CHAPTER 5: GENDER
The term gender refers to the sociocultural dimension of being male or female; gender roles are societal
___________ of ___________ behavior for males and females. There are several influences: First, the
inherited ___________ blueprint influences our ___________ by programmed ___________ changes
associated with ___________ . Second, the resultant behavior demonstrated by adolescents appears to be
influenced by ___________ norms of the ___________ .. Third, the adolescent has the ___________ to
choose the behavior ___________ that best fits his or her ___________ of self and expectations for
personal ___________ . A comparison of ___________ showed that differences in behavior between
___________ and ___________ were more exaggerated in some ___________ than in others (United
States revealed the least ___________ differences between males and females).
The first ___________ models for gender behavior are ___________ . Parents, especially ___________ ,
act ___________ toward boys and girls, but the ___________ differences contribute to gender-typed
behavior. Here are a few examples: ___________ are more ___________ responsive to ___________
talking about ___________ and ___________ than they are toward ___________ . Parents are also more
___________ toward ___________ who act ___________ than to ___________ who do so; ___________
are more likely to be ___________ for ___________ , and parents also allow ___________ to be more
___________ and expect less ___________ . School and ___________ influence gender roles by
designing schools for ___________ patterns of ___________ and providing ___________ levels of
___________ to ___________ students. The mass media presents ___________ gender role behavior that
solidifies ___________ expectations and behavior ___________ .
Freud and Erikson believed sexual differences explained the psychological and gender-based differences between males and
females. Evolutionary psychology explains that successful men were aggressive to fend off competitors; women developed a
preference for successful men. The central theme of this theory is that different behaviors regarding reproduction are the key.
Social Role Theory (Eagly) suggests that women perform more domestic roles, have fewer resources, and have less control
and thus developed cooperative behavior patterns. This stems from contrasting social roles of males and females that exist in
a society. Social cognitive theory of gender explains that gender roles are modeled, reinforced and punished directly, and
shown to be successful by parents, peers and the media.
The cognitive developmental theory explains that ___________ acquired cognitive capacity allows
adolescents to ___________ a gender identity that fits personal ___________ and ___________ . .
Children first develop the concept of ___________ and begin ___________ -typing (___________ their
world on the basis of ___________ or ___________ .) The gender schema theory suggests that the
___________ adolescents choose are determined by the ___________ factors of ___________ ,
___________ , and ___________ influences. ___________ -typing emerges as individuals gradually
develop ___________ -appropriate ___________ schemas of what is ___________ -appropriate and
___________ -inappropriate in their ___________ . Gender stereotypes reflect ___________ explanations
that are believed to ___________ patterns of ___________ and ___________ . These are ___________
categories that reflect our ___________ and ___________ about females and males. Some other
stereotypes mentioned in your text include females expressing more ___________ than males; males
expressing more ___________ than females; and females expressing more ___________ than males.
Once established, gender stereotypes are hard to shake. Sexism occurs because of ___________ practices
based on a ___________ of male or female as opposed to determining actual ___________ required for
the task. In reality, the ___________ between males and females are relatively ___________ . The area of
greatest difference occurs following ___________ in the area of ___________ and ___________
development. An area of ___________ lobe having to do with ___________ ability is larger in
___________ . Brain areas involved in ___________ expression tend to be ___________ in ___________
. The male and female differences in ___________ performance are ___________ and might be due to
___________ expectations as well as ___________ and ___________ . In the area of socio-emotional
differences, several patterns emerge: Deborah Tannen reports that ___________ establish connections
through ___________ talk, which is a language of ___________ that promotes establishing ___________
and ___________ relationships. Females tend to prefer ___________ , relationship ___________
conversation. This is versus the male style of ___________ talk which promotes ___________ of
___________ . Males tend to hold ___________ stage though such ___________ performances as
___________ , ___________ , and ___________ with information. Tannen suggests that differences in
___________ is because people ___________ to boys and girls differently. But also ___________ are
more likely to ___________ and ___________ with their friends that promotes ___________ talk.
___________ and ___________ in peer conversation between girls, boys, and ___________ -gender
dyads have been attributed to ___________ goals: girls’ concern for needs of ___________ and
___________ and boys’ concern for ___________ and ___________ . Same-gender dyads show greater
___________ between females and low-___________ strategies between boys. High-___________
conversations were characterized as ___________ and ___________ communication units. Low-
___________ conversations were characterized as ___________ and ___________ communication units.
___________ -gender dyads often show that ___________ change interaction style to low-___________
strategies whereas ___________ usually continue to demonstrate the same approach with ___________ as
with ___________ .
Gender roles can be classified as follows Traditional gender roles: males are ___________ , ___________
, and ___________ oriented; females are ___________ , ___________ , and ___________ in power;
women’s traits are ___________ , ___________ , and ___________ ; and men’s traits are ___________
and ___________ .
Androgyny is another way of looking at gender roles—males and females demonstrate high levels of
___________ (expressive) and ___________ (instrumental) traits, as both are ___________ characteristics
in promoting ___________ health due to increased ___________ , ___________ in ___________
relationships. The opposite of Androgyny is being classified as ___________ (low in both traits).
Attempts to change ___________ about ___________ -role orientation have shown ___________ results
as ___________ demonstrate more ___________ responses to role ___________ than do ___________
adolescents. It is easier to teach androgyny to ___________
Gender-role transcendence, the ___________ of males and females is not based on ___________ roles but
on peoples’ ability to respond ___________ to each other. ___________ is at issue, it should be
conceptualized not on the basis of ___________ , ___________ , or ___________ , but, rather, on a
Developmental changes associated with ___________ have an impact on gender-based behavior. The
gender intensification hypothesis explains that behavior change during ___________ signals ___________
to impose social ___________ for the adolescent to demonstrate ___________ gender roles. Carol
Gilligan explained that ___________ must ___________ to different levels of ___________ between
males and females, and ___________ to ___________ -dominated ___________ . An unfortunate side
effect occurs as females ___________ their ___________ and sometimes become self-___________ .
Gilligan encourages women to establish their own ___________ from ___________ development and
___________ . Her work is based on the idea that early adolescence is a ___________ juncture for
___________ . Her theory is also about ___________ in the development of girl’s self-___________ ; her
theory is about how girls’ ___________ change over a portion of the life span, with special ___________
to early ___________ as a special period of development. She argues that ___________ , ___________ ,
and ___________ selves present a distinct female voice and perspective on gender.
Research has shown that females experience ___________ at a rate ___ to ___ times higher than that by
males during adulthood. Recent research identified the ___________ as occurring somewhere between
___________ and ___________ adolescence, or between ___ and ___ years of age. Levels of
___________ showed a ___________ shift for girls from age ___ to age and adolescent girls
___________ reported higher levels of ___________ mood at age ___ and above. The ___________ and
___________ of female adolescents influences the way in which ___________ and ___________ respond
toward them, and subsequently a shift toward ___________ female behaviors. The gender intensification
process also suggests that girls will ___________ more strongly with ___________ stereotypes during
___________ than at other times. Although ___________ development and ___________ change have
been identified as important ___________ accounting for poor self-___________ and ___________ mood
among girls, ___________ satisfaction (increased fat tissue and perception of being overweight) appears
to be the most ___________ factor in relation to global self-___________ . While body ___________ was
hypothesized to be the most ___________ factor, the ___________ lack of ___________ was correlated
with ___________ toward specific body ___________ and ___________ pubertal timing to contribute to