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02 performing media


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This lecture covers The Elements of Music chapter 2.

This lecture covers The Elements of Music chapter 2.

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  • 1. Performing Media Voices and Instruments
  • 2. Voices
    • Throughout history, singing has been the most widespread and familiar way of making music.
    • The exchange between singer and audience contains a bit of magic.
      • The singer becomes an instrument
      • We can identify with the singer
  • 3. Voices
    • Singing well is difficult
      • It requires greater control of breath
      • It requires a greater range of tones and volume than speaking
  • 4. Vocal Ranges
    • Women
      • Soprano
      • Mezzo Soprano
      • Alto (or contralto)
    • Men
      • Tenor
      • Baritone
      • Bass
    Until the late 1600’s, most music of Western culture was vocal. But by the end of the end of the seventeenth century, instrumental music rivaled vocal music.
  • 5. Musical Instruments
    • There are six broad categories of instruments:
      • String
      • Woodwind
      • Brass
      • Percussion
      • Keyboard
      • Electronic
  • 6. Musical Instruments
    • Instruments are often made in different sizes that produce different ranges.
    • An instrument’s tone color may vary with the register in which it is played.
      • A clarinet sounds dark and mellow in the lower register and bright and piercing in the upper register.
  • 7. Musical Instruments
    • Instrumental performers try to match the beautiful flexible tone of a singer’s voice
    • Most instruments have a greater range than the voice
    • A singer’s range is usually 2 octaves, an instrument’s is usually 3-4, but some have 6-7.
  • 8. String Family
    • Violin
    • Viola
    • Cello
    • Bass
  • 9. String Instruments
    • Each have 4 strings.
    • Usually played with a bow.
    • Most used techniques to produce sound:
      • Pizzacato- plucking the string with the finger.
      • Double stop- two notes at once
      • Vibrato- small pitch fluctuations made by the finger
      • Mute- veils the tone by using a clamp on the bridge
      • Tremolo- rapid repeating of two tones
      • Harmonics- Very high tones produced by touching the strings at certain places
  • 10. Other Stringed Instruments
    • Guitar
    • Harp
  • 11. Woodwind Instruments
  • 12. Woodwind Instruments
    • Are so named because they produce sound through a tube traditionally made of wood.
    • All have holes along their body which are opened and closed by the fingers.
    • By opening and closing the holes, the player can change the length of the instrument and so its pitch.
  • 13. Brass Family
    • Sound is produced by the vibration of the lips through a tube.
    • Most use valves to change the pitches.
    • The trombone uses a slide to change pitch.
    • Pitch color can be changed by inserting a mute into the bell.
  • 14. Percussion Family
    • Most are stuck by the hand, with sticks, or hammers.
    • They are subdivided into different categories depending on the tones they produce.
  • 15. Keyboard Instruments
    • Harpsichord
      • Played in the same manner as the piano, except small metal picks pluck the strings.
    • Piano
      • Fingers push key which make hammers strike strings to produce sound.
    • Accordion
      • Has free steel reeds which are controlled by a treble keyboard with the right hand and a bass keybord controlled by buttons played by the right hand.
    • Organ
      • Has many sets of pipes controlled by several keyboards. Air is blown through the pipes and sound can be changed by using buttons called stops.
  • 16. Benjamin Britten (1913-1976)
    • A Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra , Op. 31 (1946)
      • Uses a theme by Henry Purcell to introduce to the listener all the instruments in an orchestra.
    • See listening outline on page 35
  • 17. John Philip Sousa (1854-1932)
    • The Stars and Stripes Forever
      • One of the most popular of all band marches.
        • Begins with a short introduction followed by two different melodies that are predominantly loud.
        • We then hear the main melody which is soft.
        • After a transitional passage, there is a return of the main melody, this time combined with a new piccolo tune.
    • See the listening outline on pages 36-37