Geology Terms
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Geology Terms Geology Terms Document Transcript

  • P a g e | 1 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S NAME: LATIF HYDER WADHO BATCH: 13 ROLL NO: K13-CE-19 Assignment: Geological Terms 1 – Folds and Its types 2- Faults 3-Zones of Earthquakes 4-Ground Water 5- Aquifer 6- Tunnel 7- Earthquake Zones in Pakistan Assigned By: Sir Heemu Karira Date: 26/3/2014 MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB CAMPUS KHAIRPUR MIR’S DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
  • P a g e | 2 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S 1-Folds A fold is when the earth’s crust is pushed up from its sides There are six types of folds that may occur: 1. Anticline 2. Syncline 3. Tight Fold 4. Over fold 5. Recumbent Fold 6. Nappe Fold 1.Anticline An anticline occurs when a tectonic plate is compressed by movement of other plates. This causes the center of the compressed plate to bend in an upwards motion. Fold Mountains are formed when the crust is pushed up as tectonic plates collide. When formed, these mountains are usually enormous like the newly formed Rocky Mountains in Western Canada and the United States To the top right is a picture of an anticline. Beneath is a picture of the Rocky Mountains.
  • P a g e | 3 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S 2.Syncline A syncline is similar to an anticline, in that it is formed by the compression of a tectonic plate. However, a syncline occurs when the plate bends in a downward motion. The lowest part of the syncline is known as the trough. To the top right is a diagram of a syncline fold (The bottom of the fold center is the trough). Beneath, is an example of a syncline in California. Can you distinguish the trough in this picture? 3.Tight Fold A tight fold is a sharp peaked anticline or syncline. It is just a regular anticline or syncline, but was compressed with a greater force causing the angle to be much smaller. Folds such as these occur to form steep mountain slopes like those in Whistler, British Columbia. To the left is a photo of a tight fold formed by extreme pressure on these rocks. 4.Over fold An over fold takes place when folding rock becomes bent or warped.
  • P a g e | 4 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S Sometimes the folds can become so disfigured that they may even overlap each other. An example of over folding is shown in the diagram below. 5.Recumbent Fold This type of fold is compressed so much that it is no longer vertical. There is a large extent of overlapping and it can take the form of an “s”. To the right is a diagram that shows the process of recumbent folding 6.Nappe Fold This fold is similar to a recumbent fold because of the extent of folding and overlapping. However, nappe folding becomes so overturned that rock layers become fractured. To the right is a picture of someone standing under a fractured fold.
  • P a g e | 5 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S 2-FAULTS A fault is when tension and compression associated with plate movement is so great that blocks of rock fracture or break apart. This process can occur very rapidly, in the form of earthquakes. The damage caused by this event can be very destructive and cause severe changes to the earths surface. There are five types of faults that can occur: 1. Normal Fault 2. Reverse Fault 3. Tear Fault 4. Rift Valley 5. Horst Fault 1.Normal Fault This occurs when rocks move away from each other due to the land moving apart. When the rocks move apart, the side with the less stable tectonic plate drops below the side with the more stable plate. On the top right is the movement of a normal fault. A picture is also shown below. Notice the displacement of the different types of rock on each side of the fault.
  • P a g e | 6 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S 2.Reverse Fault Reverse faults are the opposite of normal faults. Rocks are compressed such that one plate moves up while the other descends below it. When plates compress and crack, usually the more dense one is forced under the less dense one. This is similar to the action of the continental crust colliding with the oceanic crust. Here the more dense crust, being the oceanic crust is forced under the continental crust. To the right is an animation of a reverse fault. Below that is a real picture of what a reverse fault looks like. 3.Tear Fault A tear fault, also known as a transform fault, occurs when two tectonic plates slide in a lateral motion past each other. This type of fault causes the most severe earthquakes because they grind against each other. These earthquakes can either be shallow or deep and cause tremors over a short or long period of time. Tear faults can occur frequently, especially along the coast of California.
  • P a g e | 7 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S 4.Rift Valley A rift valley is when two normal faults occur parallel to each other and the land sinks between the faults. There are two major examples of this. One being the Great Rift Valley in North Africa and the other, the San Andreas Fault in California. The top right picture is San Andreas Fault and on the bottom right is a diagram of what a rift valley looks like 5. Horst Fault
  • P a g e | 8 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S A Horst is the opposite of a rift valley. The land between the parallel faults is forced upward because the two faults are being pushed together. This process can take a long time to occur because the average plate movement is one inch per year. There are examples of horst faults on the left. 3-Zones of Earth From seismic studies it is known that the Earth is composed of several layers, somewhat like the layers of an onion. The outermost layer is the crust, composed mainly of compounds of aluminum and silicates. The next layer is the mantle, composed mainly of rocks containing iron and magnesium silicates. The innermost layer is the core, made up of mostly iron and nickel.
  • P a g e | 9 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S THE ‘SPHERES’ OF EARTH The crust and the upper portion of the mantle are together known as the ‘lithosphere.’ Much of Earth is covered by a layer of water or ice called the ‘hydrosphere’. The thin layer of air that surrounds the Earth is the ‘atmosphere’. The portion of the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and solid land where life exists is together known as the ‘biosphere’. EARTH’S MANTLE Unlike the crust, which is mostly hard rock, the mantle is a highly viscous plastic- like material that can flow. The molten mass in the mantle is in constant motion, which makes the continental plates move. The mantle is also the place where most gemstones such as diamonds and garnets are formed.
  • P a g e | 10 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S EARTH’S CORE The core is divided into two layers, the outer core and the inner core. Mainly made up of iron and nickel. Temperatures range from 4,000C to 7,500C. The outer core and the inner core together produce Earth’s magnetism. Earth’s magnetism is what makes the magnetic compass work.
  • P a g e | 11 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S 4-Ground Water Groundwater lies beneath the surface of the earth, but is affected by surface supply Groundwater is affected by changes to all of the earth Earth’s spheres due to linkage through the hydrologic cycle Percolation Water percolates downward through permeable rock through the zone of aeration rock pores are unsaturated by water, many contain air Water then accumulates in the zone of saturation all rock pores contain water The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation its surface follows the contours of the ground above the water table controls the movement of surface water Porosity describes the size, shape, arrangement, cementation, and compaction of subsurface material Permeable/Impermeable whether or not a subsurface structure permits the flow of water. Groundwater mining  The act of removing water from an aquifer at a rate greater than its flow and recharge capacities Collapsing aquifers: water in aquifers often provide support for the porous rock, its removal could result in the rock collapsing, in which case the capacity of the aquifer is greatly reduced. Groundwater comprises a large percentage of freshwater resources 5- Aquifer A layer of rock that is permeable to water flow in useable amounts unconsolidated aquifer: loose sand and gravel consolidated aquifer: porous rock, often sandstone or limestone
  • P a g e | 12 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S Confined Aquifer  A layer of permeable rock between two impermeable layers �An aquifer between two aquicludes  Unconfined Aquifer  An aquifer without an overlying aquiclude  Perched Aquifer  An aquifer created by a small aquiclude at a higher level than the water table 6- Tunnel A tunnel is an underground or underwater passage way, enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A tunnel is relatively long and narrow; the length is often much greater than twice the diameter.
  • P a g e | 13 K13-CE-19 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SZAB KHAIRPUR MIR’S 7- Earthquake Zones in Pakistan Followings are the major affected earthquake zones of Pakistan 1-KASHMIR EARTHQUAKE OCTOBER 8, 2005 8:50 AM OCTOBER 8, 2005 Magnitude 7.6 10 KM (6 MI) DEPTH 79,000 DEAD IN PAKISTAN 3 MILLION HOMELESS 2- Shahbandar sindh Magnitude 8 3-Kahan Baluchistan Magnitude 8 4-Sibi Baluchistan Magnitude 7 5-Muzaffarabad Magnitude 7.8 6-Hunza Magnitude 6.2 7-Ziarat Disstt Quetta Magnitude 6.4 8- Awran Baluchistan Magnitude 7.8 The 2013 Earthquake The 2013 Pakistan Earthquake was a Magnitude 7.7 that Took Place on 24 September, with an epicenter 66 km north-northeast of Awaran in the Province of Baluchistan At Least 825 were killed -THE END-