.• Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harward Educational Review, 57(1), 1-21. niina.impio@oulu.fi Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
    25. 25. What is the role of ICT in teachers’ collaborative practices? CONTENT Example 3: “We have a very small community in our school, and we all use ICT inour work. When we have been doing together projects it has advancedtogetherness. We have like a special group’ in our school, because we have something to share.” ___ Example 4:“I can say that when two teachers, who have used ICT in teaching, get together, there is always something to discuss.”
    26. 26. What is the role of ICT in teachers’ collaborative practices? TOOL Example 5:“We got Reissuvihko (management system for register e.g. absences, schedules and homeworks) last autumn. [...] it has been incredibly good, a huge step in promoting collaboration between home and school, and unexpectedly also, and may be more, inside our school, promoting communication between workmates. […] Unexpectedly this same application has increased information sharing between children and teachers.”
    27. 27. How teachers’ collaboration supports them expanding their expertise? Example 6: “I like to have collaboration because it gives me opportunities to share ideas.I will repeat same things easily in my teaching without new ideas. For the reason to develop my work, I have to be active and communicate with my colleagues.”

    ×