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Theorist Presentation on Carl Bereiter …

Theorist Presentation on Carl Bereiter
For Theory of Nursing Education NURS5203
At Texas Woman's University
Fall 2010

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  • 1. Carl Bereiter Laura Woodward, BSN Texas Woman’s University NURS 5203 Fall 2010
  • 2. Discussion Item Three – Knowledge building environments Discussion Item One – Theorist history and selected works Discussion Item Two – Knowledge building Discussion Item Four – The future of education theory. The future of education? Carl Bereiter & Marlene Scardamalia Click on any Discussion Item to go there
  • 3. Carl Bereiter •Currently professor emeritus at the University of Toronto •Co-founder, with Marlene Scardamalia, of the Institute for Knowledge Innovation & Technology (IKIT). •Member of the U.S. National Academy of Education •Twice a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, most recently for participation in a study of the cognitive bases of educational reform. •Along with Marlene Scardamalia, he developed CSILE, the first networked system for collaborative learning. The current version, Knowledge Forum®, is being used in innovative applications worldwide at all educational levels from primary grades to university. Carl Bereiter (2009). http://www.ikit.org/people/bereiter.html
  • 4. Carl Bereiter Selected Publications Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2007). Toward research-based innovation. In F. Benavides (Ed.), Emerging models for learning and innovation. OECD. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2006). Education for the knowledge age: Design-centered models of teaching and instruction. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 695-713). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2005). Technology and literacies: From print literacy to dialogic literacy. In N. Bascia, A. Cumming, A. Datnow, K. Leithwood, & D. Livingstone (Eds.), International handbook of educational policy (pp. 749-761). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2003). Learning to work creatively with knowledge. In E. De Corte, L. Verschaffel, N. Entwistle, & J. van Merriënboer (Eds.), Powerful learning environments: Unraveling basic components and dimensions (pp. 55-68). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science. Bereiter, C. (2002). Education and mind in the knowledge age. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bereiter, C. (1997). Situated cognition and how to overcome it. In D. Kirshner & J. A. Whitson (Eds.), Situated cognition: Social, semiotic, and psychological perspectives (pp. 281-300). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing ourselves: An inquiry into the nature and implications of expertise. La Salle, IL: Open Court. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1989). Intentional learning as a goal of instruction. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (pp. 361-392). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Carl Bereiter (2009). http://www.ikit.org/people/bereiter.html Discussion Items
  • 5. Knowledge Building What is it?
  • 6. 1960’s reform efforts: •Learning by discovery •Guided discovery •Inquiry learning Since then: Greater emphasis on collaborative rather than Individual inquiry Knowledge Building (Scardamalia, 2006)
  • 7. (Paavola, n.d.) Knowledge Building What it is NOT: acquisition metaphor (cognitive perspective) •traditional view according to which learning is mainly a process of acquiring desired pieces of knowledge •'folk theory' of mind according to which the mind is a container of knowledge, and learning is a process that fills the container, implanting knowledge there. •learning is a matter of individual construction, acquisition, and such outcomes, which are realized in the process of transfer; it consists in a person's capability to use and apply knowledge in new situations. •Knowledge is a property and possession of an individual mind
  • 8. (Paavola, n.d.) Knowledge Building What it is NOT: the participation metaphor (Situated perspective) •examines learning as a process of participating in various cultural practices and shared learning activities. •the focus is on activities, i.e., on "knowing", and not so much on outcomes or products •Knowledge does not exist either in a world of its own or in individual minds but is an aspect of participation in cultural practices (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Lave, 1988; Lave & Wenger, 1991). •Cognition and knowing are distributed over both individuals and their environments, and learning is "located" in these relations and networks of distributed activities of participation. •learning is a matter of participation in a social process of •knowledge construction (Greeno, 1998; Vygotsky, 1978), •"enculturation"(Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989), •guided participation (Rogoff, 1990), •or legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991).
  • 9. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building Traditional education practice & newer constructivist methods Limited in scope shift from treating students as learners and inquirers treating them as members of a knowledge building community
  • 10. Knowledge Building Need: Design and problem solving in technology education Not to be framed in terms of methodologies of engineers, As opportunities for students to step outside of conventional reasoning processes imposed by the rest of the curriculum. Creativity has compelling claims to being the anchoring idea in such a framework. (Lewis, 2005)
  • 11. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building  Knowledge advancement as a community rather than individual achievement  Knowledge advancement as idea improvement rather than as progress toward true or warranted belief  Knowledge of in contrast to knowledge about  Discourse as collaborative problem solving rather than as argumentation  Constructive use of authoritative information  Understanding as an emergent Click on any theme to find further explanation Click here to advance beyond themes
  • 12. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building It provides a straightforward way to address the contemporary emphasis on knowledge creation and innovation. These lie outside the scope of most constructivist approaches whereas they are at the heart of knowledge building. People are not honored for what is in their minds  but for the contributions they make to the  organization’s or the community’s knowledge. 1 of 2 Click anywhere to go to 2nd part of this theme Nobel Prize winners? MENSA members?
  • 13. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building the main uses of knowledge creation of further knowledge student-generated theories and models are to be judged not so much by: their conformity to accepted knowledge as by: their value as tools enabling further growth. 2 of 2 Click anywhere to return to themes
  • 14. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building Generating ideas appears to come naturally to people, but sustained effort to improve ideas does not. All ideas are improvable 1 of 2 Click anywhere to go to 2nd part of this theme
  • 15. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building When asked about the effects of learning: Students in regular classrooms tend to say that the more they learn and understand, the less there remains to be learned and understood ⇐during last semester of senior year ⇐during high school ⇐during K - 12 ⇐set number of objectives to learn for all standardized testing Students in knowledge building classrooms tend strongly toward the opposite view. by researching a topic students are exposed to more interests that lead to more research that leads to other topics (downfall can be information overload - what we term as “surfing the web” is an example) 2 of 2 Click anywhere to return to themes
  • 16. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building Knowledge about Knowledge of (Implicit or Intuitive knowledge) Procedural knowledge (e.g. knowing how to open a parachute and guide its descent) Declarative knowledge (e.g. knowledge of equipment characteristics an maintenance requirements, rules of particular events) 1 of 2 Click anywhere to go to 2nd part of this theme Student Nurse vs. experienced Nurse?
  • 17. (Stephenson, 2010) Knowledge Building To be useful outside of areas in which knowledge about is sufficient, knowledge needs to be organized around problems rather than topics. Example: it is useful for learners’ knowledge of water skiing to be activated when they are studying flight, because it provides a nice experiential anchor for the otherwise rather abstract angle of attack explanation of lift. Making this connection promotes the realization that Bernoulli’s principle is not the whole story in explaining what keeps airplanes aloft. Ordinarily the teacher is responsible for alerting students to such connections, but in the out-of-school world people need to be able to do this themselves if they are to succeed as knowledge- builders. Click anywhere to return to themes 2 of 2
  • 18. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building For last 50 years: Discourse: way of sharing knowledge and subjecting ideas to criticism (formal publications, oral presentations, and Q & A sessions after these presentations) Lakatos (1976) (and recent empirical studies like Dunbar in 1997) Cooperative discourse: oriented toward understanding and actively improving on ideas rather than only acting as a critical filter 1 of 2 Click anywhere to go to 2nd part of this theme
  • 19. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building 2 of 2 Click anywhere to return to themes Knowledge building discourse distinguishing commitments (Bereiter, 1994, 2002): •a commitment to progress (not dinner party conversation, or discussions devoted to sharing information and venting opinions) •a commitment to seek common understanding rather than merely agreement (not political and policy discourse) •a commitment to expand the base of accepted facts (not attacking the factual claims of opponents like in court trials and debates)Would we learn more if we weren’t “defending” ourselves?
  • 20. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building 1 of 2 Click anywhere to go to 2nd part of this theme “Because I say so” and “because the book says so” are no longer regarded as acceptable responses to students’ skeptical queries.
  • 21. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building Quality of information is always an issue, but its importance varies with the task. Information of all kinds has value insofar as it contributes to knowledge building discourse. 2 of 2 Click anywhere to return to themes
  • 22. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building 1 of 2 Click anywhere to go to 2nd part of this theme “Learning paradox” (Pascual-Leone, 1980; Bereiter, 1985) If learners construct their own knowledge, how is it possible for them to create a cognitive structure more complex than the one they already posses? (How do the sum of the parts equal more than the whole?)
  • 23. Discussion Items The emergence of complexity form the interaction of simpler elements is found at all levels from the physico-chemical to the socio-cultural. Constructivist principle: “Learners construct their own knowledge.” Knowledge Building: “All understandings are inventions; interventions are emergents.” (Scardamalia, 2006) 2 of 2 Click anywhere above to return to themes Knowledge Building
  • 24. Knowledge Building
  • 25. (Scardamalia, 2006) Knowledge Building Environments “Intentional learning.” - Intermediate concept: something more than “active” or “self-regulated” learning - more of having life goal that include a personal agenda (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1989). Picture: (Stephenson, 2010)
  • 26. Research labs. Multiple purposes on many different aspects of student development Reproduction of existing ideas in activities and assessment What and when = knowledge about Wide range of purposes: self expression to knowledge recitation Viewed as that which is to be learned. Major concern is acquisition of knowledge that already exists as part of the culture. Using knowledge building themes and considerations of successful research laboratories like those studied by Dunbar (1997): Knowledge Building Environments Defining Purpose Markers of Success Type of Knowledge Used Discourse Use of Authoritive Information Emergents Knowledge advancement Idea Improvement (publications, speaking invitations, patents & grants) How and why = knowledge of (Knowledge about gains little credit) Advancing group’s knowledge building goals. Argumentation about knowledge claims takes place in public arenas. Original work is built upon previous work & theories are tested. Significant advances = knowledge that didn’t pre- exist = emergents Traditional Schools
  • 27. Altered information flow so that questions, ideas, criticisms, suggestions, and the like are contributed to a public space equally accessible to all. Students themselves represent a resource previously largely wasted. Teacher is the hub through which all information passes. Students employ strategies that minimize learning while efficiently meeting the demands of school tasks. Knowledge Building Environments Traditional Classroom KBE (Scardamalia, 2006)
  • 28. www.ikit.org Knowledge Building Environments Poster presented at IKIT - The Institute for Knowledge Innovation and Technology: an institute started by Bereiter for the sake of furthering KBE’s in the classroom setting.
  • 29. www.blackboard.com Knowledge Building Environments QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Look familiar?
  • 30. Knowledge Building Environments Great YouTube Video on Knowledge Building and how the internet helps to facilitate this Knowledge Building & Web 2.0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e_nXoWwms8E As presented at the knowledge media research center in Tübingento during the seminar “Responses to web 2.0” Posted March 28, 2009
  • 31. Knowledge Building Environments Other web-based venues that might be used along side a KBE: http://www.commoncraft.com/video-wikis-plain-english "Wikis in Plain English" introduces a "wiki" website as a resource for helping a group of campers organize and coordinate information for a camping trip. The video includes: キ Why email is a poor choice for coordinating a group's input キ The basics of using a wiki キ How the group edits the wiki to add, remove and edit their camping supplies list. キ Adding a new wiki page to account for diverse needs
  • 32. Knowledge Building Environments http://www.commoncraft.com/podcasting "Podcasting in Plain English" introduces the differences between broadcasting shows and making shows available for download on the Internet so that they can be enjoyed at any time. The video includes: キ How podcasts differ from TV and Radio キ What's needed to publish and subscribe to a podcast キ How podcasting democratizes media キ A real world example of podcasting in practice
  • 33. Knowledge Building Environments QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. There were three respondents who chose "Other", and here are their specific responses: Managing classroom information, garbage trash, and audits. Now, I can't really say much about garbage trash, but I can comment on the other two "other" uses: Managing classroom information is an excellent wiki use. In fact, I got started using wikis doing something very similar - building a wiki-based science curriculum. Using a wiki for audits is a great use too - besides having all your information easily accessible in one place, the revision history the wiki maintains for every page is very audit-friendly since it shows a complete trail of who contributed information, when they did so, and what was added, changed and removed. (Keefer, 2010)
  • 34. Knowledge Building Environments http://www.commoncraft.com/rss_plain_english "RSS in Plain English" introduces RSS as a way to subscribe to websites and save time on the Web. An "old vs. new" theme illustrates how RSS differs from visiting web sites. The video includes: キ The new and old ways of reading news on the web キ An introduction to RSS Readers (using Google Reader as an example) キ How to identify and subscribe to an RSS feed キ What to expect when using an RSS reader
  • 35. Knowledge Building Environments http://www.commoncraft.com/blogs "Blogs in Plain English" introduces the concept of a blog as a way for every person to have the power to share news. The video includes: キ How blogs are changing the idea of news in the 21st century キ How blogs are created and organized キ The role of blogs in bringing like-minded people together キ How blogs facilitate conversation
  • 36. Knowledge Building Environments http://www.commoncraft.com/wikipedia-video Wikipedia is an amazing resource, but it’s not always clear what helps to ensure that the articles are factual and high quality. This video discusses wiki technology and the policies that make Wikipedia work. We worked with the Wikimedia Foundation to ensure that it refelcts Wikipedia's values and practices. It teaches: キ Why an online encyclopedia is needed キ The basics of editing a wiki website キ How volunteers work to ensure quality キ The two big rules that govern every article Surprised? ….. Wikipedia actually meets all of Bereiter’s criteria for a KBE…
  • 37. Discussion Items (Stahl, Koshmann, & Suthers, 2006) Computer-supported collaborative learning: The shift from mental models of individual cognition to support for collaborating groups has had enormous implications for both the focus and the method of research on learning. The gradual acceptance and unfolding of these implications has defined the evolution of the field of CSCL. Future Studies…
  • 38. References Bereiter, C. (1985). Toward a solution of the learning paradox. Review of Educational Research, 55, 201-226. Bereiter, C. (1991). Implications of connectionism for thinking about rules. Educational Researcher, 20, 10-16. Bereiter, C. (1992). Referent-centered and problem-centered knowledge: Elements of an educational epistemology. Interchange, 23, 337-362. Bereiter, C. (1994). Implications of postmodernism for science, or, Science as progressive discourse. Educational Psychologist, 29(1), 3-12. Bereiter, C. (2002). Education and mind in the knowledge age. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1989). Intentional learning as a goal of instruction. In L. B. Resnick (Eds.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (pp. 361-392). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (2003). Learning to work creatively with knowledge. In E. D. Corte, L. Verschaffel, N. Entwistle, & J. V. Merri ] boer (Eds.), Powerful learning environments: Unravelling basic components and dimensions (pp. 73-78). Oxford: Elsevier Science. Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (in press). Models of teaching and instruction in the Knowledge Age. In P. A. Alexander and P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • 39. References Bereiter, C., Scardamalia, M., Cassells, C., & Hewitt, J. (1997). Postmodernism, knowledge building, and elementary science. Elementary School Journal, 97, 329- 340. Bruce, B. C., & Rubin, A. (1993). Electronic quills: A situated evaluation of using computers for writing in classrooms. Hillsdale, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Dillenbourg, P. (2005). Designing biases that augment socio-cognitive interactions. In R. Bromme, F. Hesse & H. Spada (Eds.), Barriers and biases in computer-mediated knowledge communication--and how they may be overcome. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publisher. Dunbar, K. (1997). How scientists think: Online creativity and conceptual change in science. In T. B. Ward, S. M. Smith, & S. Vaid (Eds.), Conceptual structures and processes: Emergence, discovery and change (pp. 461-493). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Friesen, N. (2004, May 7). Interoperaabiliby in asynchronous collaborative learning forums. Retrieved from http://learningspaces. org/n/papers/ACLF.pdf. doi=10.1.1.96.3614 Gruber, S., Peyton, J. K., & Bruce, B. C. (1995). Collaborative writing in multiple discourse contexts. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, 3, 247-269.
  • 40. References Hicks, D. (1996). Contextual inquiries: A discourse-oriented study of classroom learning. In D. Hicks (Ed.), Discourse, learning and schooling (pp. 104-141). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Koschmann, T. (2002). Dewey's contribution to the foundations of CSCL research. In G. Stahl (Ed.), Computer support for collaborative learning: Foundations for a CSCL community: Proceedings of CSCL 2002 (pp. 17- 22). Boulder, CO: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Lakatos, I. (1976). Proofs and refutations : The logic of mathematical discovery. New York: Cambridge University Press. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. LeBaron, C. (2002). Technology does not exist independent of its use. In T. Koschmann, R. Hall & N. Miyake (Eds.), CSCL 2: Carrying forward the conversation (pp. 433-439). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. LeFever, L., & LeFever, S. (2007, April 23). RSS in plain English, [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.commoncraft.com/rss_plain_english LeFever, L., & LeFever, S. (2007, May 29). Wikis in plain English, [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.commoncraft.com/video-wikis-plain-english LeFever, L., & LeFever, S. (2007, November 30). Blogs in plain English, [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.commoncraft.com/blogs
  • 41. References LeFever, L., & LeFever, S. (2008, April 21). Podcasting in plain English, [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.commoncraft.com/podcasting LeFever, L., & LeFever, S. (2010, May 5). Wikipedia explained by common craft [Video]. Retrieved from http://www.commoncraft. com/wikipedia-video Lewis, T., (2005). Creativity – A framework for the design/problem solving discourse in technology education. In Journal of Technology Education 17(1). Retrieved from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v17n1/lewis.html Mader, S. (2008, March 29). How do you use a wiki? Poll result [Web log]. Retrieved from http://blogs.atlassian .com/news/2008/03/how_do_you_use.html Nicolopoulou, A., & Cole, M. (1993). Generation and transmission of shared knowledge in the culture of collaborative learning: The fifth dimension, its playworld and its institutional contexts. In E. Forman, N. Minnick & C. A. Stone (Eds.), Contexts for learning: Sociocultural dynamics in children's development. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Pascual-Leone , J. (1980). Constructive problems for constructive theories: The current relevance of Piaget's work and a critique of information processing simulation psychology. In R. H. Kluwe & H. Spada (eds.), Developmental models of thinking (pp. 263-296). New York: Academic Press.
  • 42. References Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (2006). Knowledge building: Theory, pedagogy, and technology. In K. Sawyer (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (pp. 97-118). New York: Cambridge University Press. Stahl, G. (2002). Rediscovering CSCL. In T. Koschmann, R. Hall & N. Miyake (Eds.), CSCL 2: Carrying forward the conversation (pp. 169- 181). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved from http://www.cis.drexel.edu/faculty/gerry/cscl/papers/ch01.pdf. Stahl, G. (2006). Group cognition: Computer support for building collaborative knowledge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Retrieved http://www.cis.drexel.edu/faculty/gerry/mit/. Stahl, G., Koschmann, T., & Suthers, D. (2006). Computer-supported collaborative learning: An historical perspective. In RK Sawyer (Ed.), Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp. 409-426). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu. edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.73.6085&rep=rep1&type=pdf. doi:10.1.1.73.6085 Stephenson, N. (2010). Not all constructivism is created equal. In Thinking in mind. Retrieved from http://www.thinkinginmind.com/2010/05/not-all- constructivism-is-created-equal/
  • 43. Thank you for your time! It was a technologically educative experience! Discussion Items