CHAPTER 8: FAMILIES
Reciprocal socialization is the process by which __________ and __________ socialize each other, and this process
results in constant __________ for the family and its __________ . The family can be thought of a number of
__________ . Each family member belongs to several __________ and __________ between family members can
vary depending on who is __________ . In order to understand adolescent behavior, it is important to understand the
impact of each __________ on the family, and whether or not they exert undue __________ over the rest of the
Parents and adolescents __________ both __________ and __________ and relationships __________ because
adolescent experiences __________ , as well as enhancement in __________ abilities and __________ thought.
__________ increases between parents and adolescents as __________ are __________ and __________ with
__________ results in increased __________ and new __________ by adolescents. As for the parents, assessments
of __________ , __________ , personal __________ , and __________ stability influence the family. Yet another
factor pertains to __________ patterns that change due to __________ or later __________ experiences.
__________ satisfaction also influences family functioning. __________ married parents, those who are
__________ , __________ , __________ and __________ , have better relationships with their adolescents.
Parenting practices have been described as influencing __________ skills, __________ achievement, __________
relationships, __________ involvement, use of __________ substances, and even family relationships.
Research on __________ and __________ suggests that the interaction between parents and children is __________
. Research shows that __________ vulnerable children do __________ unless they are placed in environments with
parenting approaches that __________ behavior __________ . For example, __________ children elicit less
__________ interaction and __________ strategies than do __________ children. __________ children with
__________ risk for __________ behavior obtained less desirable __________ strategies than did children not at
__________ . Children with a __________ ill parent who were not exposed to __________ by parents showed less
__________ behavior than did __________ children in similar situations. __________ children of a biological
parent with __________ or history of __________ were more likely to develop __________ behavior if they were
adopted into a __________ home. Also, infants and children of parents successfully __________ to be __________
and __________ showed long-lasting positive behavior outcomes compared to children in control groups.
Parents have a great deal of responsibility in __________ adolescents who are testing __________ and __________
boundaries. We can view parents as __________ as they __________ opportunities with other people and settings.
For example, Adolescents select __________ with characteristics __________ to their own and __________ are
likely to influence everyday behavior. However, parents actively encourage adolescents’ __________ selection, and
parent-adolescent relationships and parent __________ influence __________ to peers. Also, parents’ __________
conditions, __________ choice, involvement in __________ , and __________ style influence parent-mediated
Parents adopt management styles that follow four patterns: authoritarian parenting—parent-centered, top-down
management, restrictive, punitive; authoritative parenting—rules with negotiation, corrective guidance, nurturance;
neglectful parenting—uninvolved, uninterested, unconcerned; indulgent parenting—involvement without guidance,
avoiding management responsibility. Disciplinary approaches are tied closely to parenting styles. Parents using
__________ techniques to discipline, attempt to __________ with their children and most often adopt an
__________ parenting style. This disciplinary style fosters __________ , __________ the development of
__________ , and __________ self-__________ . Parents who use a __________ -assertive disciplinary style make
use of __________ rewards and __________ . They are most apt to adopt an __________ style, and their children
are likely to __________ when the __________ are right but may not __________ how to __________ when the
__________ and __________ are not clear. Parents who use ______ of ______ as a disciplinary style __________
or __________ their children when they __________ . They are more likely to adopt a __________ -__________
parenting style. The later two styles in combination produce children who are __________ and __________ .
Establishing boundaries for __________ and __________ values leads to conflict between parents and adolescents.
Although some of the conflicts can be viewed as __________ conflict (originating ______ to adolescence), most
parent-adolescent __________ can be understood in terms of the adolescent’s changing __________ cognitive
abilities. Parents and adolescent’s _______ things from different __________ . As adolescents get __________
they are more likely to see their parent’s __________ . Meanwhile, __________ parental reaction to the
adolescent’s desire for __________ eases their ability to attain __________ and gain control over their
Needs for __________ and __________ appear to be complementary influences on adolescent __________
development. Needs for __________ push adolescents to __________ their __________ and __________ , whereas
the needs for __________ keeps them __________ to adults who __________ and __________ their explorations.
Expectations for __________ are strongest for _____, __________ parents, _______adolescents, and adolescents of
single __________ . Autonomy may be achieved quickly by going away to college or running away from home.
Secure attachment provides an important foundation for later psychological development. As adolescents become
more __________ , maintaining an attachment to parents is __________ . In _______ attachment the primary
caregiver provides a ______ base for the child to explore the __________ . In cases of __________ attachment, the
infants avoid the __________ or show __________ . __________ /__________ parenting is associated with
__________ by caregivers. When parents are __________ in their response to the child’s needs, we may see
__________ /__________ attachment. Another form of __________ attachment is __________ /__________
attachment that results from __________ experiences such as __________ or parent’s __________ . Individuals
become __________ and there is an __________ high level of ______ in relationships.
__ % of adolescents have at least one sibling. While adolescents report that a __________ has made the
__________ influence in their lives, family processes in __________ relationships reflect __________
feelings and interests. Adolescents engage in more __________ with siblings than with __________ , and
__________ between two __________ is more common when their ages are less than __________ years, but
the __________ typically subsides as they reach __________ . Contrary to the general belief siblings do not
grow further apart during adolescence than they were during the school-aged years. However, __________
-__________ sibling pairs experience more __________ sibling __________ , with __________
-__________ being the __________ pair. “Intense sibling __________ are more likely to __________
when siblings suffer __________ losses, and yet get to grow up __________ in __________ trying
conditions. Birth __________ may have an effect on sibling relationships. __________ tend to be more
__________ and __________ with other siblings. __________ children typically are more __________ ,
enjoying better __________ relationships than older siblings. __________ children are recognized as
__________ . The __________ child in the family was more often the __________ of the __________ and
the __________ child was __________ often a parental __________ . Sibling relationships tend to be
__________ and __________ given equal __________ of __________ time and __________ resources.
Adolescents from __________ families experience __________ problems, manifesting themselves in
__________ problems, __________ problems (__________ and __________ ) and __________
problems (__________ and __________ ), but they do _____ . Remaining in an __________ marriage can
be __________ to the well-being of children. However, an __________ marriage may be deemed more
__________ than __________ if __________ , changing __________ , losing __________ ,
__________ parenting, or subsequent __________ conditions are severely __________ . __________
parenting skills and companionable relationships are typical following __________ . A __________
relationship between the __________ parents and employing an __________ parenting style improves
adjustment of adolescents. Adolescents’ __________ before divorce, __________ , the __________ of the
adolescent, the __________ of the divorce, and __________ influence adolescent adjustment after divorce.
Divorced __________ have an __________ loss ___ to ___ times higher than __________ .
Adjustment difficulties in __________ formation are similar to those demonstrated by adolescents in __________
families. __________ __________ can cause adjustment problem for adolescents in a new stepfamily. The
__________ shift from __________ to __________ is a __________ process that varies with each child.
Healthy relationships move from __________ (Courteous) to __________ (Sharing) to __________ (Intimacy).
Unfortunately, step-__________ stages can be __________ and move from __________ (Resentment) to
__________ (Hostilities) to __________ (Hate). In the first stage, being __________ , __________ , and
__________ helps a new stepparent to be perceived as __________ and be treated __________ .
Stepparent-stepchild relationship develops best when they engage in __________ that the child __________ . With
time, the stepparent’s __________ moves ahead into either a __________ or a __________ . A __________ is
__________ and __________ and is someone with whom to __________ . A “__________ stepparent is
__________ to with __________ but the children may still reserve some __________ , keep some __________
private, and not want the stepparent in a __________ role. In the third stage of __________ or __________ , the
child perceives the stepparent as a __________ , __________ , __________ , and __________ supporter.
Research shows working mothers are not influencing negative outcomes per se. A number of positive results include
socializing adolescents for adult roles. Latchkey children appear to cope successfully with being home alone if
parents monitor and use authoritative parenting to help children cope. About 2½ percent of children in the United
States are adopted. Adopted children and adolescents tend to have more problems than non-adopted children, with
early adoption often having better outcomes for the child than later adoption. Romanian orphans adopted within 6
months of birth show no effects of the hardship; orphans adopted later show inept neuro-endocrine system function
and less adaptability to daily life. Some gay or lesbian parents raise adolescents. The majority of these adolescents
were born in the context of a heterosexual relationship, but research has found few differences in adolescents
growing up with gay or lesbian parents and adolescents growing up with heterosexual parents.