Classical period part 1


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Classical period part 1

  1. 1. Classical Period 1750-1820
  2. 2. Signs of the times <ul><li>Middle class was learning to fight for their rights </li></ul><ul><li>This was the time of the American and French revolutions </li></ul>Print by famed French &quot;Art Deco&quot; artist Louis Icart
  3. 3. Signs of the Times <ul><li>Around the middle of the 18 th century composers concentrated on simplicity and clarity, discarding much that had enriched late baroque music </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphonic texture was neglected in favor of tuneful melody and simple harmony </li></ul><ul><li>These composers entertained their listeners with music offering contrasts in mood and theme. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of Classical Music <ul><li>Contrast of Mood </li></ul><ul><li>Great variety and contrast of mood received new emphasis in classical music </li></ul><ul><li>Not only are there contrasting themes within a movement, but there also may be striking contrasts within a single theme </li></ul><ul><li>Mood may change gradually or suddenly, expressing surges of elation and depression </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of Classical Music <ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility of rhythm adds variety to classical music </li></ul><ul><li>A classical composition has many rhythmic patterns, where a baroque has relatively few </li></ul><ul><li>The classical style includes unexpected pauses, syncopation, and frequent changes from long notes to short ones </li></ul>
  6. 6. Characteristics of Classical Music <ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Pieces shift smoothly or suddenly from one texture to another </li></ul><ul><li>A work may begin homophonically with a melody and simple accompaniment but then change to a more complex polyphonic texture that features two simultaneous melodies imitated among the various instruments. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Characteristics of Classical Music <ul><li>Melody </li></ul><ul><li>Classical melodies are the most tuneful and easy to remember </li></ul><ul><li>The tunes of even the most highly sophisticated compositions may have a folk or popular flavor </li></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics of Classical Music <ul><li>Classical melodies sound balanced because they are usually made up of two phrases of the same length </li></ul><ul><li>The second phrase may begin like the first but end more decisively. Such a melodic type which can be diagramed as a a`, is easy to sing </li></ul>
  9. 9. Characteristics of Classical Music <ul><li>Dynamics and the Piano </li></ul><ul><li>Classical composers’ interest in expressing shades of emotion led to the widespread use of gradual dynamic change-crescendo and decrescendo </li></ul><ul><li>Crescendos and decrescendos were an electrifying novelty often bringing audiences spontaneously to their feet </li></ul>
  10. 10. Characteristics of Classical Music <ul><li>End of the Basso Continuo </li></ul><ul><li>One reason the basso continuo became obsolete was that more and more music was written for amateurs who could not master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass </li></ul><ul><li>Also, classical composers wanted more control; they preferred to specify an accompaniment rather than trust the judgement of improvisers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Characteristics of Classical Music <ul><li>The Classical Orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the baroque orchestra, which could vary from piece to piece, it was a standard group of four sections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classical composers exploited the tone colors (timbres) of orchestral instruments </li></ul>
  12. 12. Characteristics of Classical Music <ul><li>The Classical Orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>A classical piece has greater variety-and more rapid changes of tone color </li></ul><ul><li>A theme might begin with the full orchestra, shift to the strings, and then continue with the woodwinds. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Characteristics of Classical Music <ul><li>The Classical Orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>As a whole the classical orchestra had developed into a flexible and colorful instrument that a composer could use for their most powerful and dramatic musical compositions </li></ul>
  14. 14. Characteristics of Classical Music <ul><li>Classical Forms (symphony) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually consist of several movements that contrast in tempo and character </li></ul><ul><li>Often there are four movements, arranged as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dance-related Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast Movement </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. More Classical Forms <ul><li>Classical movements often contrast themes vividly </li></ul><ul><li>A movement may contain two, three, or four themes of different </li></ul><ul><li>A classical composer will sometimes use a brief pause to signal the arrival of the new theme. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Social Trends Affect Music <ul><li>The middle class was not content to hear music only at concerts; they wanted to be surrounded by it </li></ul><ul><li>They educated their children in music and hoped that one day they would be good enough to be invited to the palace to perform </li></ul><ul><li>This increased the demand for printed music, music lessons, and instruments </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Center of the Music World <ul><li>Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>Was one of the centers of music in Europe during the classical period and Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven all worked there </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocrats from all over the world spent the winter in Vienna and they often brought their musicians to entertain them </li></ul><ul><li>Music was an important part of life in the court and having a good orchestra was a sign of prestige </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sonata Form <ul><li>Exposition </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Recapitulation </li></ul><ul><li>Coda </li></ul>
  19. 19. What’s an Exposition? <ul><li>It sets up a strong conflict between the tonic key and the new key and also between the first theme and the second theme </li></ul><ul><li>The first theme is heard in the tonic or home key. Next comes the bridge, or transition, leading to the second theme which is in a new key </li></ul>Sonata Form
  20. 20. What’s an Exposition? <ul><li>The modulation to the new key creates a feeling of tension and forward motion </li></ul><ul><li>The second theme often has a different feel than the main theme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes they are called masculine and feminine. </li></ul></ul>Sonata Form
  21. 21. What’s a Development? <ul><li>It’s the most dramatic section of the movement </li></ul><ul><li>It will sometimes move restlessly through several different keys </li></ul><ul><li>As the music transitions through these different keys, the music gains tension </li></ul>Sonata Form
  22. 22. What’s a Development? <ul><li>In this section, themes are treated in different ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are broken into fragments or motives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives are short musical ideas which are developed within the composition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A theme that sounds comical can be made to sound menacing, or the texture can be changed by adding or taking away combinations of instruments </li></ul>Sonata Form
  23. 23. What’s a Recapitulation? <ul><li>The beginning of it brings resolution, as we again hear the main theme in the home key </li></ul><ul><li>We hear all the same melodies and bridge that we heard in the development, but now they are in the home key </li></ul>Sonata Form
  24. 24. What’s a Coda? <ul><li>The coda rounds off the movement by repeating themes or developing them further </li></ul><ul><li>It resolves the conflict by playing the themes in the home key </li></ul>Sonata Form
  25. 25. Sonata Form <ul><li>Sonata Form is very flexible </li></ul><ul><li>It can be any length and varies by the style of the composer </li></ul><ul><li>It is so versatile that it is still in use by composers today </li></ul>Sonata Form
  26. 26. More Classical Forms <ul><li>Theme and Variations </li></ul><ul><li>In theme and variations, the idea is presented over and over and is changed each time. It can be written like this: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theme (A) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>variation 1 (A´) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>variation 2 (A´´) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>variation 3 (A´´´) </li></ul></ul></ul>