Teacher learning Niina Impiö
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  • One of the key element when we talking about teacher learning is to understand what kind of knowldges teachers’ expertise is based on.
    The process of integrating theory, practice and self-regulation can be seen as problem-solving process where students simultaneously need to solve practical problems and related conceptual problems.
    One key to develop these other knowledges is to collaborate.
    In their work teachers seem to rely more tend to favour familiar work practices instead of using scientific knowledge to develop new ones.
  • This model suggests that change occurs thriugh the mediating processes of reflection and enactment.
    Four distinct domains which encompass the teachers’s world.
    This model recognize the complexity of professional growth through the identification of multiple growth pathways between the domains. It is non-linear in nature.
    Reflection and enactment as the mechanisms by which chnage in one domain leads to change in another.
    In this model any process of changes occur within the affordances of the enveloping change environment.

Transcript

  • 1. Teacher learning and collaboration 18.11.2013 Niina Impiö Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
  • 2. Teacher learning • Teacher knowledge • Teacher beliefs • Teacher collaboration Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 3. The challenge of 21st century ”Teaching for the knowledge society requires developing broad cognitive learning, collaborative processes, risk-taking, creativity, and innovation in schools and classroom.” (Sahlberg, 2006) Photo: http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=401503909941531&set=a.340040226087900.80614.339992636092659&type=1&theater Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 4. Changes in teachers’ work • There is ongoing pressure for developmental changes in education (e.g. educational innovations, technology-enhanced learning). • There is a need for changes in knowledge, beliefs, emotions and teaching practices (Bakkenes,Vermunt & Wubbels, 2010). • Educational innovations have failed too often because they did not recognize the need for teacher learning (c.f Fullan, 1982; Lieberman & Pointer Mace, 2008) • These changes require continuous teacher professional development (e.g. Sahlberg & Boce, 2010). Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 5. Challenge for teachers • When there is need to change the pedagogy of the school, teachers are expected to adapt their way of teaching accordingly. Teachers have to – – – – – Develop novel visions on learning and teaching be motivated to learn about the new pedagogy understand what the innovation is useful for develop skills to bring the innovation into practice Form a community of teachers who all will learn new things  Teaching is very demanding, high-performance profession in which teachers must rapidly make many decisions in a highly complex and time-pressured conditions  Running 21st teaching teachers should learn to be adaptive experts (e.g. Crawford, Schlager, Toyama, Riel & Vahey, 2005) Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 6. • In recent years, teacher learning has become an important topic in educational research. Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 7. WRITE DOWN YOUR OWN THOUGHTS © N. Impiö • What is teacher learning? Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 8. Teachers’ expertise is based on (e.g Barab, Kling & Gray 2003; Tynjälä, 2004) 1) Theoretical knowledge • knowledge of one’s own teaching subject and pedagogical knowledge  research-based teaching 2) Practical and empirical knowledge • teaching knowledge, target group evaluation, tacit knowledge 3) Self-regulative knowledge (Pintrich, 2004) • regulating one’s own learning process: planning and activating, monitoring, control, and reflection 4) Knowledge of collaborative working practices • networking, collaborative learning, collaborative knowledge building 5) Knowledge of technology (Koehler, M.L. & Mishra 2006; 2009) Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 9. TPACK Framework (Koehler & Mishra 2009) • This model describes how teachers’ understanding of educational technologies and PCK interact with one another to produce effective teaching with technology http://tpack.org/ LET.OULU.FI niina.impio@oulu.fi Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
  • 10. Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) 1. Technology knowledge (TK) – indicates teachers’ skills to use different technologies – awareness of the different possibilities and constraints that technologies have  knowing what kind of software there are, and for what purposes and how to use them in the context of learning 2. Technological content knowledge (TCK) – The knowledge about the manner in which technology knowledge (TK) and content knowledge (CK) are reciprocally related to each other  understanding which technologies and software work with certain content 3. Technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK)  understanding how teaching and learning changes when introducing and using different technologies  understanding the benefits and constrains of different technologies when using them in teaching Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 11. TPACK is important when we consider software used in teaching. Software such as social software or office tools is rarely designed specifically for teaching. This leaves the teacher to decide and apply them in teaching based on his or her judgment on the benefits of different tools for learning. (Valtonen, 2011).
  • 12. Teacher beliefs • Teachers’ beliefs determine their teaching practices (Kagan, 1992; Pajares, 1992; Wilkins, 2008) • Teachers’ behaviours do not change without changes in beliefs (Kagan, 1992; Kane et al., 2002; Pajares, 1992) • Variety of teacher beliefs (Kim et al., 2013) – Teacher expectation of learner success – Self-efficacy in their own ability to teach – Beliefs about the value of specific teaching strategies or materials – Content specific beliefs • Teacher beliefs change through conceptual change that requires them to critically recognize their own beliefs as well as to observe, evaluate, and alternative beliefs. (Kagan, 1992) • These strategies can be done through collaboration among teachers (Chen, 2008). Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 13. Teacher beliefs and technology integration (Kim et al., 2013) • Technology challenge teachers’ beliefs in new ways of both seeing and doing things (Ertmer, 2005) • Teachers’ beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning and beliefs about effective ways of teaching were related to their technology integration practices. (Kim et al., 2013)  teacher beliefs should be considered in order to facilitate technology integration Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 14. Effectiviness of teacher beliefs (Kim et al., 2013) • If teacher believes that the source of knowledge is authority, that teacher may not use a relatively open-ended approach that encourages students to explore a variety of sources and construct answers to a given problem or complete certain task. PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING, STUDENT -CENTERED LEARNING • If teacher believes that working in collaboration brings about greater benefits than learning alone, that teacher would tend to include more group work than teachers who see little or no learning value in collaboration. COLLABORATIVE LEARNING, KNOWLEDGE BUILDING • If teacher believes that the value of technology for student learning is high because an interactive whiteboard that allows her to promote active partIcipation of students. In contrast another teacher believes that the value of technology for student learning is high because an interactive whiteboard allows him to deliver content more efficiently by projecting online resources on the board. EDUCATIONAL USE OF TECHNOLOGY Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 15. The interconnected model of teacher professional growth External domain The change environment Personal domain External source of information or stimulus Domain of practice Knowledge Beliefs Attitudes Professional experimentation Salient outcomes Enactment (implement) Domain of consequence Reflection (Clarke & Hollingsworth, 2002)
  • 16. DISCUSS WITH YOUR PEER © N. Impiö 1) First, share your memos about teacher learning with your peer. LET.OULU.FI 2) Then, discuss how teachers learn. niina.impio@oulu.fi Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
  • 17. Teacher Learning •How teachers learn at work? – – – – learning by experimenting learning in interaction using external sources consciously thinking about one’s own teaching practices (Kwakman 2003, Lohma & Woolf 2001, Van Eekelen et al. 2005) Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 18. Towards teachers’ collaborative working practices • Collaboration and it’s impact on pedagogical practices is important for teachers’ professional development. (Barab & Squire, 2002; Barab, Makinster & Scheckler, 2003; Meirink, Meijer & Verloop 2007; Goddard, Hoy & Woolfolk Hoy, 2004 Yuen, Law & Wong, 2003). • It is even more important in various complex and daily situations ”We were lucky to experience possibilities of creative collaboration. Then, problems did not anymore feel like problems; rather they were possibilities. We we allowed to move on towards them, game-based manners, using tools and time as we chose were the best.” (Edutool student) LET.OULU.FI 21.11.13 Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
  • 19. Towards teachers’ collaborative working practices • “a coordinated synchronous activity that is the result of continued attempt to construct and maintain a shared conception of a problem” (Roschelle & Teasley, 1995) • “is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together” (Dillenbourg, 1999) • ”Unlike some my colleagues I posses understanding that collaboration does not happen just bringing people together. Succesfull collaboration requires hard work and commitment to joint aims. It requires --- free athmosphere and awareness of each member’s expertise and previous experiences. Collaboration requires flexibility: you need to be ready to change your perspective and construct new knowledge together.” (Edutool student) LET.OULU.FI 21.11.13 Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit
  • 20. Collaboration levels among teachers (Little, 1990; Rosenholtz, 1989) • FIRST ”storytelling and scanning”  occurs in staff rooms or in hallways  moment-by-moment exchanges • SECOND ”aid and assistance”  critically look one’s teaching practice • THIRD ”sharing” or ”exchaning instructional materials and ideas”  regularly sharing materials, methods an opinions  allow teachers to make their daily teaching routines accessible to other teachers which promotes productive discussions of the curriculum • FOURTH ”joint work” or ”instructional problem-solving and planning”  teachers feel a collective responsibility for the work of teaching Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 21. Teachers’ learning experiences in collaborative settings (Meirink, Meijer & Verloop 2007) • Experimenting with – an adjusted teaching method of a colleague – a copied teaching method of a colleague – self-invented teaching method developed in a group meeting • Reflecting – comparing teaching methods or theories to own teaching methods – valuing elements in colleagues’ teaching methods – becoming aware of own conceptions or good practices in own teaching methods Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 22. Teachers’ learning experiences in collaborative settings (Meirink, Meijer & Verloop 2007) • Learning from others without interaction – observing colleagues’ teaching methods – listening to presentation of experts – reading articles and collegues’ written reports • Learning from others in interaction – brainstorming and discussing – exchanging teaching methods – asking questions about collegues’ experiences or experiments – receiving feedback from collegues on own experiences or experiments Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 23. E6 Asking and explaining Knowledge sharing Collaborative working Collaborative working starts effective starts effective learning mechanism. learning mechanism. Learn from others learning and teaching strategies Argumentation and giving feedback (esim. Dillenbourg, 1999; Roschelle & Teasley, 1995) Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 24. DISCUSS WITH YOUR PEER © N. Impiö • How do you see collaboration as a tool for teacher learning/ professional development? Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit • How do you see technology as a tool for teacher learning/ professional development? niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 25. Multilevel model of an innovative, knowledge-creating school Expert-like working culture in the school Practices for sharing knowledge and distributing expertise, Networking: principal, teachers and students; both internal and external, Commonly agreed and appropriate ways of working, Community's collective memory, The goals of the school The content of the vision, The vision of using ICT, The content of school's strategy for using ICT, The importance and centrality of the visions and strategies. Pedagogical practices Pedagogical conceptions in general, Conceptions of the pedagogical use of ICT, Learning tasks that exploit ICT, Support for knowledge management skills, ICT as school's common pedagogical tool common development projects. Teacher community's working culture Uniformity of the visions, Pedagogical collaboration and its density, Sharing of expertise, Community’s internal networking, Discussion culture, Development culture. The ICT resources Adequateness of the ICTresources, Technical equipment, The level of students’ and teachers’ skills and use of ICT, Technical and pedagogical support available Leadership The role of the principal, Shared leadership and responsible teams, Principal's networking. (Ilomäki & Lakkala, 2005) 5
  • 26. THANK YOU! Niina Impiö (niina.impio@oulu.fi) Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 27. References • • • • • • • • • • Bakkenes, I., Vermunt, J. D. & Wubbels, T. (2010). Teacher learning in the context of educational innovation: Learning activities and learning outcomes of experienced teachers. Learning and Instruction, 20(6), 533-548. Bereiter, C. & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing ourselves: An inquiry into the nature of expertise. Chicago: Open Court. Clarke, D., & Hollingsworth, H. (2002). Elaborating a model of teacher professional growth. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 947–967. Chen, C. (2008). Why do teachers not practice what they believe regarding technology integration? Journal of Educational Research, 102(1), 65-75. Dillenbourg P. (1999). What do you mean by collaborative learning? In P. Dillenbourg (Ed.), Collaborative learning: Cognitive and computational approaches (s.1-19). Amsterdam: Pergamon. Fullan, M. (2002). The Role of Leadership in the Promotion of Knowledge Management in Schools. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 8(3/4), 411-419. Ilomäki, L., & Lakkala, M. (2005, August). A framework for investigating school development through ICT. A paper presented at the 11th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Nicosia, Cyprus. Kagan, D. M. (1992). Implications of research on teacher belief. Educational Psychologist, 27(1), 65-90. Kim, C., Kim, M.K., Lee, C., Spector, J.M., & DeMeester, K. (2013). Teacher beliefs and technology integration. Teaching and teacher education, 29 (1), 76-85. Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70. Retrieved from: http://www.citejournal.org/vol9/iss1/general/article1.cfm Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi
  • 28. References • • • • • • • • • Meirink, J.A., Meijer, P.C., & Verloop, N. (2007). A closer look at teachers’ individual learning in collaborative settings. Teacher and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 13(2), 145–164. Meirink, J. A., Imants, J., Meijer, P. & Verloop, N. (2010). Teacher learning and collaboration in innovative teams. Cambridge Journal of Education, 40 (2), 161–181. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for integrating technology in teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054. Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307-332. Shulman, L. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14. Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harward Educational Review, 57(1), 1-21. Tynjälä, P. (2008). Perspectives into learning at the workplace. Educational Research Review, 3, 130– 154. Van Eekelen, I.M., Boshuizen, H.P.A., & Vermunt, J.D. (2005). Self-regulation in higher education teacher learning. Higher Education, 50, 447-471. Wilkins, J. K. M. (2008) The relationship among elementary teachers’ content knowledge, attutudes, beliefs, and practices. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 11(2), 139-164. Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit niina.impio@oulu.fi