Design principles and requirements of harbours

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  • 1. HARBOR PLANNING AND REQUIREMENTS
  • 2. The planning of harbor should be carried out after collecting the necessary information of the existing features at the proposed site. The following important facts should be studied:  To carry out a thorough survey of the neighborhood including the fore shore and depths of water in the vicinity is necessary.  The nature of the harbor, whether sheltered or not should be studied.  The existence of sea insects which undermine the foundation should be studied.
  • 3.  The problem of silting or erosion of coast line should be studied carefully.  To ascertain the character of the ground borings and soundings should be taken.  To know the probable surface conditions on land, borings on land should also be made. It will be help full in locating the harbor works correctly.  The natural metrological phenomenon should be studied at site with respect to frequency of storms, rainfall, range of tides, maximum and minimum temperatures, direction and intensity of winds, humidity, direction and velocity of currents etc.
  • 4. Harbor area required depends upon the following factors:  On the size and number of ships to be accommodated in the harbor at a time.  On the length and width needed for movement of ships to and from berths.  Type of cargo carried. To make the harbor useful for operating and dispatching ships, the water depth in the entrance, approach channel and harbor basin should be sufficient even at the low water spring tide.
  • 5. Besides these requirements the positioning of various elements is very important i-e the location and alignment of elements such as entrance, approach channel, turning basin, break water, wharves, jetties and docks etc. is very important to ensure easy manoeuverability and additional navigation facilities. The main faction of a harbor is to provide a safe and suitable accommodation to the vessels needing refuge, supplies, repairs, refueling or transfer of cargo and passengers.
  • 6.  Requirements of a good harbor:  Following are the requirements of a good harbor: • The ship channels whether natural or artificial should have sufficient depth for the draft of the visiting vessels to the harbour. • The bottom of the harbour should provide secured anchorage to hold the ships against the force of high winds. • To protect against the destructive wave action, the land masses or break water must be provided.
  • 7.  The entrance of the harbour should be wide enough to provide the ready passage for shipping and at the same time it should be narrow enough to restrict the transmission of excessive amounts of wave energy in time of storms. Due to the drastic changes in the size of ships the emphasis has been laid on the deepening of channels.
  • 8. Requirements of a harbor of refuge:  Facilities of obtaining repairs and supplies.  Safe and convenient anchorage against the sea.  Ready accessibility from the high seas. On dangerous coast lines damaged ships under stress of weather conditions will need immediate shelter and quick repairs. Thus all types of naval crafts big or small will need refuge in an emergency and hence such refuge harbors should provide spacious accommodation. Modern big ships will require a lot of space for turning about.
  • 9.  Requirements of a commercial Harbor:  Storage sheds for cargo.  To avoid delay, good and quick repair facilities.  Amply quay space i-e ample space for unloading and loading cargo and facilities for transporting loading and unloading cargo.  Spacious accommodation for the mercantile marine.  Good and sufficient sheltered conditions as loading and unloading is done with advantage in calmer waters.
  • 10.  Requirements of fishing Harbor:  The harbor should be constantly open for arrival and departure of fishing ships.  Loading and unloading facilities along with quick dispatch facilities for the perishable fish catch such as railway sidings and roads should be there.  Refrigerator stores with sufficient storing space for preserving the fish.
  • 11.  Requirements of military harbor: These harbors are the naval basis meant to accommodate the naval vessels.They serve as supply depots also.