02 performing media


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This lecture covers The Elements of Music chapter 2.

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02 performing media

  1. 1. Performing Media Voices and Instruments
  2. 2. Voices <ul><li>Throughout history, singing has been the most widespread and familiar way of making music. </li></ul><ul><li>The exchange between singer and audience contains a bit of magic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The singer becomes an instrument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can identify with the singer </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Voices <ul><li>Singing well is difficult </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It requires greater control of breath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It requires a greater range of tones and volume than speaking </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Vocal Ranges <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soprano </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mezzo Soprano </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alto (or contralto) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baritone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bass </li></ul></ul>Until the late 1600’s, most music of Western culture was vocal. But by the end of the end of the seventeenth century, instrumental music rivaled vocal music.
  5. 5. Musical Instruments <ul><li>There are six broad categories of instruments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>String </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodwind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Musical Instruments <ul><li>Instruments are often made in different sizes that produce different ranges. </li></ul><ul><li>An instrument’s tone color may vary with the register in which it is played. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A clarinet sounds dark and mellow in the lower register and bright and piercing in the upper register. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Musical Instruments <ul><li>Instrumental performers try to match the beautiful flexible tone of a singer’s voice </li></ul><ul><li>Most instruments have a greater range than the voice </li></ul><ul><li>A singer’s range is usually 2 octaves, an instrument’s is usually 3-4, but some have 6-7. </li></ul>
  8. 8. String Family <ul><li>Violin </li></ul><ul><li>Viola </li></ul><ul><li>Cello </li></ul><ul><li>Bass </li></ul>
  9. 9. String Instruments <ul><li>Each have 4 strings. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually played with a bow. </li></ul><ul><li>Most used techniques to produce sound: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pizzacato- plucking the string with the finger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double stop- two notes at once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vibrato- small pitch fluctuations made by the finger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mute- veils the tone by using a clamp on the bridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tremolo- rapid repeating of two tones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonics- Very high tones produced by touching the strings at certain places </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Other Stringed Instruments <ul><li>Guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Harp </li></ul>
  11. 11. Woodwind Instruments
  12. 12. Woodwind Instruments <ul><li>Are so named because they produce sound through a tube traditionally made of wood. </li></ul><ul><li>All have holes along their body which are opened and closed by the fingers. </li></ul><ul><li>By opening and closing the holes, the player can change the length of the instrument and so its pitch. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Brass Family <ul><li>Sound is produced by the vibration of the lips through a tube. </li></ul><ul><li>Most use valves to change the pitches. </li></ul><ul><li>The trombone uses a slide to change pitch. </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch color can be changed by inserting a mute into the bell. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Percussion Family <ul><li>Most are stuck by the hand, with sticks, or hammers. </li></ul><ul><li>They are subdivided into different categories depending on the tones they produce. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Keyboard Instruments <ul><li>Harpsichord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Played in the same manner as the piano, except small metal picks pluck the strings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piano </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingers push key which make hammers strike strings to produce sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accordion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has free steel reeds which are controlled by a treble keyboard with the right hand and a bass keybord controlled by buttons played by the right hand. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has many sets of pipes controlled by several keyboards. Air is blown through the pipes and sound can be changed by using buttons called stops. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Benjamin Britten (1913-1976) <ul><li>A Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra , Op. 31 (1946) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a theme by Henry Purcell to introduce to the listener all the instruments in an orchestra. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See listening outline on page 35 </li></ul>
  17. 17. John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) <ul><li>The Stars and Stripes Forever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the most popular of all band marches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begins with a short introduction followed by two different melodies that are predominantly loud. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We then hear the main melody which is soft. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After a transitional passage, there is a return of the main melody, this time combined with a new piccolo tune. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>See the listening outline on pages 36-37 </li></ul>