CHAPTER 5: GENDER
The term gender refers to the sociocultural dimension of being male or female; gender roles are societal...
the task. In reality, the ___________ between males and females are relatively ___________ . The area of
greatest differen...
males and females, and ___________ to ___________ -dominated ___________ . An unfortunate side
effect occurs as females __...
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Chapter 5

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Chapter 5 Notes: Gender
Psychology 12
Los Angeles Valley College
Dr. Ali Ghassemi

Published in: Technology, Business
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Transcript of "Chapter 5"

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5: GENDER The term gender refers to the sociocultural dimension of being male or female; gender roles are societal ___________ of ___________ behavior for males and females. There are several influences: First, the inherited ___________ blueprint influences our ___________ by programmed ___________ changes associated with ___________ . Second, the resultant behavior demonstrated by adolescents appears to be influenced by ___________ norms of the ___________ .. Third, the adolescent has the ___________ to choose the behavior ___________ that best fits his or her ___________ of self and expectations for personal ___________ . A comparison of ___________ showed that differences in behavior between ___________ and ___________ were more exaggerated in some ___________ than in others (United States revealed the least ___________ differences between males and females). The first ___________ models for gender behavior are ___________ . Parents, especially ___________ , act ___________ toward boys and girls, but the ___________ differences contribute to gender-typed behavior. Here are a few examples: ___________ are more ___________ responsive to ___________ talking about ___________ and ___________ than they are toward ___________ . Parents are also more ___________ toward ___________ who act ___________ than to ___________ who do so; ___________ are more likely to be ___________ for ___________ , and parents also allow ___________ to be more ___________ and expect less ___________ . School and ___________ influence gender roles by designing schools for ___________ patterns of ___________ and providing ___________ levels of ___________ to ___________ students. The mass media presents ___________ gender role behavior that solidifies ___________ expectations and behavior ___________ . Freud and Erikson believed sexual differences explained the psychological and gender-based differences between males and females. Evolutionary psychology explains that successful men were aggressive to fend off competitors; women developed a preference for successful men. The central theme of this theory is that different behaviors regarding reproduction are the key. Social Role Theory (Eagly) suggests that women perform more domestic roles, have fewer resources, and have less control and thus developed cooperative behavior patterns. This stems from contrasting social roles of males and females that exist in a society. Social cognitive theory of gender explains that gender roles are modeled, reinforced and punished directly, and shown to be successful by parents, peers and the media. The cognitive developmental theory explains that ___________ acquired cognitive capacity allows adolescents to ___________ a gender identity that fits personal ___________ and ___________ . . Children first develop the concept of ___________ and begin ___________ -typing (___________ their world on the basis of ___________ or ___________ .) The gender schema theory suggests that the ___________ adolescents choose are determined by the ___________ factors of ___________ , ___________ , and ___________ influences. ___________ -typing emerges as individuals gradually develop ___________ -appropriate ___________ schemas of what is ___________ -appropriate and ___________ -inappropriate in their ___________ . Gender stereotypes reflect ___________ explanations that are believed to ___________ patterns of ___________ and ___________ . These are ___________ categories that reflect our ___________ and ___________ about females and males. Some other stereotypes mentioned in your text include females expressing more ___________ than males; males expressing more ___________ than females; and females expressing more ___________ than males. Once established, gender stereotypes are hard to shake. Sexism occurs because of ___________ practices based on a ___________ of male or female as opposed to determining actual ___________ required for
  2. 2. the task. In reality, the ___________ between males and females are relatively ___________ . The area of greatest difference occurs following ___________ in the area of ___________ and ___________ development. An area of ___________ lobe having to do with ___________ ability is larger in ___________ . Brain areas involved in ___________ expression tend to be ___________ in ___________ . The male and female differences in ___________ performance are ___________ and might be due to ___________ expectations as well as ___________ and ___________ . In the area of socio-emotional differences, several patterns emerge: Deborah Tannen reports that ___________ establish connections through ___________ talk, which is a language of ___________ that promotes establishing ___________ and ___________ relationships. Females tend to prefer ___________ , relationship ___________ conversation. This is versus the male style of ___________ talk which promotes ___________ of ___________ . Males tend to hold ___________ stage though such ___________ performances as ___________ , ___________ , and ___________ with information. Tannen suggests that differences in ___________ is because people ___________ to boys and girls differently. But also ___________ are more likely to ___________ and ___________ with their friends that promotes ___________ talk. ___________ and ___________ in peer conversation between girls, boys, and ___________ -gender dyads have been attributed to ___________ goals: girls’ concern for needs of ___________ and ___________ and boys’ concern for ___________ and ___________ . Same-gender dyads show greater ___________ between females and low-___________ strategies between boys. High-___________ conversations were characterized as ___________ and ___________ communication units. Low- ___________ conversations were characterized as ___________ and ___________ communication units. ___________ -gender dyads often show that ___________ change interaction style to low-___________ strategies whereas ___________ usually continue to demonstrate the same approach with ___________ as with ___________ . Gender roles can be classified as follows Traditional gender roles: males are ___________ , ___________ , and ___________ oriented; females are ___________ , ___________ , and ___________ in power; women’s traits are ___________ , ___________ , and ___________ ; and men’s traits are ___________ and ___________ . Androgyny is another way of looking at gender roles—males and females demonstrate high levels of ___________ (expressive) and ___________ (instrumental) traits, as both are ___________ characteristics in promoting ___________ health due to increased ___________ , ___________ in ___________ relationships. The opposite of Androgyny is being classified as ___________ (low in both traits). Attempts to change ___________ about ___________ -role orientation have shown ___________ results as ___________ demonstrate more ___________ responses to role ___________ than do ___________ adolescents. It is easier to teach androgyny to ___________ Gender-role transcendence, the ___________ of males and females is not based on ___________ roles but on peoples’ ability to respond ___________ to each other. ___________ is at issue, it should be conceptualized not on the basis of ___________ , ___________ , or ___________ , but, rather, on a ___________ basis. Developmental changes associated with ___________ have an impact on gender-based behavior. The gender intensification hypothesis explains that behavior change during ___________ signals ___________ to impose social ___________ for the adolescent to demonstrate ___________ gender roles. Carol Gilligan explained that ___________ must ___________ to different levels of ___________ between
  3. 3. males and females, and ___________ to ___________ -dominated ___________ . An unfortunate side effect occurs as females ___________ their ___________ and sometimes become self-___________ . Gilligan encourages women to establish their own ___________ from ___________ development and ___________ . Her work is based on the idea that early adolescence is a ___________ juncture for ___________ . Her theory is also about ___________ in the development of girl’s self-___________ ; her theory is about how girls’ ___________ change over a portion of the life span, with special ___________ to early ___________ as a special period of development. She argues that ___________ , ___________ , and ___________ selves present a distinct female voice and perspective on gender. Research has shown that females experience ___________ at a rate ___ to ___ times higher than that by males during adulthood. Recent research identified the ___________ as occurring somewhere between ___________ and ___________ adolescence, or between ___ and ___ years of age. Levels of ___________ showed a ___________ shift for girls from age ___ to age and adolescent girls ___________ reported higher levels of ___________ mood at age ___ and above. The ___________ and ___________ of female adolescents influences the way in which ___________ and ___________ respond toward them, and subsequently a shift toward ___________ female behaviors. The gender intensification process also suggests that girls will ___________ more strongly with ___________ stereotypes during ___________ than at other times. Although ___________ development and ___________ change have been identified as important ___________ accounting for poor self-___________ and ___________ mood among girls, ___________ satisfaction (increased fat tissue and perception of being overweight) appears to be the most ___________ factor in relation to global self-___________ . While body ___________ was hypothesized to be the most ___________ factor, the ___________ lack of ___________ was correlated with ___________ toward specific body ___________ and ___________ pubertal timing to contribute to ___________ mood.

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