LASI13-Boston, Rappolt Schlichtmann

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  • Research points to four clusters of academic emotions that can be measured and that significantly relate to students’ achievement through the middle grades (Pekrun, Hochstadt, & Kramer, 1996; Pekrun & Hofmann, 1999; Titz, 2001): 1) enjoyment, hope, and pride; 2) relief; 3) anxiety, shame, and anger; and 4) hopelessness and boredom.
  • Organisms constantly evaluate the relevance of environmental challenges for their own well being – checking whether stimuli are present or absent, beneficial or threatening, and easy or difficult to approach or avoid.Appraisal: direct, immediate and intuitive evaluations, to account for qualitative distinctions among emotions Appraisals result in action tendencies which are experienced as emotionsThe most influential early appraisal theorist – he distinguished between primary and secondary appraisalsNot all current appraisal theorist maintain this distinction but I think it is useful (1. implications of a situation for ones well being 2.assessment of one’s ability to cope)Two other important ideas of his which are maintained in current theory:-because the human mind is capable of making subtle distinctions that allow for enormous variability in interpretation of the environment, human emotions themselves are characterized by enormous variability and subtle distinctions-the experience of emotion is a continuous process
  • Emotions are characterized by their enormous variability and subtle distinctionsThe experience of emotion is continuousEmotions are processes (Roseman & Smith, 2001)Emotion is comprised of simpler but still meaningful elements, elements that correspond to appraisals and their correlates – they imply continuousness, and potentially infinite range, with intermediate and translational states between emotions, and episodic and cultural variabilityEmotions are adaptive responses to the world – not simply abstract sensations; to distinguish emotions like fear and anger need to know how organism interprets its situation
  • What does this look like in real life? Emotions are variable – changing on a continuous basis as an organism interacts with his or her enviornment, and appraises the enviornment as benevolant or threatening – but are also predictive of engagement/learning, and predictableMeaningful Dimensions to dynamics of emotion
  • Improved memory performance with moderate cortisol increases (Lupien et al., 1999). Declarative memory function is impaired following the administration of acute or chronic synthetic cortisol in high doses (for a review, Lupien and McEwen, 1997). Working memory, initiation and cessation of action, abstract and conceptual thinking, cognitive flexibility and response to novelty, and goal directed behavior are also impacted by stress/emotion (Baddeley, 1995; Luria, 1966; Fuster, 1980).
  • Emotions are biological processes that organize human behavior by constraining thought and action as the environment is appraised as either beneficial or threatening (Fischer & Bidell, 1998; Frijda, 1986; Lazarus, 1991).The 2 most important dimensions are activation (or arousal) and valenceSLIDE… Blascovich and colleagues describe “challenge” motivational states when an individual perceives his or her resources as in balance with the demands of a task (Blascovich et al., 2003). Challenge states promote cognitive flexibility and decision-making and are characterized by energized, active psychophysiological states. In a related framework, Lazarus and Folkman (1984) provide a model of appraisal and adaptation in which positive emotions emerge from “challenging” experiences characterized by closely leveled demands and resources; such experiences lead to the mobilization of energy and promote the effort to respond.
  • What you “know” and “understand” is dynamic, not static. Emotion organizes, drives, amplifies, and attenuates all students’ observed thinking and reasoning.How kids experience school on a psycho-physiologic level is highly dependant on their prior experiences of school and at home.the accuracy and efficiency of thinking processes, perceptions, and effort are influenced by affective states (Ellis, Thomas, & Rodriguez, 1984; Zambo & Brem, 2004), and motivation and emotion in the face of challenge substantially predict achievement (Dweck, 2000; Pajares & Miller, 1994). WITH THE THIRD BULLET:For example: Recent article published in Science reports a 40% reduction in achievement gap when African American students experience a 20min intervention designed to reaffirm their sense of personal adequacy or "self-integrity."
  • What are we going for??? Not neg, and high arousal… we want challenge states.
  • Another way to think about this that makes it easier to understand from a design perspective…
  • following illustration demonstrates such an “experience map” from an elderly female visitor who is not particularly interested in art. (Below right: a visitor is given the data armband; afterwards they enter the exhibition. The faster a person goes, the more pale the line; the slower, the darker the line. In green are the “works’ areas of effect”. Red the GSR signifiers, yellow the HR signifiers.)
  • ELLIE VIDEOThe goal of education is the development of expert learners, something that all students can become. From the UDL perspective expert learners are:  Resourceful, knowledgeable learners. Expert learners bring considerable prior knowledge to new learning, and activate that prior knowledge to identify, organize, prioritize, and assimilate new information; they recognize the tools and resources that would help them find, structure, and remember new information; they know how to transform new information into meaningful and useable knowledge. Strategic, goal-directed learners. Expert learners formulate plans for learning; they devise effective strategies and tactics to optimize learning; they organize resources and tools to facilitate learning; they monitor their progress; they recognize their own strengths and weaknesses as learners; they abandon plans and strategies that are ineffective.  Purposeful, motivated learners. Expert learners are eager for new learning and are motivated by the mastery of learning itself; they are goal-directed in their learning; they know how to set challenging learning goals for themselves, and know how to sustain the effort and resilience that reaching those goals will require; they can monitor and regulate emotional reactions that would be impediments or distractions to their successful learning. struggle with a learning task is attributed to origins that can be improved, such as the need to work on a specific skill (Dweck, 2000; Mueller & Dweck, 1998). In adopting a mastery-orientation to learning in their classrooms, educators allow effort to play a more central role in the process of learning and in feedback following assessment (Ames, 1992; Guthrie & Cox, 2001; Rosenholtz & Simpson, 1984; Stipek, 1996).


  • 1. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition Emotion and Learning: Making the Leap to Learning Analytics Gabrielle Rappolt-Schlichtmann Director of Research July 2, 2013
  • 2. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition Emotions are biological processes that organize human behavior by constraining thought and action as the environment is appraised as either beneficial or threatening (Fischer & Bidell, 1998; Frijda, 1986; Lazarus, 1991).
  • 3. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition 3
  • 4. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition 4 Appraisal Type Appraisal Novelty Is this novel? Change attracts attention. Valence Is this good or bad? Goals/Needs Is this important to me? Agency What caused this to happen? Can this be controlled? By me? Norms/Values Has a social norm been broken? By whom?
  • 5. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition 5
  • 6. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition
  • 7. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition
  • 8. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition
  • 9. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition Resources Demands Salient Concepts and Actionable Ideas The balance between the level of challenge in the environment and one’s perceived skills and resources is the driving force in shaping affective responses and cognitive engagement.
  • 10. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition Core Phenomenon: Appraisal
  • 11. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition
  • 12. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition Core Phenomenon: Appraisal
  • 13. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition High Low PositiveNegative Survival Zone • Frustration • Anger • Defensive • Anxious Burnout Zone • Exhausted • Empty • Sad • Hopeless Performance Zone • Optimistic • Challenged • Engaged • Invigorated Renewal Zone • Peaceful • Relieved • Receptive • Carefree
  • 14. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition Engagement and Thinking in Informal Science Learning  Create multidimensional measurement model of core affect that accurately reflects participant perception of demands and resources  Explore how core affect, engagement and thinking relate dynamically in designed informal science learning environment
  • 15. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition Measuring Core Affect  How positive or negative did you feel while you were doing this activity?  Choose a word or two that describe how you felt while you were doing this activity?  In the last activity how interested (bored, confused, proud, etc.) were you?
  • 16. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition The Museum as a Field of Influence
  • 17. Co-regulation of Emotion and Cognition Expert Learners…  Resourceful, knowledgeable  Strategic, goal directed  Purposeful, motivated