CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
What makes adolescents tick? The answer to that question has changed remarkably between
the _____________ century B.C. and today. Early Greek philosophers _____________ and
_____________ focused on two qualitatively distinct characteristics of adolescents from
children—_____________ ability and self-_____________ , respectively.
During the _____________ century, the next major figure is study of adolescence,
_____________ believed infants, _____________ , adolescents, and _____________ adults
demonstrated unique behavior during distinct _____________ phases.
Fast forward to the early 20th century and _____________ began the process of _____________
studying adolescence. Hall is considered the “father of the study of adolescence.” His research
served as a starting point for _____________ interested in adolescence. Guided by
_____________ thought, he investigated the influence of _____________ and _____________
factors, identifying _____________ as a dominant force. According to Hall, who first used the
phrase “_____________ and _____________ ,” adolescence is a time of _____________ . This
idea remained the main theme is study of _____________ for a long time, and now it is
beginning to turn.
Unlike Darwin and Hall, _____________ , who was an _____________ , concluded that
_____________ influences affect the adolescent experience to a greater extent than
_____________ . Her work clearly showed that _____________ during adolescence is not found
in all _____________ .
_____________ is a broad _____________ that reflects our _____________ and
_____________ about people. It refers to an _____________ of what the _____________
member of a particular group is like. As we study and investigate various aspects of the
adolescence experience, we also need to dispel many _____________ and counter many
_____________ about what it means to be an adolescent. The focus on highly _____________
members of the adolescent age group, especially some _____________ who work with
_____________ adolescents, leads to an _____________ _____________ _____________ , an
overly _____________ perspective toward all of its members.
Daniel Offer and his colleagues found that at least _____________ % of adolescent studied have
_____________ self-_____________ , were _____________ most of the time, valued
_____________ and _____________ , and showed _____________ feelings toward their
_____________ . On the other hand, some _____________ argue that theorists have only
identified the tip of the iceberg in relation to the _____________ upheaval that occurs during
adolescence. Adolescence is a time when many things happen for the first time: the first
_____________ , _____________ , _____________ , _____________ , _____________ , and
the first _____________ . The newly experienced _____________ growth _____________ the
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_____________ experience and the _____________ new experiences easily overwhelm an
Heightened _____________ foster _____________ perspective of time, with _____________
believing that they will continue to experience the same _____________ beliefs _____________
. _____________ and feelings of _____________ often result in risk-taking in matters of
_____________ and _____________ sex, harsh problem-_____________ strategies such as
_____________ ideation, and _____________ over everyday situations. The stress associated
with “_____________ ” appears to others as _____________ . It is important to recognize the
_____________ importance of each experience.
So, we are beginning to move from _____________ view of the old centuries to a more
_____________ view in the new centuries, however one constant in adolescent development
remains _____________ misperceptions. That’s _____________ perception about
_____________ , which is typically on the _____________ side. _____________ of every
_____________ appears more _____________ and _____________ than the adults.
Research shows that as a _____________ element of _____________ development, adolescents
must acquire the _____________ to demonstrate _____________ . Our culture does not offer a
_____________ means of establishing _____________ , as it does not present a clear path from
the _____________ of childhood to the _____________ of adulthood.
_____________ typically have environments that elicit high levels of _____________ and
_____________ , but low levels of _____________ . Leisure activities, such as watching
_____________ or hanging out with _____________ , promote higher levels of _____________
motivation and easier _____________ than _____________ work, but offer little
_____________ . Further, neither _____________ nor _____________ present realities of
_____________ life. Thus, _____________ and _____________ contexts in which adolescents
spend most of their time do not provide the opportunities adolescents require to establish
What are youth around the world like? Although most of the research on adolescence has been
done in Europe and North America, cultural differences among adolescence do occur.
One might ask why youths do not develop more similarly than they do. Although
_____________ circumstances explain some of it, other aspects of context seem to contribute to
marked differences. _____________ , _____________ , and _____________ factors reflected by
_____________ , _____________ , _____________ , and _____________ influence the
_____________ and _____________ faced by adolescents.
Overall _____________ and well-being among _____________ around the world has
_____________ although some behaviors that compromise adolescent _____________ , such as
_____________ use, have _____________ . _____________ differences in the way in which
adolescence is experienced continue but are _____________ . Changes in the _____________
are occurring _____________ and include increased family _____________ . The number of
adolescents in _____________ countries that go to _____________ is _____________ , although
in _____________ countries many adolescents do not have access to _____________ .
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_____________ are more important in the lives of adolescents living in _____________
Explanations of adolescent _____________ often are ascribed to the combined influences of
_____________ , _____________ , and _____________ processes. _____________ processes
refer to _____________ changes within an individual’s _____________ . For example,
_____________ which involves physical changes leading to _____________ reproduction, as
well as other body changes that lead to physical _____________ . _____________ processes
refer to changes in _____________ and _____________ . Adolescents can process
_____________ much _____________ than younger children, giving them great
_____________ . There are also _____________ differences between adolescent
_____________ and thinking in younger children. Adolescents can now deal with
_____________ , which leads into new ways of looking at _____________ and _____________
, but it also leads them to create their own _____________ and _____________ systems.
_____________ processes refer to changes in _____________ , _____________ ,
_____________ , and _____________ context. Adolescents begin to develop special,
_____________ relationships with others _____________ of the family. They also begin to act
in a manner that shows _____________ over one’s _____________ and accepting
_____________ for their behavior.
Three life-course developmental issues that dominate discussions of human growth are:
nature-nurture—the influence of _____________ inheritance or _____________ experience;
continuity-discontinuity—development as _____________ , cumulative change or
early-later experience—whether _____________ or _____________ experiences
Psychoanalytic theories emphasize the importance of _____________ , _____________ mental
processes, the _____________ meaning of behavior, and enduring effects of _____________
experience on _____________ development.
Freud’s theory articulates 1) personality structure as the id (the source of all _____________
and _____________ and cannot tolerate _____________ ), ego (is partly _____________ , is
responsible for dealing with _____________ and satisfying the _____________ and
_____________ of the _____________ in socially _____________ manner), and superego (is
analogous to one’s _____________ ); 2) _____________ for _____________ conflict; and 3)
characteristics of five psychosexual stages. Freud argued that _____________ behavior,
including behavior in _____________ is linked to _____________ experiences that have been
_____________ , that is, that have remained _____________ in the _____________ beyond
normal _____________ . Motives arise from the _____________ . The _____________
consists of _____________ , drives, and _____________ in which the individual is unaware but
that may influence behavior. For example, a person may experience _____________ difficulties
because of traumatic _____________ experiences in _____________ that the individual does not
As Freud investigated the impact of early experience of children on their adult lives he came up
with the idea of psychosexual stages of development. Oral stage (birth to 18 months), Anal stage
(18 months to 3 years), Phallic stage (3-5 years), and Latency (5-6 years – not one of the stages
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really), and Adolescence and puberty lead to the Genital stage. Phallic stage is when the greatest
conflict takes place, and that’s the Oedipus complex (Electra complex). It involves
_____________ feelings for the _____________ sex parent, along with a wish to rid oneself of
the _____________ -sex parent. OC (EC) is resolved through _____________ with the
_____________ sex parent and _____________ of feelings toward the _____________ -sex
parent (due to fear of _____________ , or in case of females _____________ envy), and is
responsible for gender-_____________ conceptions. It eventually leads to the dormant sexuality
of _____________ stage, but when _____________ hits, there is emergence of adult
_____________ and mature relationships, and the adolescent enters the _____________ stage.
Anna Freud argued that _____________ years are marked by turbulence, and therefore, the use
of defense mechanisms. Why? The adolescent experiences _____________ feelings, showing
behaviors that _____________ between such extremes as _____________ independence and
Erikson argued that each individual proceeds through eight stages of development from cradle
to grave. Each stage presents the individual with a _____________ , and at each stage a
particular _____________ component becomes the focus of _____________ . The
_____________ arise from a combination of _____________ demands from others and the
person’s attempt to _____________ to these challenges, influencing those around him/her. If a
particular _____________ is handled well, the outcome is _____________ , and if not handled
well, the outcome is _____________ . Few people emerge from a particular stage with an
entirely _____________ or _____________ outcome. Therefore, the goal is a _____________
balance that must be struck between the two poles, although the outcome should tend toward the
_____________ side of the scale. The psychosocial crisis of adolescence is _____________ vs.
_____________ confusion. Forming a coherent _____________ is the basic theme of Erikson’s
writings on adolescence. Adolescents must tentatively answer such questions as, Who am I?
Where do I belong? And what do I want to do with my life? Those adolescents with a solid sense
of _____________ formulate _____________ plans, gain a sense of _____________ , are less
susceptible to _____________ pressure, have higher levels of self-_____________ , are
_____________ and believe they are in control of their _____________ .
Cognitive theory focuses on _____________ operations that change during childhood and
adolescence. Cognitive theories emphasize the individual’s active role in understanding the
Piaget’s theory states that children and adolescents demonstrate _____________ change by
systematically exploring and manipulating the _____________ to understand it. He described
_____________ orderly stages of growth in children’s _____________ representation of the
world and the effects of cognitive development on a broad range of related behaviors. The
stages of distinctly different thinking processes, as describe by Piaget, are sensorimotor stage,
preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage. Piaget carefully
described the process by which children develop their _____________ skills. The final stage of
_____________ development, called the stage of _____________ operations, develops in
_____________ . _____________ develop the ability to understand and use _____________ ,
consider _____________ other than the one in which they are living, and use _____________
reasoning. They become impressed by _____________ over _____________ . Piaget’s work
has led to significant amount of research, but a criticism of Piaget may be that he underestimated
the importance of formal education.
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Vygotsky assumed that _____________ development is fundamentally _____________ in
nature, taking place under the _____________ of others, occurring as a natural _____________
of working along side someone who has already _____________ a better way of doing things.
For something to be passed on, the person must be close enough to reach out for it. Vygotsky
termed this closeness the _____________ of _____________ development. Proximal means
“_____________ ” or “_____________ to.” Therefore, in order for people to profit from
working alongside those who are more skilled, their own _____________ must come close to, or
_____________ the behavior of others. The zone represents the _____________ of
_____________ that individuals must possess in order to profit from _____________ to those
who are more skilled.
Behavioral and social cognitive theories emphasize _____________ behavior and
_____________ . Behaviorists don’t believe in the concept of stages, and they see external
stimuli as the source of change. Bandura’s cognitive social learning theory considers
_____________ , _____________ , and _____________ factors, _____________ learning and
personal _____________ , as key factors in _____________ . According to Bandura, people
also learn by _____________ others; they don’t have to be directly _____________ or
_____________ to change their behavior. Teens _____________ models they see around them.
_____________ , _____________ , and older _____________ serve as _____________ , as do
others who adolescents may admire such as _____________ and _____________ .
Social learning theorists divide behavior into two different processes: _____________ and
_____________ . Teens may learn something, either through direct _____________ or through
_____________ others. However, whether they exhibit the behavior (_____________ ) depends
partly on _____________ -_____________ , the _____________ about what one
_____________ and _____________ do in a _____________ situation. So judgment of
_____________ -_____________ affects one’s choice of _____________ . _____________ -
_____________ is a central concept of social learning theory, as it affects just how much effort
an adolescent will expend on a task.
Ecological and contextual theories examine environmental influence on child development.
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological, contextual theory proposes layers of _____________ influence. He
suggested that people live their lives enmeshed in many different _____________ at the same
time, and _____________ theory systematically _____________ these environments to one
A number or different environmental systems operate simultaneously:
Microsystem: consists of the _____________ interactions of the teen and the _____________ .
These _____________ to _____________ interactions take place in _____________ or at
_____________ . It consists of where the teen _____________ , the _____________ in the
home and the _____________ they do together.
Mesosystem: involves the interrelationships among _____________ or more _____________ in
which the person actively _____________ . For example, the teen’s mesosystem includes the
_____________ between the _____________ and the _____________ and between
_____________ and the teen’s _____________ group. Another example is that when a teen
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enters _____________ , it may affect the pattern of _____________ and _____________
occurring within the _____________ .
Exosystem: involves setting in which the teen is not _____________ involved, at least at the
_____________ time, but that still affect the _____________ and _____________ , such as
_____________ place of _____________ , _____________ attended by _____________ or
younger _____________ , parents’ _____________ of _____________ . Sometimes the actions
of exosystem directly impact a child as when the _____________ board rules to increase or
decrease the class _____________ .
Macrosystem: involves the _____________ or _____________ system inherent in
_____________ institutions, including _____________ , _____________ and _____________
influences and existing _____________ and _____________ systems. Examples include
availability of _____________ care for a teen who needs _____________ treatment,
_____________ as how teens who run afoul of law will be treated, or change in the status of
women within the society and its impact on the teen.
Chronosystem: dimension of _____________ in the sense that environment changes
_____________ . We know that developmental changes trigger by life events or experiences,
such as _____________ of a sibling or severe _____________ that restricts functioning.
No single theory explains adolescent development. An _____________ theoretical
_____________ , using aspects of all major theories, allows and/or promotes a complete
narration. It also selects the theory that is most useful for analyzing the behavior under analysis
(i.e. Piaget for cognitive development and Erikson for identity development).
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