Chapter 1   Introduction
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Psychology 12

Psychology 12
Chapter 1 - Partial notes
Dr. Ali Ghassemi

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Chapter 1 Introduction Document Transcript

  • 1. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION What makes adolescents tick? The answer to that question has changed remarkably between the _____________ century B.C. and today. Early Greek philosophers _____________ and _____________ focused on two qualitatively distinct characteristics of adolescents from children—_____________ ability and self-_____________ , respectively. During the _____________ century, the next major figure is study of adolescence, _____________ believed infants, _____________ , adolescents, and _____________ adults demonstrated unique behavior during distinct _____________ phases. Fast forward to the early 20th century and _____________ began the process of _____________ studying adolescence. Hall is considered the “father of the study of adolescence.” His research served as a starting point for _____________ interested in adolescence. Guided by _____________ thought, he investigated the influence of _____________ and _____________ factors, identifying _____________ as a dominant force. According to Hall, who first used the phrase “_____________ and _____________ ,” adolescence is a time of _____________ . This idea remained the main theme is study of _____________ for a long time, and now it is beginning to turn. Unlike Darwin and Hall, _____________ , who was an _____________ , concluded that _____________ influences affect the adolescent experience to a greater extent than _____________ . Her work clearly showed that _____________ during adolescence is not found in all _____________ . _____________ is a broad _____________ that reflects our _____________ and _____________ about people. It refers to an _____________ of what the _____________ member of a particular group is like. As we study and investigate various aspects of the adolescence experience, we also need to dispel many _____________ and counter many _____________ about what it means to be an adolescent. The focus on highly _____________ members of the adolescent age group, especially some _____________ who work with _____________ adolescents, leads to an _____________ _____________ _____________ , an overly _____________ perspective toward all of its members. Daniel Offer and his colleagues found that at least _____________ % of adolescent studied have _____________ self-_____________ , were _____________ most of the time, valued _____________ and _____________ , and showed _____________ feelings toward their _____________ . On the other hand, some _____________ argue that theorists have only identified the tip of the iceberg in relation to the _____________ upheaval that occurs during adolescence. Adolescence is a time when many things happen for the first time: the first _____________ , _____________ , _____________ , _____________ , _____________ , and the first _____________ . The newly experienced _____________ growth _____________ the IM 1 | 1
  • 2. _____________ experience and the _____________ new experiences easily overwhelm an adolescent. Heightened _____________ foster _____________ perspective of time, with _____________ believing that they will continue to experience the same _____________ beliefs _____________ . _____________ and feelings of _____________ often result in risk-taking in matters of _____________ and _____________ sex, harsh problem-_____________ strategies such as _____________ ideation, and _____________ over everyday situations. The stress associated with “_____________ ” appears to others as _____________ . It is important to recognize the _____________ importance of each experience. So, we are beginning to move from _____________ view of the old centuries to a more _____________ view in the new centuries, however one constant in adolescent development remains _____________ misperceptions. That’s _____________ perception about _____________ , which is typically on the _____________ side. _____________ of every _____________ appears more _____________ and _____________ than the adults. Research shows that as a _____________ element of _____________ development, adolescents must acquire the _____________ to demonstrate _____________ . Our culture does not offer a _____________ means of establishing _____________ , as it does not present a clear path from the _____________ of childhood to the _____________ of adulthood. _____________ typically have environments that elicit high levels of _____________ and _____________ , but low levels of _____________ . Leisure activities, such as watching _____________ or hanging out with _____________ , promote higher levels of _____________ motivation and easier _____________ than _____________ work, but offer little _____________ . Further, neither _____________ nor _____________ present realities of _____________ life. Thus, _____________ and _____________ contexts in which adolescents spend most of their time do not provide the opportunities adolescents require to establish _____________ . What are youth around the world like? Although most of the research on adolescence has been done in Europe and North America, cultural differences among adolescence do occur. One might ask why youths do not develop more similarly than they do. Although _____________ circumstances explain some of it, other aspects of context seem to contribute to marked differences. _____________ , _____________ , and _____________ factors reflected by _____________ , _____________ , _____________ , and _____________ influence the _____________ and _____________ faced by adolescents. Overall _____________ and well-being among _____________ around the world has _____________ although some behaviors that compromise adolescent _____________ , such as _____________ use, have _____________ . _____________ differences in the way in which adolescence is experienced continue but are _____________ . Changes in the _____________ are occurring _____________ and include increased family _____________ . The number of adolescents in _____________ countries that go to _____________ is _____________ , although in _____________ countries many adolescents do not have access to _____________ . IM 1 | 2
  • 3. _____________ are more important in the lives of adolescents living in _____________ countries. Explanations of adolescent _____________ often are ascribed to the combined influences of _____________ , _____________ , and _____________ processes. _____________ processes refer to _____________ changes within an individual’s _____________ . For example, _____________ which involves physical changes leading to _____________ reproduction, as well as other body changes that lead to physical _____________ . _____________ processes refer to changes in _____________ and _____________ . Adolescents can process _____________ much _____________ than younger children, giving them great _____________ . There are also _____________ differences between adolescent _____________ and thinking in younger children. Adolescents can now deal with _____________ , which leads into new ways of looking at _____________ and _____________ , but it also leads them to create their own _____________ and _____________ systems. _____________ processes refer to changes in _____________ , _____________ , _____________ , and _____________ context. Adolescents begin to develop special, _____________ relationships with others _____________ of the family. They also begin to act in a manner that shows _____________ over one’s _____________ and accepting _____________ for their behavior. Three life-course developmental issues that dominate discussions of human growth are: nature-nurture—the influence of _____________ inheritance or _____________ experience; continuity-discontinuity—development as _____________ , cumulative change or _____________ stages; early-later experience—whether _____________ or _____________ experiences _____________ development. Psychoanalytic theories emphasize the importance of _____________ , _____________ mental processes, the _____________ meaning of behavior, and enduring effects of _____________ experience on _____________ development. Freud’s theory articulates 1) personality structure as the id (the source of all _____________ and _____________ and cannot tolerate _____________ ), ego (is partly _____________ , is responsible for dealing with _____________ and satisfying the _____________ and _____________ of the _____________ in socially _____________ manner), and superego (is analogous to one’s _____________ ); 2) _____________ for _____________ conflict; and 3) characteristics of five psychosexual stages. Freud argued that _____________ behavior, including behavior in _____________ is linked to _____________ experiences that have been _____________ , that is, that have remained _____________ in the _____________ beyond normal _____________ . Motives arise from the _____________ . The _____________ consists of _____________ , drives, and _____________ in which the individual is unaware but that may influence behavior. For example, a person may experience _____________ difficulties because of traumatic _____________ experiences in _____________ that the individual does not remember. As Freud investigated the impact of early experience of children on their adult lives he came up with the idea of psychosexual stages of development. Oral stage (birth to 18 months), Anal stage (18 months to 3 years), Phallic stage (3-5 years), and Latency (5-6 years – not one of the stages IM 1 | 3
  • 4. really), and Adolescence and puberty lead to the Genital stage. Phallic stage is when the greatest conflict takes place, and that’s the Oedipus complex (Electra complex). It involves _____________ feelings for the _____________ sex parent, along with a wish to rid oneself of the _____________ -sex parent. OC (EC) is resolved through _____________ with the _____________ sex parent and _____________ of feelings toward the _____________ -sex parent (due to fear of _____________ , or in case of females _____________ envy), and is responsible for gender-_____________ conceptions. It eventually leads to the dormant sexuality of _____________ stage, but when _____________ hits, there is emergence of adult _____________ and mature relationships, and the adolescent enters the _____________ stage. Anna Freud argued that _____________ years are marked by turbulence, and therefore, the use of defense mechanisms. Why? The adolescent experiences _____________ feelings, showing behaviors that _____________ between such extremes as _____________ independence and _____________ dependence. Erikson argued that each individual proceeds through eight stages of development from cradle to grave. Each stage presents the individual with a _____________ , and at each stage a particular _____________ component becomes the focus of _____________ . The _____________ arise from a combination of _____________ demands from others and the person’s attempt to _____________ to these challenges, influencing those around him/her. If a particular _____________ is handled well, the outcome is _____________ , and if not handled well, the outcome is _____________ . Few people emerge from a particular stage with an entirely _____________ or _____________ outcome. Therefore, the goal is a _____________ balance that must be struck between the two poles, although the outcome should tend toward the _____________ side of the scale. The psychosocial crisis of adolescence is _____________ vs. _____________ confusion. Forming a coherent _____________ is the basic theme of Erikson’s writings on adolescence. Adolescents must tentatively answer such questions as, Who am I? Where do I belong? And what do I want to do with my life? Those adolescents with a solid sense of _____________ formulate _____________ plans, gain a sense of _____________ , are less susceptible to _____________ pressure, have higher levels of self-_____________ , are _____________ and believe they are in control of their _____________ . Cognitive theory focuses on _____________ operations that change during childhood and adolescence. Cognitive theories emphasize the individual’s active role in understanding the _____________ . Piaget’s theory states that children and adolescents demonstrate _____________ change by systematically exploring and manipulating the _____________ to understand it. He described _____________ orderly stages of growth in children’s _____________ representation of the world and the effects of cognitive development on a broad range of related behaviors. The stages of distinctly different thinking processes, as describe by Piaget, are sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage. Piaget carefully described the process by which children develop their _____________ skills. The final stage of _____________ development, called the stage of _____________ operations, develops in _____________ . _____________ develop the ability to understand and use _____________ , consider _____________ other than the one in which they are living, and use _____________ reasoning. They become impressed by _____________ over _____________ . Piaget’s work has led to significant amount of research, but a criticism of Piaget may be that he underestimated the importance of formal education. IM 1 | 4
  • 5. Vygotsky assumed that _____________ development is fundamentally _____________ in nature, taking place under the _____________ of others, occurring as a natural _____________ of working along side someone who has already _____________ a better way of doing things. For something to be passed on, the person must be close enough to reach out for it. Vygotsky termed this closeness the _____________ of _____________ development. Proximal means “_____________ ” or “_____________ to.” Therefore, in order for people to profit from working alongside those who are more skilled, their own _____________ must come close to, or _____________ the behavior of others. The zone represents the _____________ of _____________ that individuals must possess in order to profit from _____________ to those who are more skilled. Behavioral and social cognitive theories emphasize _____________ behavior and _____________ . Behaviorists don’t believe in the concept of stages, and they see external stimuli as the source of change. Bandura’s cognitive social learning theory considers _____________ , _____________ , and _____________ factors, _____________ learning and personal _____________ , as key factors in _____________ . According to Bandura, people also learn by _____________ others; they don’t have to be directly _____________ or _____________ to change their behavior. Teens _____________ models they see around them. _____________ , _____________ , and older _____________ serve as _____________ , as do others who adolescents may admire such as _____________ and _____________ . Social learning theorists divide behavior into two different processes: _____________ and _____________ . Teens may learn something, either through direct _____________ or through _____________ others. However, whether they exhibit the behavior (_____________ ) depends partly on _____________ -_____________ , the _____________ about what one _____________ and _____________ do in a _____________ situation. So judgment of _____________ -_____________ affects one’s choice of _____________ . _____________ - _____________ is a central concept of social learning theory, as it affects just how much effort an adolescent will expend on a task. Ecological and contextual theories examine environmental influence on child development. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological, contextual theory proposes layers of _____________ influence. He suggested that people live their lives enmeshed in many different _____________ at the same time, and _____________ theory systematically _____________ these environments to one another. A number or different environmental systems operate simultaneously: Microsystem: consists of the _____________ interactions of the teen and the _____________ . These _____________ to _____________ interactions take place in _____________ or at _____________ . It consists of where the teen _____________ , the _____________ in the home and the _____________ they do together. Mesosystem: involves the interrelationships among _____________ or more _____________ in which the person actively _____________ . For example, the teen’s mesosystem includes the _____________ between the _____________ and the _____________ and between _____________ and the teen’s _____________ group. Another example is that when a teen IM 1 | 5
  • 6. enters _____________ , it may affect the pattern of _____________ and _____________ occurring within the _____________ . Exosystem: involves setting in which the teen is not _____________ involved, at least at the _____________ time, but that still affect the _____________ and _____________ , such as _____________ place of _____________ , _____________ attended by _____________ or younger _____________ , parents’ _____________ of _____________ . Sometimes the actions of exosystem directly impact a child as when the _____________ board rules to increase or decrease the class _____________ . Macrosystem: involves the _____________ or _____________ system inherent in _____________ institutions, including _____________ , _____________ and _____________ influences and existing _____________ and _____________ systems. Examples include availability of _____________ care for a teen who needs _____________ treatment, _____________ as how teens who run afoul of law will be treated, or change in the status of women within the society and its impact on the teen. Chronosystem: dimension of _____________ in the sense that environment changes _____________ . We know that developmental changes trigger by life events or experiences, such as _____________ of a sibling or severe _____________ that restricts functioning. No single theory explains adolescent development. An _____________ theoretical _____________ , using aspects of all major theories, allows and/or promotes a complete narration. It also selects the theory that is most useful for analyzing the behavior under analysis (i.e. Piaget for cognitive development and Erikson for identity development). IM 1 | 6