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Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
Looking for a Sustainable Future
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Looking for a Sustainable Future

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Professor Roland Clift (Distinguished Professor of Environmental Technology, University of Surrey, UK)

Professor Roland Clift (Distinguished Professor of Environmental Technology, University of Surrey, UK)

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  • Just to make a change from the usual Brundtland version.
  • “ Triple bottom line” in terms of constraints. Equity – look at growth in terms of distribution of the benefits of economic activity rather than final consumption.
  • “ Triple bottom line” in terms of constraints. Equity – look at growth in terms of distribution of the benefits of economic activity rather than final consumption.
  • “ Triple bottom line” in terms of constraints. Equity – look at growth in terms of distribution of the benefits of economic activity rather than final consumption.
  • “ Triple bottom line” in terms of constraints. Equity – look at growth in terms of distribution of the benefits of economic activity rather than final consumption.
  • “ Triple bottom line” in terms of constraints. Equity – look at growth in terms of distribution of the benefits of economic activity rather than final consumption.
  • Importance of Circular economy – aka Industrial Ecology. We heard about the role of Eco-Industrial Parks in the development of China – example of attempts to build in the circular economy approach. Why are we not better at this in the parts of the world which have already been through the process of industrialisation? Part of the clue to finding the answer comes from asking where are the constraints. i.e. “the limits to growth”? Most constraints are on the Emission side, not the Resource side. e.g. we know the whereabouts of more carbon-based fuels than we can use without wrecking the global climate. Conventional economics can deal with resource security, not with scarcity in terms of carrying capacity. Therefore we need to try to invent economic mechanisms, like emissions trading. How does this effect food side of diagram. But how might we deal with constraints on other wastes? Extended Producer Responsibility. Take-back – in Europe. Why does the economic system not promote the circular economy? “ The Nokia question” – about mobile telephones.
  • Gross modelling of supply chain (without take-back) - Environmental impact at each stage. E.g. solid waste; GMG - Added value as proxy for social benefit.
  • Based on process analysis LCA. Fairly general shape for manufactured goods. Eco-metric: Environmental impact per - unit - unit of consumer expenditure (or economic activity)
  • Not scale - Explains why recovery and re-use or recycling is economically unattractive. We don’t value primary resources properly – come back OPEC…
  • Importance of Circular economy – aka Industrial Ecology. We heard about the role of Eco-Industrial Parks in the development of China – example of attempts to build in the circular economy approach. Why are we not better at this in the parts of the world which have already been through the process of industrialisation? Part of the clue to finding the answer comes from asking where are the constraints. i.e. “the limits to growth”? Most constraints are on the Emission side, not the Resource side. e.g. we know the whereabouts of more carbon-based fuels than we can use without wrecking the global climate. Conventional economics can deal with resource security, not with scarcity in terms of carrying capacity. Therefore we need to try to invent economic mechanisms, like emissions trading. How does this effect food side of diagram. But how might we deal with constraints on other wastes? Extended Producer Responsibility. Take-back – in Europe. Why does the economic system not promote the circular economy? “ The Nokia question” – about mobile telephones.
  • Apart from all the other problems, I think this means you have to be vocal and active to express what you think is true, but also be open to revising what you think. That’s as big a challenge as any of the others.
  • A way of summing up the principle: we need an economy based on high value quality consumption, not cheap mass produce. “Life is too short to drink cheap wine” “The planet is too small for us to buy cheap goods”.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Looking for a Sustainable Future Massey University, 29 th March 2010 Professor Roland Clift Centre for Environmental Strategy University of Surrey President of the International Society for Industrial Ecology
    • 2. TIM JACKSON
      • “ Sustainability is the art of living well within the ecological limits of a finite planet.”
    • 3. EFFICIENCY EFFICIENCY
      • -The traditional domain of engineering
      • -Activities constrained by :
        • -scientific laws including thermodynamics
        • -technological ingenuity
        • -efficiency within the existing economic system
    • 4. ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT EFFICIENCY
      • -Resource availability
      • -Capacity to absorb emissions, the “excrescences of consumption”
      -Constraints imposed by the planet:
    • 5. EQUITY ENVIRONMENT EQUITY EFFICIENCY Ensuring a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come
    • 6. SUSTAINABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT EQUITY EFFICIENCY X
    • 7. THE FOUR E’S: Sustainable development is an ethical concept, like “justice” E NVIRONMENT E QUITY E FFICIENCY ETHICS
    • 8. THE HUMAN ECONOMY E E E SUN SUN WASTE HUMAN SOCIETY AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY DISPERSED EMISSIONS NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES FOOD etc. GOODS & SERVICES
    • 9. A SIMPLE SUPPLY CHAIN Material and Energy Extraction Waste Management Manufacturing Distribution Use EARTH
    • 10. ACCUMULATION OF ECONOMIC VALUE AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN – MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS 1: Resource extraction 2: Processing & Refining 3: Manufacturing 4: Retail and distribution ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 4 2 1 0 ADDED VALUE or CONTRIBUTION TO GDP 3
    • 11. FIRST USE VS. RECOVERY AND RECYCLING 1: Resource extraction 2. Processing & Refining 3: Manufacturing 4: Retail and distribution 5: Recovery 6: Dismantling 7: Remanufacturing
    • 12. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CONCERN
      • GREENHOUSE GASES
          • “ carbon leakage”
          • Should accounts be on a production basis or a consumption basis?
      • LAND USE
          • Land is a constrained resource
          • Central issue in debate over biofuels
      • WATER
          • “ Virtual” or “embodied” water in products
          • Concern over water-intensive products from water-stressed areas.
      • 4. SCARCE MATERIALS
      • - Rare metals
      • - Land
        • Nos. 2, 3 & 4 require consequential analysis…
    • 13. Methodological Issues 1: Attributional vs Consequential
      • Are we concerned with
      • describing the supply chain and the associated impacts and risks?
      • or
      • Asking “what if we produce this product rather than any other”?
      • Scale matters : total or marginal?
      • If comparative, comparing what with what?
    • 14.
      • The Attributional vs Consequential decision conventionally affects Inventory Analysis (e.g. biofuels)
      • but
      • for scarce abiotic resources it is also an impact issue
    • 15. Assessing resource depletion
      • We need to distinguish between
      • A. Relatively abundant metals ; e.g. Fe, Al and “localised” metals; e.g. PGM
      • B. Mined metals; e.g.F e , Al
      • and “co-products” or “hitch-hikers”
      • Where are In, Te…………..?
    • 16. Methodological Issues 2:
      • Is LCA
      • - an expert tool to guide technology management?
      • - an approach to structuring information to inform participatory deliberation?
    • 17. THE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Phase 0: Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Phase 4: Phase 5 Idea Feasibility Proof of Concept Scale-up Pre- Commercial Commercial
    • 18. THE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Phase 0: Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Phase 4: Phase 5 Idea Feasibility Proof of Concept Scale-up Pre- Commercial Commercial 1. Conventional use of DFE: detailed design
    • 19. THE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Phase 0: Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Phase 4: Phase 5 Idea Feasibility Proof of Concept Scale-up Pre- Commercial Commercial 2. Strategic use of LCA
    • 20.
      • If we are serious about deliberative decision making, then we must stop thinking of LCA as an expert tool
      • - which probably means not using the conventional “mid-points”……
    • 21. THE HUMAN ECONOMY E E E SUN SUN WASTE HUMAN SOCIETY AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY DISPERSED EMISSIONS NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES FOOD etc. GOODS & SERVICES
    • 22. “ METABOLISED” USE OF A MATERIAL
    • 23. INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY FOR PLASTICS
    • 24. “ METABOLISED” USE OF A MANUFACTURED PRODUCT Components Use Refurbishment & upgrading Assembly Disassembly Materials production Undifferentiated scrap User Used hardware Manufacturer Service Waste Alternative Materials Material uses Scrap material Feedstock Manufacturer Supplier Component manufacture
    • 25. EXAMPLES OF SOCIAL IMPACTS OF CONCERN
      • LABOUR CONDITIONS
          • No child labour
          • Freedom of association
      • GENDER
          • Equality of opportunity
          • Equity of power
      • EDUCATION
          • Opportunity
          • Social mobility
      • HEALTH
    • 26. “ HARD” SYSTEM MODELLING e.g. conventional LCA: focus on quantified flows Process 1 Process 2 TECHNOLOGY INPUTS OUTPUTS TECHNOLOGY WASTES & EMISSIONS WASTES & EMISSIONS
    • 27. “ SOFT” SYSTEM MODELLING e.g. “Value Chain Analysis”: focus on relationships and governance Process 1 Process 2 CONTROL/STANDARDS… LABOUR LABOUR CONTROL/STANDARDS… ORGANISATION 1 ORGANISATION 2 Legislative, Sectoral, Institutional, Cultural and Social Context
    • 28. EXAMPLES OF SOCIAL IMPACTS OF CONCERN
      • LABOUR CONDITIONS
          • Freedom of association
          • No child labour
      • GENDER
          • Equality of opportunity
          • Equity of power
      • EDUCATION
          • Opportunity
          • Social mobility
      • HEALTH
    • 29. Where does this point?
      • A redefinition of quality or luxury…
      • EQUITY includes:
        • Equity along the supply chain
        • Equity of access to “environmental services” between affluent and poor
      • This requires consumption in affluent societies to have low environmental impact per dollar spent and to provide social and economic benefits along the supply chain:
      • The “Fair Trade” principle and beyond…
    • 30. Must globalisation of trade mean globalisation of waste? Should others suffer from the excrescences of our consumption?
    • 31.
      • Gucci is good for the earth
      • and
      • Angels wear Prada

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