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Chapter 4 Notes

Chapter 4 Notes
Psychology 12
Los Angeles Valley College
Dr. Ali Ghassemi

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Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Document Transcript

  • CHAPTER 4: THE SELF AND IDENTITY Each age period is associated with _______________ tasks. A major aspect of psychosocial development for adolescence is the _______________ of a coherent personal _______________ . The term _______________ and _______________ sometimes are used interchangeably and sometimes refer to _______________ constructs. _______________ has been the _______________ point since most observers believe this is the time in development of Self-_______________ , an _______________ belief about his or her _______________ and _______________ . Adolescents begin to question the _______________ that have been _______________ on them by adults since _______________ . These are _______________ about _______________ and _______________ , in addition to truths about how the _______________ works and about what _______________ and _______________ mean. A child will occasionally _______________ the authority of _______________ and _______________ , the child’s _______________ requires acceptance of social _______________ . Adolescents, with _______________ and _______________ thinking capabilities now feel in-_______________ . Consequently, there is a distinct aspect of self- _______________ during adolescence in which there is the tendency for adolescents to think about the self in _______________ and _______________ ways that is different than any time prior to this stage of development. Adolescents are _______________ with self, and swing between senses of _______________ to self-_______________ . Adolescents also begin to appreciate that the self is collection of _______________ , _______________ , _______________ and _______________ that influence how we behave. The development of self-_______________ is complex and _______________ , because there are several _______________ of the self that develop. Certainly there is no single _______________ of an adolescent with _______________ or _______________ sense of self. Understanding of self in adolescence occurs in phases: (1) there is an early, _______________ self-descriptions, as describing themselves in _______________ terms; (2) middle, _______________ of _______________ in which the adolescents begin to realize that behavior could be both _______________ and _______________ ; and (3) late, begin the _______________ of _______________ in which adolescents understand that they could _______________ and _______________ differently in different _______________ depending on the social _______________, therefore an adolescent may describe self differently depending on the _______________ context. This late _______________ in a way is a self-_______________ mechanism. It means that adolescents become to _______________ that it is _______________ to present a different _______________ in different _______________ based on the demands. Unlike childhood, adolescents begin to have a _______________ estimate of their _______________ and _______________ , and also this is the stage they begin to become increasingly _______________ to _______________ by others. Ultimately, Self- _______________ develops, which is defined as: the _______________ one has about
  • _______________ , and it is based on _______________ assessments. It is judgment of self _______________ , and how good one _______________ about oneself. Longitudinal studies have shown that SE is moderately _______________ . Adolescents with _______________ SE continue on _______________ and those with _______________ SE continue to show _______________ SE. Perceived physical _______________ is an especially _______________ contributor to global SE. 2) Second in line is _______________ acceptance. 3) Another factor at work is the perception of _______________ . SE improves if person perceives _______________ level of _______________ , and it _______________ if person perceives that his/her _______________ has declined. 4) Also social _______________ and social _______________ appear to affect SE. Self-_______________ , on the other hand is based on _______________ -_______________ evaluations of self. It is an individual’s _______________ picture of the _______________ that define him or her. It is the _______________ that a person places on parts of the self. Teens with high SE are less _______________ with peer _______________ and less _______________ to _______________ pressure. Also _______________ SE correlates with more _______________ interpersonal _______________ , and acts as a _______________ against _______________ and is associated with better _______________ . _______________ SE is associated with _______________ and _______________ . Studies show in early adolescent (11-13) SE tends to _______________. _______________ of physical _______________ and _______________ abilities become more important, and if adolescents become to _______________ they are less _______________ in these _______________ , then their SE _______________ . As adolescents become more sure of themselves, as they become more _______________ , _______________ and _______________ , the _______________ aspects of _______________ begin to _______________ and SE improves. Therefore, the _______________ discomfort of _______________ SE is _______________ for majority of teens. A trend noticed in some studies is that SE in _______________ tends to be generally _______________ than in _______________ , especially after early adolescent. _______________ begin to show _______________ in SE earlier than _______________ , perhaps because of earlier _______________ transition. While _______________ SE increases from early _______________ to early _______________ , the same trend is not notice in _______________ , or at least _______________ don’t _______________ as fast in early adolescent SE decline. One possible explanation is that _______________ are _______________ about level of SE, while _______________ are more _______________ in their statements. The difference may center on _______________ image. _______________ image _______________ sharply for _______________ in adolescents, and recovery from that takes _______________ . SE improves as emphasis on _______________ image is shifted to importance of _______________ and _______________ in _______________ adolescent and _______________ adulthood. SE is also dependent on _______________ by _______________ . Reassurance and providing _______________ support and _______________ by others has a positive impact.
  • Ultimately _______________ of _______________ they are, regardless of _______________ and _______________ with others that will lead to attainment of _______________ self _______________ . SE emphasizes self-_______________ , but it also emphasizes personal _______________ and _______________ for what one does. _______________ support, _______________ and _______________ are associated with _______________ SE. To improve SE _______________ want to create an _______________ that _______________ the probability of _______________ , and attribute the _______________ to the adolescent’s _______________ and _______________ . If adolescents have a degree of _______________ , personal _______________ and _______________ and they feel they are contributing to _______________ , it will have _______________ impact on SE. Healthy SE depends on an adolescent’s ability to tolerate _______________ and _______________ . Parents who _______________ their children too _______________ and too _______________, don’t allow for development of _______________ skills necessary for a _______________ SE. Erikson’s fifth stage was Identity vs. Identity Confusion, which is experienced during adolescence. Erikson referred to this as the adolescent identity crisis. Erikson advocated that adolescents be given a license to explore alternative _______________ and _______________ . _______________ and _______________ Experimentation are the two key ingredients of Erikson’s view on identity development. During this stage, adolescents typically experience a period of time when they are _______________ about their _______________ roles, experiencing a psychosocial _______________ . _______________ is the social condition of _______________ in modern society, who are ready for _______________ life in many ways, but don’t have a clear _______________ in the social _______________ and they don’t have long-term _______________ and _______________ . Erikson believed that such a _______________ period would allow adolescents to make _______________ that truly reflect _______________ choice. During early phases of the _______________ , adolescents try many different _______________ before deciding which one _______________ a clear sense of _______________ . After actively searching, the individual successfully chooses an _______________ that fits. Marcia (1980) expanded on Erikson’s description of the conflicts encountered at the identity versus identity confusion stage. Four types of resolution are described: identity _______________ , identity _______________ , identity _______________ , and identity _______________ . The resolutions vary on two dimensions: the presence or absence of a _______________ and the presence or absence of a sense of _______________ to an identity. Identity _______________ is an individual who has made little progress in exploration, has not made any commitments, and is not in the process of forming any _______________ . Identity _______________ is a status that includes teens who have not experienced a _______________ but have made _______________ anyway. Their _______________ are viewed as _______________ . Identity _______________ is about experiencing a _______________ but _______________ are _______________ , or not ready to make definite _______________ .
  • Identity _______________ is an individual who has explored other _______________ , or has experienced a _______________ and has made _______________ . Numbers of identity _______________ grow by _______________ . The years between __and ___ seem especially crucial for developing _______________ . The next stage of Erikson stage of psychosocial development is intimacy vs. isolation. Making a commitment during identity vs. role confusion naturally grows into commitment in the intimacy that develops in early adulthood. Some important characteristics of identity formation include:1) Individuals periodically experience identity _______________ and _______________ stages through life. 2) Families influence _______________ by encouraging _______________ self-_______________ and _______________ ; and _______________ . 3) Some Ethnic minorities experience identity challenges as a result of _______________ and _______________ . Erikson maintained that ethnic minority groups have struggled to maintain their _______________ identities while blending into majority _______________. 4) Male and female _______________ , and thus _______________ , differ; _______________ formation may precede _______________ for _______________ , whereas _______________ experience _______________ before _______________ .