A LITTLE BIT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 101… As of 2011, the population of Cambodia is c.a. 14.3 million
BUDDHISM• Comprises 96.5% (13.8 million) of all religious beliefs in Cambodia• The foundation of Buddhism is the Four Noble Truths. The Truths are: • The truth of suffering (dukkha) • The truth of the cause of suffering (samudaya) • The truth of the end of suffering (nirhodha) • The 8 fold path to freedom from suffering (magga) • The right view, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration• The focus of Buddhism is on practice rather than belief
BUDDHISM IN CAMBODIA• The history of Buddhism in Cambodia spans nearly two thousand years, across a number of successive kingdoms• Theravada Buddhism: The oldest form of Buddhism – means “the teaching of Elders.” Buddhist tradition being passed on by head monks• Buddhism is non-theistic. The Buddha taught that believing in gods was not useful; but rather self-realisation and self-enlightenment• “Buddhism” in Cambodia is not strictly Buddhism, due to the historical turnover of religion between Hinduism and Buddhism. Today there are currently almost no trace of Hinduism; the remnants however exist deep within the “Buddhist” doctrine
HINDUISM• Comprises 0.3% (43,000) of all religious beliefs in Cambodia (2001 data)• One God; none other• Pantheistic religion; equates God with the universe• Polyestheic religion; populated with myriad gods and goddesses who personify aspects of the one true God• Brahma (the Creator); Vishnu (the Preserver); Shiva (the Destroyer), etc
HINDUISM• Not an organised religion and has no single, systematic approach to teaching its value system• Do not have a simple set of rules to follow. Varies between local, regional and community driven practices• However a common thread among all variations in belief in a Supreme Being and adherence to certain concepts such as Truth, dharma and karma• Individual souls are immortal; actions of the soul while residing in a body require that I reap the consequences of those actions in the next life- the same soul in a different body• The goal of the individual soul is moksha; the soul’s release from the cycle of death and rebirth • Path of duty, knowledge, and the path of devotion
HINDUISM IN CAMBODIA• Being the very oldest and the first religion to be followed in Cambodia, Hinduism was made the main religion of the Funan and Khmer Empire• There are only two temples of Brahma available in world and Cambodia is very proud to have one of them in their country. Angkor Wat temple is the biggest Hindu temple in the world and it is located in Cambodia• Although there is virtually no trace of Hinduism today, it serves as a solid foundation to the modern culture of Cambodia today
ISLAM• Comprises 3.5% (500,000) of all religious beliefs in Cambodia.• The Five Pillars of worship are the basic acts involved in being a believing and practicing Muslim • Shahada (testimony); Salat (ritualised prayer facing Mecca); Zakat (charitable contribution); Saum (Ramadam); Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)• Five Pillars of Faith provide brief and convenient summary of basic Muslim beliefs • Belief in God (Allah) as the only god • Belief in angels of God • Belief in the book of God and in the messengers and prophets who revealed this book • Belief in the Day of Judgement • Belief that everything happens according to the will of God
ISLAM IN CAMBODIA• The religion of the “Cham” in Cambodia (Kampong Cham) • Traditionalist and Orthodox branch • Close connection with Malaysia• Most Muslims were persecuted and killed during the Khmer Rouge era and eroded in their numbers• Muslims today are slowly rising in numbers; mostly secluded to Kampong Cham; however they are free to practice their religious rights
LOCAL TRIBAL RELIGIONS• There are some local tribal religions in Cambodia. They constitute approximately 100,000 persons and they are generally known as the animists• Most tribal groups have their own pantheon of local spirits• Sorcerers and witch doctors in each village contact these spirits; prescribe ways to appease them• Animal/materialistic sacrifices are made to calm the anger of the spirits• In addition, villagers believe in taboos on many objects or practices
이단 IN CAMBODIA• The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints• Jehovahs witness• Seventh Day Adventist
THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS – MORMONS ALL SCRIPTURE IS BREATHED OUT BY GOD AND PROFITABLE FOR TEACHING , FOR REPROOF, FOR CORRECTION, AND FOR TRAINING IN RIGHTEOUSNESS, TIM 3.16• It contradicts, modifies, and expands on the Bible.• Founded in 1805 by American Joseph Smith. • Assassinated in 1844 and Brigham Young becomes new leader.• They have 4 books which they consider are divinely inspired words • 1) The Bible – they claim that some translations are incorrect • 2) The Book of Mormon, which was “translated” by Smith and published in 1830. • 3) The Doctrine and Covenants, containing a collection of modern revelations regarding the “Church of Jesus Christ as it has been restored.” • 4) The Pearl of the Great Price, which is considered by Mormons to “clarify” doctrines and teachings that were lost from the Bible and adds its own information about the earths creation.• Deut. 4:2 “You shall not add to the word which I command you, nor take anything from it, that you may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you.
THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS - MORMONS• Denies The Holy Trinity • one in purpose with the Father and the Son, but is a separate being" • Believes that God is not a spirit but was a person at one point. • Holy spirit 신격이 없고 힘이라함 • The Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones, but is a personage of Spirit. Were it not so, the Holy Ghost could not dwell in us.” – Joseph Smith
THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS - MORMONS• Rejects idea of original sin• Marriage after death in Heaven. • Luke 20:35 But those who are considered worthy of taking part in the age to come and in the resurrection from the dead will neither marry nor be given in marriage,• 3가지 천국있다함 • the celestial kingdom, • the terrestrial kingdom, • the telestial kingdom, • outer darkness
THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS - MORMONS• Dead people also have a chance to be baptised• Prophecies proved wrong 53 times• Claim that Jesus resurrected in America. The “elders” help/teach people English
JEHOVAH’S WITNESS• Denies The Holy Trinity • God is there but Jesus is a smaller god. The holy spirit is just a spirit. • Contradictory – 다신론 because if they claim there is only ONE God then the Holy Trinity can only be one being. But they claim that The Father, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit are separate; one inferior in some way to the other• Only 144,000 people can go to Heaven. The rest will dwell on earth even though they are “saved”• Denies a Hell
JEHOVAH’S WITNESS• Creed – not be part of an army, donate blood, do not celebrate birthdays, doesn’t believe in the symbol of the cross etc…• Claims that Jesus has already come and therefore the world we are living in is the heaven we must create.
SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST• They predicted dates for the second coming of Jesus in 1844. But to avoid embarrassment they state that they misinterpreted the 1844 time frame, and it involved Jesus beginning his work in the Holy Sanctuary as judge.• Sabbath is on a Saturday. – We go to church to commemorate the resurrection of Jesus on Sunday. Doesn’t matter what day we worship God because Jesus IS OUR SABBATH.• Seventh-Day Adventists add good works to salvation.• A life of abstinence. This not only includes abstinence from alcohol , drugs, and tobacco, but it also included the belief that animal meat is unclean. Many Seventh Day Adventists are vegetarians.• They believe that a church should be involved in outreach and missionary work. The Seventh Day Adventists can be seen at emergencies with their SAW vehicles that transport food, and medical supplies. They also have many hospitals that serve the public.• "For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved" -Romans 10:13.
IN CONCLUSION…• Religion plays a huge role in determining one’s cultural and moral beliefs• Religion also shapes how civilisation develops through time• As MC we must broaden our knowledge in other religions in order to understand the country and the people we are there to serve.• As MC We must also be equipped with the Word in order to be strong in times of disbelief and from external influences.• Not only that, we ourselves must be the message which Jesus taught, preached and practiced, in order to distinguish ourselves from those of other religious doctrines.