Intro to waves
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  • 1. Draw me a wave! YouTube - Water bubble in Space (zero gravity)
  • 2. Learning Outcomes Everyone should: •Define a wave •Differentiate between longitudinal and transverse waves (with examples) Most will: •Define amplitude, wavelength, frequency and period of a wave •Describe the relationship between frequency and period Some might: •Use the wave equation
  • 3. Waves Waves can transfer energy and information without a net motion of the medium through which they travel. They involve vibrations (oscillations) of some sort.
  • 4. Rays Rays indicates the direction of energy transfer.
  • 5. Transverse waves The oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer. Direction of energy transfer oscillation
  • 6. Transverse waves Peak/crest trough
  • 7. Transverse waves • Water ripples • Light • On a rope/slinky • Earthquake
  • 8. Longitudinal waves The oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer. Direction of energy transfer oscillation
  • 9. Longitudinal waves compression rarefraction
  • 10. Longitudinal waves • Sound • Slinky • Earthquake
  • 11. Wave measurements
  • 12. Amplitude - A The maximum height of the wave from the middle line position. amplitude
  • 13. Frequency - f The number of complete waves (oscillations) in one second. Measured in Hertz. 50 Hz = 50 vibrations/waves/oscillations in one second.
  • 14. 1 2 0 2 1 1 2 Height (m) Time (s) Frequency – The number of waves per second. If one wave passes in one second it has a frequency of one Hertz or Hz. This is the unit of frequency.
  • 15. Wavelength - λ The length of one complete wave. wavelength
  • 16. Wave speed - v The speed at which the wave fronts pass a stationary observer. 330 m.s-1
  • 17. The Wave Equation V = speed of wave (m/s) f = frequency of wave (Hz) λ = wavelength (m) v = fλv λf x
  • 18. 1) A water wave has a frequency of 2Hz and a wavelength of 0.3m. How fast is it moving? 2) A water wave travels through a pond with a speed of 1m/s and a frequency of 5Hz. What is the wavelength of the waves? 3) The speed of sound is 330m/s (in air). When Dave hears this sound his ear vibrates 660 times a second. What was the wavelength of the sound? 4) Purple light has a wavelength of around 6x10-7 m and a frequency of 5x1014 Hz. What is the speed of purple light? Group wave equation questions 0.2m 0.5m 0.6m/s 3x108 m/s
  • 19. Wave equation questions v λf x