The planning of harbor should be carried
out after collecting the necessary information
of the existing features at the proposed site.
The following important facts should be
To carry out a thorough survey of the
neighborhood including the fore shore and
depths of water in the vicinity is necessary.
The nature of the harbor, whether sheltered
or not should be studied.
The existence of sea insects which undermine
the foundation should be studied.
The problem of silting or erosion of coast line
should be studied carefully.
To ascertain the character of the ground borings
and soundings should be taken.
To know the probable surface conditions on land,
borings on land should also be made. It will be
help full in locating the harbor works correctly.
The natural metrological phenomenon should be
studied at site with respect to frequency of
storms, rainfall, range of tides, maximum and
minimum temperatures, direction and intensity
of winds, humidity, direction and velocity of
Harbor area required depends upon the
On the size and number of ships to be
accommodated in the harbor at a time.
On the length and width needed for
movement of ships to and from berths.
Type of cargo carried.
To make the harbor useful for operating
and dispatching ships, the water depth in the
entrance, approach channel and harbor basin
should be sufficient even at the low water
Besides these requirements the positioning
of various elements is very important i-e the
location and alignment of elements such as
entrance, approach channel, turning basin,
break water, wharves, jetties and docks etc. is
very important to ensure easy
manoeuverability and additional navigation
The main faction of a harbor is to
provide a safe and suitable accommodation
to the vessels needing refuge, supplies,
repairs, refueling or transfer of cargo and
Requirements of a good harbor:
Following are the requirements of a good
• The ship channels whether natural or artificial
should have sufficient depth for the draft of
the visiting vessels to the harbour.
• The bottom of the harbour should provide
secured anchorage to hold the ships against
the force of high winds.
• To protect against the destructive wave
action, the land masses or break water must
The entrance of the harbour should be wide
enough to provide the ready passage for
shipping and at the same time it should be
narrow enough to restrict the transmission of
excessive amounts of wave energy in time of
storms. Due to the drastic changes in the size
of ships the emphasis has been laid on the
deepening of channels.
Requirements of a harbor of refuge:
Facilities of obtaining repairs and supplies.
Safe and convenient anchorage against the
Ready accessibility from the high seas.
On dangerous coast lines damaged ships
under stress of weather conditions will need
immediate shelter and quick repairs. Thus all
types of naval crafts big or small will need
refuge in an emergency and hence such
refuge harbors should provide spacious
accommodation. Modern big ships will
require a lot of space for turning about.
Requirements of a commercial Harbor:
Storage sheds for cargo.
To avoid delay, good and quick repair
Amply quay space i-e ample space for
unloading and loading cargo and facilities for
transporting loading and unloading cargo.
Spacious accommodation for the mercantile
Good and sufficient sheltered conditions as
loading and unloading is done with
advantage in calmer waters.
Requirements of fishing Harbor:
The harbor should be constantly open for
arrival and departure of fishing ships.
Loading and unloading facilities along with
quick dispatch facilities for the perishable fish
catch such as railway sidings and roads
should be there.
Refrigerator stores with sufficient storing
space for preserving the fish.
Requirements of military harbor:
These harbors are the naval basis meant to
accommodate the naval vessels.They serve
as supply depots also.
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