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E-Forensics

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Digital Forensics MICC LCI

Digital Forensics MICC LCI

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  • image, video and audio forensic image analysis is the application of image science and domain expertise to interpret the content of an image or the image itself in legal matters (SWGIT- www.fbi.gov)
  • Lens system: concave e convesse per prevenire aberrazione cromatica e sferica oppure lenti asferiche Auto-esposimetro Auto-focus Unità di stabilizzazione Filtri infrarossi; anti-aliasing filter CFA per produrre un’immagine a colori Sensor: matrice di fotodiodi; quando la luce colpisce il sensore ciascun pixel del sensore generano un segnale proprorzionale all’intensità luminosa che è poi convertita in un segnale digitale con un convertitore analogico-digitale DIP Digital Image Processor
  • Crypto: il digest è legato strettamente al contenuto e viene definito un particolare formato e non è possibile usarne altri; per ogni midifca fatta sull’immagine il digest cambia.
  • È stato utilizzato con successo per la compressione delle immagini
  • È stato utilizzato con successo per la compressione delle immagini
  • DFT analysis

E-Forensics E-Forensics Presentation Transcript

  • Distinguishing between camera and scanned images by means of frequency analysis Roberto Caldelli, Irene Amerini and Francesco Picchioni {roberto.caldelli, irene.amerini, francesco.picchioni}@unifi.it 20 January 2009
  • Outline
    • Multimedia Forensics
    • Camera vs Scanner
    • Sensor fingerprint
    • Proposed methodology
    • Experimental results
    • Conclusions
  • Multimedia Forensics
    • The goal of multimedia forensics is to
      • detect image forgeries
      • determine the source of an image (scanner, CG, digital camera, ...)
      • recover image history
    • Acquisition device identification
      • Kind of device
      • Brand
      • Specific device
    • Assessing image integrity
      • Copy-move
      • Splicing
      • Double JPEG compression
  • Camera vs Scanner- Acquisition Process Digital Camera CFA and demosaicking Bidimensional sensor array Flat-bed Scanner Tri-linear color filter array: no demosaicing Mono dimensional sensor array
  • Sensor fingerprint & PRNU
      • Sensor imperfections
        • defective pixels: hot/dead pixels (removed by post-processing) ‏
        • shot noise (random)
        • pattern noise (systematic):
    • Properties PRNU:
    • unique for each sensor
    • multiplicative noise
          • Fixed Pattern Noise : dark current (exposure, temperature) suppressed by subtracting a dark frame from the image.
          • Photo Response Non-Uniformity : inhomogenities over the silicon wafer and imperfections generated during sensor manufacturing process (flat fielding)
  • M N scanning direction PRNU characterization (1/2) De-noised image-DWT Because of the scanner sensor, it is expected that: All the rows are equal, at least ideally!
  • This is true only ideally, being S corrupted its periodical structure is altered, but most of the energy is located in such spikes!! PRNU characterization (2/2) Consequently, the spectrum of the periodical signal S will be made by spikes equispaced of (NxM)/M=N. By concatenating all the rows in a single signal S composed by NxM samples: Periodical of period M and contains N repetitions
  • Proposed methodology (1/3)
    • To improve the possible presence of 1-D PRNU, the noise image R is divided in non-overlapping stripes whose height is L :
    • horizontally and vertically to investigate both scanning directions
    • rows (columns) in a stripe are averaged
    M L M N M Ideal Bar Code This is done horizontally obtaining Rr and vertically obtaining Rc N/L
  • Proposed methodology (2/3) Digital Camera Scanner (scanning direction row) Ideal M N/L Then, as explained before, two mono-dimensional signals S r and S c are constructed by tailing all the rows and all the columns.
  • Proposed methodology (3/3)
    • DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) is applied to signals S r and S c and the magnitude of the coefficients is computed.
    • Samples located in the expected periodical positions and with an amplitude above a defined threshold T are taken.
    • Two energy factors F r and F c are then calculated by adding all the DFT coefficients satisfying the previous criterion and the RATIO = F r /F c is evaluated:
      • High value : image scanned in a row direction
      • Small value : image scanned in a column direction
      • Around 1 : image coming from a digital camera (neither energy factor are predominant)
  • Experimental Results (1/4)
    • 4 scanners :
    • Epson Expression XL 10000; HP Scanjet 8300, HP Deskjet F4180, Brother DCP 7010
    • 7 commercial cameras :
    • Canon DIGITAL IXUS i ZOOM, Nikon COOLPIX L12, Fuji Finepix F10, HP Photosmart C935, Nikon D80, Samsung VP-MS11, Sony DSC-P200
    • 2000 images, JPEG, TIFF
    • Image patch 1024x768
    Camera vs Scanner Scanning direction
  • Experimental Result (2/4)
    • Energy RATIO for 200 scanned images and 200 cameras
    • Clustering, no information on scanning direction
    RATIO >1 inverse taken Digital camera Scanner
  • Experimental Results (3/4)
    • Energy RATIO for 950 scanned images
    Column scanning direction row scanning direction
  • Experimental Results (4/4)
    • Statistical distribution of RATIO for 1000 cameras images and for 1000 scanner images
    Scanner Camera Ratio Ratio Bin Count
  • Conclusions
    • A novel technique, based on a DFT analysis, to distinguish between digital camera and scanned images has been presented.
    • Scanning direction can be detected too.
    • Future Trends
    • To establish a statistical threshold T
  • Distinguishing between camera and scanned images by means of frequency analysis Roberto Caldelli, Irene Amerini and Francesco Picchioni {roberto.caldelli, irene.amerini, francesco.picchioni}@unifi.it 20 January 2009