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Cambodia Kingdom of Wonder
Nation Religion and King
Zaman University
Kingdom of Cambodia (1993-2013)
Instructor: Chanratan...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 1 | P A G E
I. Economic i...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 2 | P A G E
The trade bal...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 3 | P A G E
FUNCINPEC (Ro...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 4 | P A G E
III. Environm...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 5 | P A G E
testing syste...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 6 | P A G E
1. Population...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 7 | P A G E
2. Migration
...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 8 | P A G E
b. External M...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 9 | P A G E
schemes, trav...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 10 | P A G E
Phnom Penh c...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 11 | P A G E
deemed pivot...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 12 | P A G E
In years sin...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 13 | P A G E
References
C...
Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I
GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 14 | P A G E
Politics in ...
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  1. 1. Cambodia Kingdom of Wonder Nation Religion and King Zaman University Kingdom of Cambodia (1993-2013) Instructor: Chanratana Chen Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 January 31st , 2013 Group Members 1. Phanara Mao 2. Vatana Niphea 3. Seng Ngov 4. Kesorkol Heng 5. Ibrohim Aripov 6. Maridet Rithya 7. Fong Ty
  2. 2. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 1 | P A G E I. Economic in Cambodia (1993-present) Economy is the most important factor in each country in the world; also Cambodian economy is the survival of Cambodian Nation. According to history of economy in Cambodia, Cambodia shifted from socialism economy to market economy in 1989, and started experiencing in economic growth over this recent decade. Additionally, in 1994 the Minister of Commerce issued to all provincial governors and mayors Circular No.63, which instructed that market standards and guidelines should be observed as; (1) all the prices of goods shall be determined by mutual agreement between buyers and sellers, (2) the State shall allow free competition between traders, (3) the State shall guarantee traders freedom to move goods. Furthermore, According New Article 10 of the Law on the Amendment to the Law on Investment (The Amended Law on Investment) also guarantees that the Cambodian Government shall not fix the price or fee of products or services of an approved Qualified Investment Project (QIP). Thus, Cambodia provides economic and business activities with the most open and freest environment. Noticeably, bases on Ministry of Finance and Economicannual report, the size of economy in Cambodia has also been expanded steadily. The amount ofGrowth Domestic Products has been slightly grown with 43,057 billion Riels in 2009 and 47,048 billion Riels in 2010 and is projected to be 52,141 billion Riel in 2011 (approximately USD 12.9 billion) and 57, 363 billion Riel in 2012 (approximately USD 14.2 billion). Likewise, Per capita GDP has also steadily increased since 1998 when the Riel greatly depreciated against the dollar. Per capita GDP in 2010 reached USD 830, an increase of approximately 70% from 487 US dollars in 2005. It is projected to reach USD 904 in 2011 and USD 984 in 2012 respectively, according to the MEF‟s forecast. As the primary industry occupies 32% of the total economy, the agriculture is the main industry of Cambodia. Major agricultural products are rice, rubber, maize, cassava, etc. The secondary industry and tertiary industry respectively account for 22% and 38% of the total economy. The major industry of the manufacturing sector is apparel products, which are directed to exports. Among the tertiary industry, the tourism-related industries are important to the Cambodian economy.
  3. 3. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 2 | P A G E The trade balance of Cambodia keeps a continuous deficit. Both exports and imports have been expanding as a result of economic growth. In 2011, the export value was US$5.4 billion and the import value was US$7.0 billion. Therefore, Cambodian Government have experienced in trade deficit, which is an influent factor of leading budget deficits. The major destination countries of exports are USA, Hong Kong, China, EU, Canada, and Vietnam. The major importing countries are Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam.The primary export product is apparel, which account for more than 80% of total exports. The major import products are textiles, petroleum product, and vehicles. Cambodia significantly depends on imports for industrial input products and daily commodities. Specifically, the official national currency is the Riel, but US dollars are commonly used in businesses and commercial transactions. Finally, the most important sources of government budget is tax revenue, which account for almost whole government revenues, and the rest government budget are foreign aid, and government services from public administration . The table below shows the common effective preferential tariff in Cambodia in 2008; Source: ASEAN Secretariat‟s website at http://www.asean.org/22368.zip On the other hand, the major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance- more than 50% of the population is less than 21 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure. II. Cambodia Political Situation (1993-2014?) Following back to the past, in 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a cease fire, the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) was established to supervise implementation of the UN Peace Settlement. UN sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy and a new constitution, promulgated on 24 September 1993, and transformed Cambodia into a Constitutional Monarchy.
  4. 4. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 3 | P A G E FUNCINPEC (Royalists) formed a coalition government with the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) following the 1993 election. This first coalition government ended in 1997 after factional fighting when in the aftermath of armed clashes between the forces loyal to Hun Sen and Prince Ranariddh the former re-asserted his political dominance.The 1998 elections resulted in another coalition government between the FUNCINPEC Party and the CPP. CPP leader, Hun Sen, was made Prime Minister and Prince Ranariddh became President of the National Assembly. A Senate was established in 1998. During the past five years, Cambodia has enjoyed much more political stability and territorial unity than for decades. In the 2003 National Assembly Elections, to which New Zealand sent election observers, violence and intimidation was less present than in previous elections and the process was generally considered to be credible. Although the CPP received a simple majority, it did not receive the two-thirds then required constitutionally to rule in its own right. In 2013, there was an agreement in legislating law of National Election, which as about two-third policy changed to %50+ , therefore the political party obtain more that 50% are able to from a government, and leader of that party will be the only one prime minister .Link Here In the recent National Assembly elections (July 2008), a similar result transpired with the CPP securing 90seats of the party voted, returning Hun Sen to power for another five years. The most recent National Election in 2013, CPP seemed to be less supporters, dropped from 90 seats to 68 seats, and also CPP (Cambodian People Party) has been accused by Opposition Party (CNRP=Cambodian Nation Rescue Party) that CPP stole the National Election results which was not reflecting civilians‟ needs, CPP has power on pointing National Election Committees (NEC) to do so, and unfree and unfair election with clashes should not accepted. One of the main reasons was Vietnamese, or Vietnamese-Cambodian residents who have lived in Cambodia for ages were able to vote in significant amount notably. Second reason is a huge different result between CNRP, and CPP collected. As official results claimed that CPP won, Cambodia has been dropped to the hole of political consistency and social instability again.
  5. 5. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 4 | P A G E III. Environment Today(1993-present) As you guys know, before 1993, we had war, and that make the environment in Cambodia does not seem to be very good. Some land fill with mine that remained from war and even until now, we are still not be able to take it all out since we do not know its entire place. Well, between 1993 and 1996, the Government of Cambodia enacted several key pieces of environmental legislation to establish the legal framework to control, use and manage its natural resources and urban environment. In Cambodia, there are many complex environmental problems, including over fishing, water pollution, air pollution, and soil erosion. The main issues that affect the environment are Air pollution and Water pollution. First one is Air pollution, the city of Phnom Penh is experiencing growth and, with this growth, a level of air pollutions is also increased. The major cause of air pollution and one that is very difficult to manage is burning fossil fuels because Transportation has become a key part of our lives, Cars and heavy-duty trucks, trains, shipping vessels and airplanes all burn lots of fossil fuels to work. Emissions from automobile engines contain both primary and secondary pollutants. This is because humans rely heavily on vehicles and engines for transporting people, good and services. And another cause is emissions from industries and manufacturing activities. Have you ever seen a manufacturing company before? You will notice that there are long tubes (called chimneys) erected high into the air, with lots of smoke and fumes coming out of it. Waste incinerators, manufacturing industries and power plants emit high levels of carbon monoxide, organic compound, and chemicals into the air. This happens almost everywhere that people live. Petroleum refineries also release lots of hydrocarbons into the air. Second is the environmental problem is water pollution. Since 1998, Phnom Penh‟s population has doubled to more than 2 million. High-rise buildings have popped up in the city‟s center and housing developments have been hastily erected. Yet the city‟s antiquated, decades-old drainage system has undergone little improvement in that time and experts say the rapid urban growth currently under way could outpace the drainage system‟s ability to channel rain and the increasing amount of wastewater out of Phnom Penh. The urban infrastructure, particularly water supply and drainage systems, have deteriorated severely in the past two decades in Phnom Penh. Water pollution caused by untreated wastewater is one of the serious problems that confront most developing countries. In Phnom Penh City, all kinds of wastewater are discharged to rivers, lakes and wetlands throughout the city without proper treatment causing serious surface water pollution. Water testing is an essential factor to control water pollution. However, water quality data and water quality
  6. 6. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 5 | P A G E testing systems are still poorly developed in Cambodia due to lack of facilities and technical expertise. Therefore, there is no information available on sewage water quality in Phnom Penh City. This environment issues also cause an effect to the economic, it‟s high economic cost. Extra cost for the people as well as the government will occur, resulting from the impact of environment pollution on public health and buildings or structures. When people become sick because of the pollutants, they spend their family‟s saving on paying doctor‟s service and buying medicines. This leads to more expenditure in their family and lowers their standard of living. As more and more people get sick, the government has to spend more money on health care. The expenses made by the government in the above-mentioned points known as economic costs. The money, which was spending on curing people, could have been used to develop the country in some fields and bring about the country with extra benefits. Since there are the environment issues in Cambodia, Solution also comes up. First of all, the government should strengthen the law of environment like: increase the fine that the citizen has to pay, when they throw the trash in public. Second of all, Government should also repair or enlarge the drainage‟s system, and finally government should give a lecture to citizen that live in a rural area or even in Phnom Penh about the environment effect and how to protect it. To sum up, these two factors that affect the environment, cause the environment in Cambodia goes really down, moreover it‟s also cause the problem to economic. Compare to 1993 the environment seems to be much worse. If the government use that the solution to solve the problem, I believe that environment in Cambodia will be better than it used to be. IV. Population, and Migration in Cambodia (1993-present) Have been recovered from civil war about three decades, Cambodian has re-started to modernize their standard of living again. The rate of population growth has been increasing from year to year since 1993 until now. However, many Cambodian people started to move their settlement as well that we call “Migration”. Meanwhile, urbanization in Cambodia has also increased substantially ever since. Nonetheless, these activities have brought many troubles to Cambodian society, too.
  7. 7. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 6 | P A G E 1. Population On March 3th, 1998, Cambodia government had conducted a general population census on Cambodian population; therefore, the result showed that the population of Cambodia in 1998 was 11,437,656 that among the total population approximately 51.8 percent was female and 48.2 percent was male, and the sex ratio of 93 percent. Again in 2004 in order to obtain an up-to-date information of population of Cambodia between 1998 and 2008, the National Institute of Statistic (NIS) conducted a survey among a nationally representative sample of household; and the result showed that the population of Cambodia on March 3th, 2004 was 12.824 million people that about 51.7 percent was female and 48.3 percent was male, and the sex ratio of 93.5 percent. Also, according to the Cambodian Inter- Census Population Survey in 2004, out of 2.5 million households in Cambodia, out of 29.2 percent of household, female plays an important role in heading the household which increased about 3.5 percent over the proportion of 25.7 percent in 1998. In 2008, the National Institute of Statistic has conducted the general population census on Cambodian population again; and the final result of the census showed that the total population of Cambodia in March, 2008 was 13,395,682. Among the total population of Cambodia, 6,516,054 was male and 6,879,628 was female; 2,614,027 lived in urban area and 10,781,655 lived in rural area. However, among the total population of Cambodia, about 90% are central Khmer and the rest are ethnic groups: Chinese 1%, Vietnamese (the largest minority in Cambodia), Tai (Thai, Lao, Shan, and Kula), Cham or Khmer Muslim, and Khmer Loeu.
  8. 8. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 7 | P A G E 2. Migration Migration of Cambodian people is classified in to two types: internal and external migration. To the government, NGOs, and some others national or international organization, migration is a new topic to them. a. Internal Migration Base on the National Institute of Statistic, in 2004, population of Cambodia about 35 percents are migrants. Comparing to the general census of 1998, this data increased 4 percents that about 35.15 percents represent males and about 34.05 percents are females. The number of percent of people who are not born in the place of enumeration is about 28.6 percents. Despite the number of migration of male is somewhat higher than the number of female migration, the number of female migration is still greater than that of male because the proportion of male in the overall population is relatively smaller than that of females. Meanwhile, migrants among the urban population represented the about 56.23%, whereas the percentage of rural migrants represent only 31.37% of the rural population. Moreover, most rural female migrants, who were unmarried women, were found that they likely migrated to work in tourism industries, garment industries, or sex industries.
  9. 9. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 8 | P A G E b. External Migration Since Cambodia is a developing country, the flow of labor is recently increasing substantially. The labors mostly migrate to, South Korea, Thailand, and Malaysia. Among the total labor migrating to abroad for jobs, the great numbers of labors are flowing into Thailand. They work in the fishing sectors, in fishing boats or in fish processing factories and some other sectors like agriculture, and rice mill. They, however, all are not regular worker; some of them are also irregular worker. The reasons leading many Cambodian irregular workers to migrate to Thailand are landlessness, liabilities, and land grabbing. In addition, besides Thailand, most Cambodian workers migrated to Malaysia. Most of workers are females who are employed in many sectors: economic sector, construction sector, and entertainment sector. Last but not least, South Korea is the third destination of Cambodian workers. Recently, about 2464 Cambodian migrant workers are employed in many sectors of Korean industries: fishing industries, agriculture, and in many other industries. V. Hospitality and Tourism (1993-present) Cambodia is one of the country that have famous culture and transitional and also known as people around the world, and they really want to visit in Cambodia. After 25 year of isolation, Cambodia opened to tourists in the mid -1990s and the tourist‟s numbers have increased every year. Now we ever heard of “ Kingdom of Wonder „‟ which in promotion camping. From 1993 till 2013 the number of international tourists visiting Cambodia have increase and decrease are about 47.50 percent to 34.70 percent. The benefits that have a lot of tourism visited Cambodia because there are a lot of an amazing place like Independent Monument, National Museum, Royal palace and River side those places are in Phnom Penh. Another more, the visitor always goes to visited Angkor want in Siam Reap and go to the beach in Sihanoukville. Both are the Top destination for tourist. The benefits that have many tourists come to visits Cambodia because can increase a lot of money to the country. For the hospitality in Cambodia from 1993 till 2013 have growth up really fast. By providing information, tourists and travelers can make informed choices about how best to support the locals, and by staying at accommodation providers with proactive social responsibility
  10. 10. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 9 | P A G E schemes, travelers can even make a little difference in the bigger scheme of things. To sum up, Hospitality and tourism in Cambodia from 1993 till 2013 have increase and decrease every year and also can attract tourists from another country come to visits Cambodia. VI. Traffic In Cambodia ( 1993-present) There are several main factors that cause traffic accidents in Cambodia nowadays. The first serious factor which causes traffic accidents in Cambodia is high speed and careless driving. This kind of accident usually happens when the drivers speed up their vehicle or do something else such as talk on phone, sleepy, or think about other things during their drive. According to the Department of the National Police, 287 cases of traffic accidents were caused by high speed and careless driving, which is about one third of all traffic accidents in Cambodia last year. Drunk driving is the second major factor that causes traffic accidents. The drivers who get drunk cannot concentrate on their driving which can lead them to get an accident easily. This kind of accident can cause the driver a very serious injury, especially when the drivers don‟t strengthen their seat belts or wearing their helmets. The third factor that causes accidents is that the drivers don‟t obey the traffic laws and respect the priority right of the others. Some drivers still continue to drive even the traffic light turn red, some stop their vehicles at the places that the laws don‟t allow them to stop; the others even drive their vehicles through the wrong direction, etc. Last but not least, vehicles themselves are also one major factor that causes traffic accidents. Most of the vehicles in Cambodia, especially cars, are the second hand vehicles that were imported from the others countries. Some of them didn‟t pass through the standard checking process, but the drivers still can drive them on the road in Cambodia. In conclusion, the traffic accidents in Cambodia recently are caused by high speed and careless driving, drunk driving, drivers do not obey the traffic laws, and vehicles‟ problems. The roads in Phnom Penh are sometimes very busy with lots of traffic. Many people driver on them every day. There are lots of cycles, cars and trucks full of passengers. People can also come to Phnom Penh by train, but trains are not always safe. Buses are safer than trains. Cycles are much slower than buses and they are more expensive. But people do not use buses in Phnom Penh. Some of the roads in Phnom Penh are good, but some are getting old now. People do not want to drive on the oldest roads. They want to repair them. People also want more traffic lights. Whit traffic lights, the roads are much safer. Now most street has been repaired. Nowadays our unpaved roads as well as paved roads in
  11. 11. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 10 | P A G E Phnom Penh city seem to be unsafe. Moreover, its traffic is really fiendish. People not only don‟t respect the traffic officers, but also disobey the law. In this case, there are many accidents happen every month. Thus, in order to make our streets safer and traffic better, we have to do some things such as educating people more about traffic law, widening the streets, and enforcing the law. First, educating people more about traffic law is an effective strategy to make the streets safer and reduce traffic problem. For example, when people know clearly about traffic law they will try to obey it, for if they break it directly, there will be an awkward situation. Furthermore, traffic law will simultaneously provide education and morality to people which lead to understanding, safety, and traffic problem reduction. Another reason is widening the roads. It is a great factor which can really make our traffic better. Large roads make travelers easy to travel from one place to the others with worrying about traffic jam. Also, it can cut down traffic accident and modernize our city as well. Finally, enforcing the law is the other effective aspect which can permanently better the traffic and make streets safer. In this case, government should impose a heavy fine on those who contravene the traffic law and sentence many years imprison for those who crush someone into death, in order to alert people not daring to commit such things. On the whole, these three strategies are the good ways to improve our traffic system. Solutions to the traffic accident in Cambodia must be mainly focused on the human problem. It is recommended that the driving speed must be limited, the law must be reinforced, and awareness of the causes and helmet wearing must be promoted. Also, checkpoints must be set for the drunk driving especially during the weekend. Besides, other causes can be solved by improving the road safety management such as widen the road size, put the traffic lights and signs, and so on. When we can implement these solutions effectively, the number of road coalition deaths will decrease. VII. International Relation The International Relations Institute of Cambodia, IRIC was begun in an appropriate circumstance, when Cambodia is integrating itself into the region and the world, and stepping forward in foreign policy on the international stage. The Institute will play a key role as national think-tank researching and counseling on foreign policy and international relations for the government. During the Cold War, US policy toward Cambodia was about everything, but Cambodia: Vietnam War strategy, foreign relations, even humanitarian policies, were obsessed with Cambodia only to the extent that Cambodia represented a stretch of land
  12. 12. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 11 | P A G E deemed pivotal to whatever cold war policy happened to be popular at the moment. From 1993 to 2008, the United States provided Cambodia with over $500 million of assistance to help reduce poverty and foster economic growth. This assistance has included programs to strengthen democracy, improve education and health care, and address problems posed by land mines. After the factional fighting in 1997 and Hun Sen's legal machinations to depose First Prime Minister Ranariddh, the United States suspended bilateral assistance to the Cambodian Government. At the same time, many US citizens and other expatriates were evacuated from Cambodia and, in the subsequent weeks and months, more than 40,000 Cambodian refugees fled to Thailand. The 1997 events also left a long list of uninvestigated human rights abuses, including dozens of extra-judicial killings. Hun Sen‟s imperious way of dealing with political opposition following the 1997 coup and his high-handed manner with a struggling legislature intent on preserving its independence again heightened US Congressional concerns about this issues, and also take advantages from this to democracy. Following the factional fighting in July 1997, US legislation prohibited bilateral assistance to the central government. Other legislation required the United States to oppose International Financial Institution lending to the Cambodian government for all but basic human needs. A section on foreign operations in the Consolidated Appropriations Act for 2003 included “notwithstanding” language allowing bilateral assistance for basic education, cultural preservation, and combating human trafficking. US military assistance to the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces ceased in 1997 in purpose of strengthening its power as in Asia. From 1997 until the lifting of legislative restrictions on bilateral assistance in 2007, US assistance to the Cambodian people was provided mainly through non-governmental organizations, which flourish in Cambodia. In 2003–2004, the Washington inter-agency policy community began to explore possibilities for resuming programs with RCAF. While fully normal relations between the United States and Cambodia long eluded both countries since diplomatic relations began more than a half century ago, the bilateral relationship has improved markedly. Cooperation is particularly close on security and health issues, such as counter-terrorism and Intel-sharing, POW/MIA matters, HIV/AIDS, and avian influenza.
  13. 13. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 12 | P A G E In years since 2008, bilateral relations between the US and Cambodia have deepened and broadened. With the lifting of a congressional ban to provide direct assistance to the Cambodian Government, more direct technical assistance has become feasible. US assistance to Cambodia administered by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) mission in 2010 totaled approximately $70 million for programs in health, education, governance, and economic growth. The US supports efforts in Cambodia to combat terrorism, reduce the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, build democratic institutions, promote human rights, foster economic development, eliminate corruption and trafficking in persons, achieve the fullest possible accounting for Americans missing from the Indochina conflict, and to bring to justice those most responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed under the Khmer Rouge regime, darkness of Cambodian people. Cambodia is a member of the United Nations, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. It is a member of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), ASEAN and joined the WTO on 13 October 2004. In 2005, Cambodia attended the inaugural East Asia Summit in Malaysia. On 23 November 2009, Cambodia reinstated its membership to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Cambodia first became a member of IAEA on 6 February 1958 but withdrew its membership on 26 March 2003.Cambodia has established diplomatic relations with numerous countries; the government reports twenty embassies in the country including many of its Asian neighbors and those of important players during the Paris peace negotiations, including the US, Australia, Canada, China, the European Union (EU), Japan, and Russia. As a result of its international relations, various charitable organizations have assisted with social, economic, and civil infrastructure needs.
  14. 14. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 13 | P A G E References Cambodia Economy Profile 2013. (n.d.). Cambodia Economy Profile 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://www.indexmundi.com/cambodia/economy_profile.html Cambodia Economic Situation. (n.d.). ASEAN. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://asean.fta.govt.nz/cambodia-economic-situation/ Cambodia - US Relations - GlobalSecurity.org. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/cambodia/forrel-us.htm Environment inCambodia. (n.d.).Environmental Issue In Cambodia. Retrieved December 24, 2013, from http://www.cambodiadaily.com/archive/as-phnom-penh-grows-so-does-its- sewage-problem-23419/http://newskh.wordpress.com/2009/ Google Page Rank fix for SEOQuake Plugin | BLOGGING SECRET. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.blogging-secret.com/google-page-rank-fix-for-seoquake-plugin Environment - Cambodia Environment - World Bank. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/E XTEAPREGTOPENVIRONMENT/0,,contentMDK:20266319~menuPK:537827~pagePK:34 004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:502886,00.htm Effects of Environmental Crisis | Our World, Work Together. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://newskh.wordpress.com/2009/06/11/108/ Hospitality & Tourism | B2B Cambodia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.b2b- cambodia.com/b2b-hospitality-tourism/ Ministry of Economy and Finance of Cambodia. (n.d.). Ministry of Economy and Finance of Cambodia. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://www.mef.gov.kh ORBi: men nareth - WATER QUALITY AND POLLUTION CONTROL IN ... (n.d.). Retrieved from http://orbi.ulg.ac.be/handle/2268/96770 Cambodia predicts 7.6 percent GDP growth in 2013. (n.d.). - Xinhua. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/business/2013-07/24/c_132570724.htm Cambodia-Tourism.org!. (n.d.). Cambodia-Tourism.org!. Retrieved January 6, 2014, from http://www.cambodia-tourism.org/index.php
  15. 15. Khmer Studies I - KHM 101 Section 1 Group Assessment I GROUP ASSESSMENT I, ZAMAN UNIVERSITY 2013 14 | P A G E Politics in Cambodia. (n.d.). Politics in Cambodia. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/cambodia/pro-politics.htm Responsible Travel Tales A blog from worldnomads.com to share our thoughts on travelling the globe responsibly. (n.d.). Responsible Hospitality in Cambodia. Retrieved January 6, 2014, from http://journals.worldnomads.com/responsible- travel/story/67931/Cambodia/Responsible-Hospitality-in-Cambodia#axzz2pcgLmde4 Tag: tourism growth. (n.d.). Open Development Cambodia. Retrieved January 6, 2014, from http://www.opendevelopmentcambodia.net/tag/tourism-growth/ What causes Air Pollution? Here are some natural and human activities that cause pollution. (n.d.). What causes Air Pollution? Here are some natural and human activities that cause pollution. Retrieved December 24, 2013, from http://eschooltoday.com/pollution/air- pollution/causes-of-air-pollution.html

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