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  • 1. 27.9.2013   1   Introduction: LEARNING OF EXPERTISE Pirkko Hyvönen, Post-doc researher KTK/ LET, Oulun yliopisto 25.9.2013 2 EXPERT AND EXPERTISE Who is an expert? Why do you think so? What is her/his domain? How experts think and perform? How to become an expert? What is your expertise? Where are you in your expertise?
  • 2. 27.9.2013   2   BACKGROUND   §  Universi0es  are  expected   to  educate  experts,  who   are  competent  to  excel  in   changing  and  complex   circumstances  in  work  life,   but  educa0on  does  not   provide  competencies  for   it.  (Hyvönen,  Impiö,  Järvelä,   2010).         §  ”Normal”  learning  does  not   provide  exper0se,  but  can   lead  to  ”good  enough” or   ”sa0sfying” level  (Bereiter   &  Scardamalia,  1993).       § Formal  educa0on  produces  the  users  of   experts,  but  not  experts!  (Geisler,  1994).     § Formal  educa0on  does  not  nesessarily   produce  experts,  rather  experienced  non-­‐ experts  (Bereiter  &  Scardamalia,  1993).   STEREOTYPES related to EXPERTISE Gender Age Education Objective truth (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993) Exper0se  is  more  than  general  intelligence:  ”Capasity  to   perform  consistently  at  a  superior  level” (Weisberg,  2006)  
  • 3. 27.9.2013   3     LET  AIMS  TO  EDUCATE  EXPERTS  IN  LEARNING  AND  EDUCATIONAL  TECHNOLOGY.   The  students  will  be  competent  to  work  in  schools  and  work  places  and  use  their   exper0se  in  adap0ng  to  changing  situa0ons,  solving  problems,  crea0ng  social   innova0ons  and  integra0ng  technologies  in  prac0ces.  They  know  how  people  learn   and  behave  in  various  contexts.   DEFINITIONS IN DICTIONARIES 1968-2011 1968:  One  who  is  very  skillful  and  well-­‐ informed  in  some  special  field  (Webster)     2005:  Characteris0cs  ,  skills  and  knowledge   that  dis0nguishes  experts  from  novices  and   less  experienced  people  (Wikipedia)     2011:  person,  who  in  certain  domain  can   recognise  problems  and  solve  them   efficiently.  Exper0se  includes  knowledge,   experiences  and  skills  for  expressing.   (Wikipedia)     1)  How  experts  think;  how  do  they   perform?  Why?   2)  How  to  learn  to  be  an  expert?   3)  What  is  exper0se  in  my  field/  in  my   competence?  
  • 4. 27.9.2013   4   LEARNING  EXPERTISE  IS  A  PATH  OR   JOURNEY  OF  COMPETENCE  BUILDING     including  also  regressions  (Alexander,  2003;  Bereiter   &  Scardamalia,  1986;  Lajoie,  2003)         Learning  exper0se  comprices  of  three  overlapping   dimensions:   §  knowledge  construcLon  (Bransford  et  al,   2000;  Sawyer,  2006)   §  expert-­‐like  performance  (eg.,  Bereiter  &   Scardamalia,  1993;  Tynjälä,  2007)   §  self-­‐regulaLon  (Boekaerts,  Pintrich  &   Zeidner,  2000;  Lin,  Schwarz  &  Hatano,  2005)     §  It  is  a  transi0onal  learning  process  where  goals  are   set,  monitored,  reflected  and  scaffolded  (Lajoie,   2003)     DOMAIN-­‐SPECIFIC  EXPERTISE     -­‐  Informal  and  formal  domains     Salomon  (1997).  Wine  exper0se     Norman  et  al.  (2006).  Medicine  and   surgery     Durco  &  Daoel  (2006).  Transporta0on   Sonentag  et  al.  (2006).  Sopware  design   Kellogg  (2006).  Professional  wri0ng   Ross  et  al.  (2006).  Decision  making   Lehman  &  Gruber  (2006).  Music   Hodges  et  al.  (2006).  Sports   Buoerworth  (2006).  Mathema0cs   Cobet  &  Charness  (2006).  Chess   Voss  &  Wiley    (2006).  History   Brennenkmeyer  &  Spillane  (2008).   Problem-­‐solving    
  • 5. 27.9.2013   5   GENERATING  THE  BEST   -­‐  Find  the  best  solu0on       DETECTION  and   RECOGNITION   -­‐   Detect  and  perceive   features  that  novices   cannot     QUALITATIVE  ANALYSIS   -­‐Analyse  problems,   develope  problem   representa0ons     EXPERTS can EXCELL (Chi, 2006) MONITORING  &  REFLECTING   -­‐  Have  good  self-­‐monitoring   and  predic0ng    skills       STRATEGIES   -­‐  Use  the  best  and  effec0ve   strategies  in  a  given  situa0on       OPPORTUNISTIC   -­‐  Can  use  whatever  sources   of  informa0on  that  are   available       COGNITIVE  EFFORT   Can  retrieve  relevant  domain   knowledge   DOMAIN-­‐LIMITED   -­‐  Have  not  necessarily   knowledge  about  other   domains       OVERTLY  CONFIDENT   -­‐  eg.  in  music  and  physics     GLOSSING  OVER   -­‐  Some0mes  they  overlook   details     CONTEXT-­‐DEPENDENT  WITHIN   A  DOMAIN   -­‐  Some0mes  they  rely  too  much   for  contextual  cues   EXPERTS may FALL SHORT (Chi, 2006) INFLEXIBLE     INACCURATE  PREDICTION,   JUDGMENT  AND  ADVICE   -­‐  Cannot  always  take  the   perspec0ves  of  novices       BIAS  AND  FUNCTIONAL   FIXEDNESS   -­‐  Analyse  problems  in  other   domain  through  the   priciples  of  their  own   domain  
  • 6. 27.9.2013   6   HOWTO LEARNTO BE AN EXPERT? Bransford, 2001; Brophy, Hodge, & Bransford, 2004; Crawford, 2007; Hatano & Inagagi, 1986 1.  Help  students  understand  their   own  processes  of  knowing  and   problem-­‐solving!  (Collabora0ve   problems-­‐solving  method  and   expert  profiles)     2.  Help novices to expand knowledge and understanding in the areas of their interests (Islands of expertise) ISLANDS OF EXPERTISE Help novices to expand knowledge and understanding in the areas of their interests 25.9.2013 12©
  • 7. 27.9.2013   7   ISLANDS  OF  EXPERTISE     (Crowley  &  Jacobs,  2002;  Palmquist  &  Crowley,  2007) •  Children  and  adult  novices  can  develope    knowledge   construc0ons  and  deep  understanding  of  phenomena,  which   they  are  personally  and  deeply  interested  in,  and  they  are   mo0vated  to  learn  more    (Chi  &  Koeske,  1983,).         Where  people  find  problems  that  lead  to  interest;  where  the   interest  comes  from;  what  is  the  first  touch  towards  area  of   interest?  How  interests  starts,  developes  and  grows?  How  does   it  maintain?  Do  it  transform?       (Anke Grotlüschen, University of Hamburg)   –  Child  &  parent/adult;  novice   &  expert   •  Domain  approach  to  cogni0on   applied  to  social  interac0ons.  It   recognizes  and  requires  that   environmental  inputs  are   matched  to  child/novices   capaci0es  and  expecta0ons.   (Gelman,  2010)     •  Affec0ve  and  cogni0ve  support   is  needed  (ChanLi  &  Chan,   2007).    
  • 8. 27.9.2013   8   "    ”BUILDING”  AN  ISLAND  (knowledge  construcLon)     ”working  theories”     §  Building  is  seen  as  social  and  cogni0ve  process,  where  learning   habits  are  prac0ced  and  developed.   §  Island  is  woven  throughtout  mul0ple  ac0vi0es,  hence     it  is  essen0al  to  be  occupied  in  many  ways  (nego0a0ng,  ac0vi0es,  reading,   teaching,  problem-­‐solving,  memorising  etc.)  with  the  phenomen,  learn  in   ac0vity,  par0cularly  in  conversa0ons.   §  Abstract  and  general  themes   §  Building  may  con0nue  for  weeks,  months  or  years   §  Generally  building  takes  place  in  informal  seungs,  like  in  home,   museums  etc.       © Pirkko Hyvönen     "    YOU  ARE  NOT  ALONE  IN  THE  ISLAND!  (learning  is   social)   §  Construct  knowledge  and  deepen  your  understanding  with  other   people  by  nego0a0ons,  explana0ons  and  problem-­‐solving  situa0ons     in  everyday  prac0ces.   §  Long  series  of  collabora0ve  interac0ons  with  peers  and  experts  that   seems  to  be  rela0vely  unmarcable  when  viewed  individually,  but   they  collec0vely  create  a  strong  linkage  between  understanding  and   interest.     §  Other  people  support  you  in  maintaining  the  interest.     © Pirkko Hyvönen
  • 9. 27.9.2013   9   "   ISLANDS  WILL  FORM  AN   ARCHIPELAGO!  (Conceptual   construc0on)   §  Through  various  ac0vi0es  individuals   can  develop  larger  epistemic  frames,   which  will  support  the  connec0ons   between  earlier  knowledge  and  new   domains  (Shaffer,  2006)     18 COOKING COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS VEHICLES TRAINS AN EXAMPLE OF ISLANDS5-year child: vocabulary, declarative knowledge, schemas, memories are numerous, well- organised, and flexible. Their shared knowledge, conversational space, allow their talk to move on deeper levels than is typically possible if the boy were a novice. 26.9.2013 Understanding can be transfered to other situations and domains.
  • 10. 27.9.2013   10   Religion Healt sciences Finnish language English Biologie Statistics Health sciences Chemistry Educational sciences, Learning Common ground English Economics Philosophie Media sciences Cultural anthropology Communicati on Physiotherapy ARCHIPELAGO OF A ONE GROUP psykologia 25.9.2013 19 25.9.2013 20 TASK     Where  people  find  problems  that  lead  to  interest;  where  the   interest  comes  from;  what  is  the  first  touch  towards  area  of   interest?  How  interests  starts,  developes  and  grows?  How  does   it  maintain?  Do  it  transform?       Discuss in small groups about your islands and how have they evolved. During the discussion draw your islands (archipelago) and write down your thoughts. Complete the texts / pictures in your blog, dl is 4.10. 1)  What is the origin of the interest/s? 2)  How did the interest maintain? How did it transfom?
  • 11. 27.9.2013   11   REFERENCES Chi, M.T.H. & Koeske, R. (1983). Network representation of a child’s dinosaur knowledge. Developmental Psychology, 19, 29–39.     Crowley, K., & Jacobs, M. (2002). Building islands of expertise in everyday family activities. In G. Leinhardt, K. Crowley, & K Knutson (Eds.), Learning conversations in museums (pp. 401–423). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Gelman, S.A. (2010). Modules, theories, or islands of expertise? Domain specifity in socialization. Child Development, 81(3), 715–719. Palmquist, S. D. & Crowley, K. (2007). Studying dinosaur learning on an island of expertise. In R. Goldman, R. Pea, B. Barron, & S. Derry (Eds.), Video research in the learning sciences (pp. 271–286). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Shaffer, D.W. (2006). Epistemic frames for epistemic games. Computers & Education, 46, 223–234. 25.9.2013 21 References Alexander, P.A. (2003).The development of expertise:The journey from acclimation to proficiency. Educational Researcher, 32(8): 10–14. Bereiter, C. & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing ourselves. An inquiry into the nature and implications of expertise. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company. Bransford, J. (2001). Thought on adaptive expertise. Retrieved June 15, 2008, from Bransford, J. D., Brown,A. L. & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.) (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, and school. Washington: National Academy Press. Brenninkmeyer, L. D. & Spillane, J. P. (2008). Problem-solving processes of experts and typical school principals:A quantitative look. School Leadership & Management, 28(5), 435–468. Brophy, S., Hodge, L., & Bransford, J. (2004).Work in progress – Adaptive expertise: Beyond apply academic knowledge. Frontiers in Education 3 (FIE): S1B/28- S1B/30, arnumber=1408679. Chi, M.T. H. (2006).Two approaches to the study of experts’ characteristics. In K.A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance (pp. 21–30). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chi, M.T.H., Glaser, R., & Rees, E. (1982). Expertise in problem-solving. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the psychology of human intelligence (pp. 7–75). Chi, M.T. H. & Koeske, R. D. (1983). Network representation of a child’s dinosaur knowledge. Developmental Psychology, 19(1): 29–39. Crawford,V, M, (2007),Adaptive expertise as knowledge building in science teacher’s problem solving. Paper accepted for the proceedings of the European Cognitive Science Conference. Delphi, Greece. Ericsson, K.A. (2006).An introduction to Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance: Its development, organization, and content. In K.A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 3–19). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • 12. 27.9.2013   12   Hatano, G. & Inagagi, K. (1986). Two courses of expertise. In H. Stevenson, H.Azuma & K. Hakuta (Eds.), Child development and education in Japan (pp. 262–272). NewYork (N.Y.): Freeman. Hatano, G. & Oura,Y. (2003). Commentary: Reconceptualizing school learning using insight from expertise research. Educational Researcher, 32(8): 26–29. Hmelo-Silver, C., Marathe, S. & Liu, L. (2007). Fish swim, rocks sit, and lungs breathe: Expert-novice understanding of complex systems. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 16(3), 307 – 331. Holoyoak, 1991 Johnsson, E. J. (1988). Expertise and decision under uncertainty: Performance and process. In T. H. Michele, H. Chi, R. Glaser & M.T. Farr (Eds.), The nature of expertise (pp. 209–228). Hillsdale (N.J.): Lawrence Erlbaum. Jonassen, D. H. (2007).What makes scientific problems difficult? In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Learning to solve complex scientific problems (pp. 3–23). Lajoie, S. P. (2003).Transitions and trajectories for studies of expertise. Educational Researcher, 32(8): 21–25. Lin, X., Schwartz, D.L., & Bransford, J. (2007). Intercultural adaptive expertise: Explicit and implicit lessons from Dr. Hatano. Human Development, 50, 65–72. Posner, M. J. (1988). Introduction:What is it to be an expert? In M.T.H. Chi, R. Glaser, & M.J.F. Farr (Eds.), The nature of expertise (pp. xxix–1). Hillsdale (N.J.): Lawrence Erlbaum . Tsui,A.B.M. (2009). Distinctive qualities of expert teachers. Teachers andTeaching:Theory and Practice, 15(4), 421– 439. Weisberg, R.W. (2006). Modes of expertise in creative thinking: Evidence from case studies. In K.A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (Eds.), (pp. 761-787). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Zimmerman, B. J. (2006). Development of adaptation of expertise:The role of self-regulatory processes and beliefs. In K.A. Ericsson, N. Charness, P. J. Feltovich & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 705–722). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Yates and Tschirhart (2007).