1920’s Culture The flapper Short hair for women Dancing & Music Speakeasies Silent movies “The Jazz Age was wicked and monstrous and silly. Unfortunately, I had a good time.” Heywood Broun
How did technology impact society? 15 million cars were sold 80% were bought on credit A Model T Ford cost $290 in 1920 20% of U.S. homes had electricity by the end of the decade 10 million families owned radios by 1929 Shifting of America from a rural country to an urban country
Leisure Time??? Shorter work week and vacation time – more free time to enjoy: • Movies • Reading • Sports • Music
Too much of a good thing???? Mass consumption, changing values, new technologies – are they always good??? – Many said NO – Harlem Renaissance benefited and reacted against it
Harlem Renaissance /Jazz Age AfricanAmerican writers in NYC Well-educated Middle class group – Alienated from society Spoke against the bigotry on the time and pride in African American culture W.E.B DuBois, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Alain Locke, Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith
THE FLAPPER by Dorothy Parker The Playful flapper here we see, The fairest of the fair.Shes not what Grandma used to be, --You might say, au contraire.Her girlish ways may make a stir, Her manners cause a scene,But there is no more harm in her Than in a submarine.
Women in the 20s……. By 1929, made up 22% of the workforce 90% of married women did not work Work available to women were low paying and of lower status Voted in 1920 election – not very many participated Majority were not flappers, but were helped by the technology Family size smaller, divorce laws still favored men
Struggle of OLD vs. NEW Prohibition Minorities Cultural Values Women Scopes Trial – Modernization of society – Religion not as important
Who’s Who Hand in: – #1 Project – #2 Sources – #3 Rubric with your name on it!!!!
Harding vs. CoolidgeHarding (1920 – 1923) Coolidge (1923 – 1928) Former Newspaper Laissez-faire Publisher and not economic policy and experienced in committed to politics business interests Scandals – theft of Small recession – Veteran supplies, post war decline fraud, Teapot Dome 1923 – 1929 Scandal (bribery business booming and oil reserves) “Coolidge Prosperity”
Coolidge Prosperity??????????? LargeBusiness prosper – Upper Class prospers MiddleClass, Laborers, Farmers, Native Americans, and African Americans did not prosper
Election of 1928 Hoover (Rep.) vs. Alfred Smith (Dem.) Hoover – secretary of commerce - Self Made Millionaire - Humanitarian - Leader in war effort and post war reconstruction Hoover won 84% of the electoral vote
Roaring 20s End Great Depression BeginsWhat was the Great Depression? The worst economic crisis of the century Over 13 million people unemployed “Dust bowl” as a result of drought Farmers lost crops Many lost their homes
What caused the Great Depression? Stock market crash of 1929 Unequal distribution of wealth Excessive Buying on Credit Weak Business Structure Weak Banking Structure Inadequate Government Policies Weak International economy
Stock Market Crash Many stocks purchased on speculation – Panic sets in as they are forced to produce the money for the loans Stock prices fell – Panic selling Huge sums of money lost Thursday, October 24, 1929 Stock values fell $14 billion
Unequal Distribution of Wealth No middle class Supply not equal to demand Credit cards created false demand
Excessive Buying on Credit Creates a false demand Under consumption People unable to make installment payments, therefore stop buying
Weak Business Structure Business consolidation – makes a few large companies for each industry Profitsand control were in the hands of a few – fragile system
Weak Banking Structure No FDIC – No government regulation People pull money out – Panic Banks close with people’s money
Inadequate Government Policies No government regulation of stock market Tax policies contributed to unequal distribution of wealth Antitrustlaws were not enforced Federal Reserve Board made poor decisions
Weak International Economy WWI and the Stock Market crash effected the world No U.S. foreign investment – no money to pay America back Foreign countries had no money to buy American goods
Hooverisms Hoover Hog – armadillos that were baked in the desert Hoover Flag – empty pocket turned out Hoover Blanket – Newspaper slept under Hoover Car – Abandoned Cars Hoover Bag – suitcase with holes Hoover Shoes – shoes with holes in soles Hoovervilles – shack towns of boxes and crates.
“Hooverism” Hoover’s response to the Great Depression: – Restore confidence in economy – Promoted helping businesses to help economy – Reconstruction Finance Corporation – Federal Work Projects to create jobs – Halted war repayment by Europe – Asked businesses to not lower wages or prices
Failure of “Hooverism” No direct relief – damaged image Economy was continuing to spiral and Hoover continued to say things were improving “Bonus Army” - march on Washington, disbanded by army
DustbowlsA traveler noticed a nice new hat by the side of the road, and he stopped to pick it up.Under the hat was a man, buried up to his neck in the dust! As he dug the poor fellowout, the traveler asked if he wanted a ride into town. "No, Ill get there myself," theman replied, "Im on a horse."(Excerpt from THE DUST BOWL by Tricia Andryszewski, p. 33.)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Elected in 1932 with 89% of the electoral vote Government experience: – NYS Legislature – Asst. Secretary of the Navy – Governor of NYS
3 R’s of the New Deal RELIEF of those who were suffering RECOVERY for the economy REFORM to avoid future depressions
New Deal Programs Outcomes Banking Emergency Act (FDIC) – restored confidence, soon more deposits than withdrawls Federal Emergency Relief Admin. (FERA) – Helped to revitalize relief organizations and encourage work Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) – Taught men and women to be independent, increased self confidence and self esteem
New Deal Programs Outcomes Public Work Administration PWA – benefited America and American workers Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) – Declared unconstitutional, did not raise prices as hoped – just made people upset Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) - cheap electric power, flood control, and recreational opportunities to the entire Tennessee River valley.
New Deal Programs Outcomes Works Progress Admin. (WPA) – decreased unemployment Social Security Act (SSA) - it did help millions of Americans feel more secure. National Recovery Admin. (NRA) – organized the relief effort, centralized government efforts Rural Electrification Admin. (REA) – gave several small farmers electricity
Wagner Act Also known as the National Labor Relations Act (1935) Guaranteed labor unions the right to form unions and to practice collective bargaining Progressive Legislation??????
Father Central Bank, SilverCoughlin backing of money, increase circulation Francis Government Townsend Pension Plan for Elderly – no SSA “Production for Use”Upton – state ownership ofSinclair land and factories
Table of Contents#1 Outline/Concepts #16 Hoover vs. FDR#2 Twenties Talk #17 Share our Wealth#3 Sports Stars #18 FDR’s New Deal#4 Who’s Who #19 You and the New Deal#5 Roaring 20s Culture #20 Be a New Deal Worker#6 The Automobile #21 No New Deal#7 The New Woman #22 The S.C. and New Deal#8 Roaring 20s Packet #23 FDR and the S.C.#9 Great Migration#10 Immigration#11 Urban-Rural Change#12 Roaring 20s Politics#13 What caused the Great Depression?#14 Hooverisms#15 Images of the Great Depression
The New Deal and the Supreme Court NRA – Schechter Poultry Corp v. United States (1935) – NRA codes were too much like laws – Executive was legislating – Declared unconstitutional AAA – declared unconstitutional – Congress passed another similar law to circumvent the Supreme Court.
The New Deal and the Supreme Court Court-Packing – Conservative Court did not follow FDR’s plan – Democratic President and a Republican Court – Proposed a plan to increase the number of justices
Third Term Controversy Elected: – 1932 – 1936 – 1940 – 1944 Republicans accused him of breaking the unwritten constitution After death, 22nd Amendment was proposed to limit to two terms 1951 – 22nd Amendment ratified
Lossof homes “Hoovervilles”Here were all these people living in oldrusted-out car bodies. ... One family ... [was] living in a piano box. This wasnt just a littlesection, this was maybe 10 miles wide and 10miles long. People living in whatever theycould junk together. ..."