CRADLES OF CIVILIZATION<br />
Definition:<br />	=Higher level of culture<br />	=Refinement of Culture<br />	=Fusion or combination of 2 old cultures<br ...
WRITING SYSTEM<br />INFRASTRUCTURE<br />GOVERNMENT AND LAWS<br />ART AND ARCHITECTURE<br />SOCIAL CLASS<br />ORGANIZED REL...
1. MESOPOTAMIA<br />2. EGYPT<br />3. INDIA<br />4. CHINA<br />THE FOUR CRADLES OF CIVILIZATION<br />
River-Valley Civilization<br />It refers to  the civilizations developed in the fertile river  valley<br />Rivers played a...
River-Valley Civilization<br />First, rivers are great sources of food and fresh water.<br />Second, crop planting and liv...
Lastly, rivers were the great centers of ancient trade.<br />The easy access to water routes speeded up the trading activi...
MESOPOTAMIA<br />
MESOPOTAMIA<br />It lies in the Fertile Crescent<br />=It is an arc of fertile land from the Persian Gulf up to the Medite...
MESOPOTAMIA<br />
MESOPOTAMIA<br />Etymologically, it comes from the  Greek words “meso” which means “between” and “potamus”  or “river”.<br...
SUMER<br />It was the first civilization in the world.<br />Because it was the first to have/acquire the 8 salient feature...
SUMER<br />
SUMER<br />City-state <br /> = is a city with estates or farmlands and has its own government<br />Known city-states of Su...
SUMER<br />
SUMER<br />
SUMER<br />Cuneiform<br />=world’s first known writing<br />=started as a pictogram (cylinder  seal or stone seal)<br />=t...
SUMER<br />
 SUMER<br />Clay tablet<br />=the first written records of man<br />Cuneiform  on clay tablets was deciphered or able to r...
SUMER<br />
SUMER<br />
SUMER<br />Each city-state is being administered by a priest –king called patesi or lugal.<br />Theocracy<br />=It is a go...
SUMER<br />
SUMER<br />Ur-Nammu Code was the first written laws in the world.<br />It was made when Ur was considered as the supreme p...
SUMER<br />
SUMER<br />
SUMER<br />
SUMER<br />Sumerian arts consists of toy making, pottery, metallurgy and etc.<br />In metallurgy, copper was the first met...
SUMER<br />
Ziggurat is a step-pyramid temple of the Sumerians.<br />It literally means “to build high” because it was constructed to ...
SUMER<br />
Sumerian society consists of the following groups:<br />     -Nobles<br />		-Commoners<br />			 -Slaves<br />SUMER<br />
Sumerians had a polytheistic religion or religion that has many gods and goddesses.<br />The gods are anthropomorphic gods...
SUMER<br />
Farming was  the main economic activity of the Sumerians.  They improve farming through irrigation system and they built:<...
World’s First Empire<br />Under the able and good leadership of Sargon I, the Kingdom of Akkad invaded and annexed the Sum...
AKKAD<br />
AKKAD<br />
BABYLONIA<br />
BABYLONIA<br />
Babylon<br />It means god’s gates  <br />Because of the numerous monumental gates for gods and goddesses.  The gates were ...
BABYLONIA<br />
Its greatest king was Hammurabi <br />Known for the 2nd code of law in the world<br />Hammurabi Code<br />LexTaliones<br /...
I f a man destroys the eye of another man, they shall destroy his eye.<br />If a man knocks out a tooth of a mn of his own...
BABYLONIA<br />There were over 300 laws and they differentiated among nobles, commoners, slaves and women.  The aristocrat...
BABYLONIA<br />
BABYLONIA<br />
ASSYRIA<br />
ASSYRIA<br />
ASSYRIA<br />At first the capital was Assur but when it became an empire Nineveh was made capital.<br />Nineveh<br /> Symb...
ASSYRIA<br />
ASSYRIA<br />
ASSYRIA<br />Ashurbanipal<br />Was the last great ruler of Assyria.<br />He was a harsh ruler like his predecessor but he ...
ASSYRIA<br />
ASSYRIA<br />
ASSYRIA<br />
CHALDEA<br />Also called  Neo-Babylonian Empire<br />As it wanted to revive the glory of the Old Babylonian Empire.<br />I...
CHALDEA<br />
CHALDEA<br />
CHALDEA<br />
CHALDEA<br />
CHALDEA<br />
CHALDEA<br />
CHALDEA<br />
Summary of Mesopotamian History<br />Civilizations in Mesopotamia started as a farming settlement.<br />The rise of Mesopo...
Summary of Mesopotamian History<br />Civilizations in Mesopotamia expanded through conquering  of other lands.<br />Their ...
Mesopotamians fell due to weak and ineffective rulers and due to the invasion of other groups of people.<br />Summary of M...
1. Mesopotamian civilizations were made stronger by the rise and fall cycle.<br />Ups and downs of life make us stronger a...
3. Civilizations in Mesopotamia rose and fell due to strong and weak rulers respectively.<br />In choosing the right leade...
EGYPT<br />
World’s second cradle of civilization<br />First civilization established in Africa<br />Egypt developed an advance way of...
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />Slightly younger than Mesopotamia<br />Egyptian civilization emerged at a time when Sumerian city states alrea...
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />Egypt was cut off  from its neighbors.  These made Egypt difficult to invade and lasted for a long time.<br />...
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />The  Nile River  is  the longest river in the world, covering nearly 7,000 kilometers or stretching  for about...
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />Egypt is given the title “Gift of the Nile”.<br />
EGYPT <br />Because without the Nile River, Egypt would be desert and very few people could live on it.<br />Deserts compr...
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />Egypt’s old name was Kemet<br />Black land/Dark land<br />Because the fertility of the Egyptian land was due t...
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />Geographically, Egypt is divided into two regions:<br />		=Upper Egypt<br />		-Situated in the southern part w...
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />Egyptian civilization existed for 3000 years with 30 dynasties.<br />DIVISION OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY<br />	-Pre-d...
EGYPT <br />Pre-dynastic Period<br />Egyptian civilization started as a farming settlement like most of the civilizations....
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />Archaic Period<br />First and Second Dynasties of Egypt<br />Founded by King Menes (king of  Lower Kingdom)<br...
EGYPT <br />Historic Period<br />
EGYPT <br />Old Kingdom is called Age of Pharaoh:<br />Because this was the first time when the Egyptians were ruled by a ...
EGYPT <br />Old Kingdom is called Age of Pyramid:<br />Because in this time Egyptians started to regard so much their phar...
EGYPT <br />Middle Kingdom is called Age of Feudalism:<br />Because in this time, pharaoh started to appoint officials who...
EGYPT <br />Middle Kingdom is also called Age of Foreign Rule:<br />Because during this time, Egypt was invaded, administe...
EGYPT <br />New Kingdom is called Age of Empire:<br />Because it was a period of aggressive expansion of Egyptian lands at...
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />
EGYPT <br />Contributions to the World<br />1. Mummification<br />	- Preservation of dead bodies.  It has 2 stages: embalm...
2. Pyramid-making<br />    - Pyramids serve as tombs of the deceased pharaohs.  Egyptians  willing fully participated  in ...
3. Theocratic government headed by a pharaoh.<br />4.Religion – polytheistic<br />			   - monotheistic<br />5. Book of the...
6. MateriaMedica – first book on medicine about  illness and diseases and their cure or treatment.  It also contains the p...
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Ancient civilizations of asia and africa

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  • Ancient civilizations of asia and africa

    1. 1. CRADLES OF CIVILIZATION<br />
    2. 2. Definition:<br /> =Higher level of culture<br /> =Refinement of Culture<br /> =Fusion or combination of 2 old cultures<br />Description:<br />CIVILIZATION: Definition and Description<br />
    3. 3. WRITING SYSTEM<br />INFRASTRUCTURE<br />GOVERNMENT AND LAWS<br />ART AND ARCHITECTURE<br />SOCIAL CLASS<br />ORGANIZED RELIGION<br />JOB SPECIALIZATION OR DIVISION OF LABOR<br />DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES<br />8 Basic Features of a Civilization<br />
    4. 4. 1. MESOPOTAMIA<br />2. EGYPT<br />3. INDIA<br />4. CHINA<br />THE FOUR CRADLES OF CIVILIZATION<br />
    5. 5.
    6. 6. River-Valley Civilization<br />It refers to the civilizations developed in the fertile river valley<br />Rivers played a great role in the birth of the earliest civilizations that began in Asia and in Africa. The ancient people built their settlements along the riverbanks for several reasons.<br />
    7. 7. River-Valley Civilization<br />First, rivers are great sources of food and fresh water.<br />Second, crop planting and livestock raising are best in the river valleys.<br />Each time the river is flooded, fertile soils are deposited in the planting field. Also, pastoral animals are herded along the river banks where they enjoy the moderate climate.<br />
    8. 8. Lastly, rivers were the great centers of ancient trade.<br />The easy access to water routes speeded up the trading activities by different groups of people. Thus the most prosperous settlements were those built along the rivers and other coastal waters.<br />River-Valley Civilization<br />
    9. 9. MESOPOTAMIA<br />
    10. 10.
    11. 11. MESOPOTAMIA<br />It lies in the Fertile Crescent<br />=It is an arc of fertile land from the Persian Gulf up to the Mediterranean Sea<br />=It has 2 parts:<br />Mesopotamia – Eastern part<br />Levantine Coast – Western part<br />
    12. 12. MESOPOTAMIA<br />
    13. 13.
    14. 14. MESOPOTAMIA<br />Etymologically, it comes from the Greek words “meso” which means “between” and “potamus” or “river”.<br />Literally means land between two rivers:<br />Tigris – eastern part<br />Euphrates – western part<br />=water of the two rivers comes from the Caucasus Mt. to the north and it flows southward to the Persian Gulf. The two rivers joined together at the so called Shatt al-Arab before it exits to the Persian Gulf.<br />
    15. 15.
    16. 16.
    17. 17. SUMER<br />It was the first civilization in the world.<br />Because it was the first to have/acquire the 8 salient features of a civilization.<br />
    18. 18. SUMER<br />
    19. 19. SUMER<br />City-state <br /> = is a city with estates or farmlands and has its own government<br />Known city-states of Sumer<br />-Adab -Eridu -Isin -Kish<br />-Rulash -Lagash -Madashar -Larsa<br />-Nippur -Uruk -Ur <br />City-states were independent from one another <br />Most Famous <br />=City-state of Ur <br />
    20. 20. SUMER<br />
    21. 21. SUMER<br />
    22. 22. SUMER<br />Cuneiform<br />=world’s first known writing<br />=started as a pictogram (cylinder seal or stone seal)<br />=then, into ideogram that uses signs or symbols<br />=from the Greek words “cuneus” and “forma”<br />=meaning “wedge-shaped writing”<br />=they used a reed with a triangular tip (stylus) so the writings were formed by a stroke in the shape of a wedge<br />
    23. 23. SUMER<br />
    24. 24. SUMER<br />Clay tablet<br />=the first written records of man<br />Cuneiform on clay tablets was deciphered or able to read when Henry Rawlinson in 1847 disovered the so-called Behistun Rock. It served as the key for experts to decipher the system of writing of the Sumerians and to know/determine the culture and history of Sumer and of the latter civilizations of Mesopotamia.<br />
    25. 25. SUMER<br />
    26. 26. SUMER<br />
    27. 27. SUMER<br />Each city-state is being administered by a priest –king called patesi or lugal.<br />Theocracy<br />=It is a government wherein the leader is both head of religion and head of state.<br />
    28. 28. SUMER<br />
    29. 29. SUMER<br />Ur-Nammu Code was the first written laws in the world.<br />It was made when Ur was considered as the supreme power over other city states that comprised the Confederation of Ur.<br />It was made through the order of the great king, Ur-Nammu, to solidify his stature as the head of the confederation and to guide the people for an orderly and peaceful living.<br />Its main feature was the casuistic form <br />For every crime there is an equivalent punishment.<br />
    30. 30. SUMER<br />
    31. 31. SUMER<br />
    32. 32. SUMER<br />
    33. 33. SUMER<br />Sumerian arts consists of toy making, pottery, metallurgy and etc.<br />In metallurgy, copper was the first metal used then bronze.<br />Most of the toys of the Sumerian had wheel. And in pottery, potter’s wheel was created through the invention first of the wheel.<br />Wheel is the most important contribution of Sumerians to the world.<br />Wheel was first used for manufacturing before it was used for transportation.<br />
    34. 34. SUMER<br />
    35. 35. Ziggurat is a step-pyramid temple of the Sumerians.<br />It literally means “to build high” because it was constructed to reach the sky so that the priest-ruler who resides in it could talk to the gods (who lived in heaven/sky).<br />It is a school, storage area, observatory, temple and government building in one.<br />SUMER<br />
    36. 36. SUMER<br />
    37. 37. Sumerian society consists of the following groups:<br /> -Nobles<br /> -Commoners<br /> -Slaves<br />SUMER<br />
    38. 38.
    39. 39. Sumerians had a polytheistic religion or religion that has many gods and goddesses.<br />The gods are anthropomorphic gods who have a man-like attitudes and characteristics.<br />Ashur Ea Enlil Ishtar<br />MardukNabuNergalNinhursag<br />Ninnurta Shamash NannaTiamat<br />SUMER<br />
    40. 40. SUMER<br />
    41. 41. Farming was the main economic activity of the Sumerians. They improve farming through irrigation system and they built:<br />Dams<br />Dikes<br />Canals<br />Levees<br />SUMER<br />
    42. 42. World’s First Empire<br />Under the able and good leadership of Sargon I, the Kingdom of Akkad invaded and annexed the Sumerian city states.<br />Empire means a state or kingdom that has dominion, power or control over other sates or kingdoms.<br />AKKAD<br />
    43. 43. AKKAD<br />
    44. 44. AKKAD<br />
    45. 45. BABYLONIA<br />
    46. 46. BABYLONIA<br />
    47. 47. Babylon<br />It means god’s gates <br />Because of the numerous monumental gates for gods and goddesses. The gates were constructed to please the gods.<br />BABYLONIA<br />
    48. 48. BABYLONIA<br />
    49. 49. Its greatest king was Hammurabi <br />Known for the 2nd code of law in the world<br />Hammurabi Code<br />LexTaliones<br />Harsh Casuistic form<br />Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth.<br />BABYLONIA<br />
    50. 50. I f a man destroys the eye of another man, they shall destroy his eye.<br />If a man knocks out a tooth of a mn of his own rank, they shall knocks out his tooth..<br />BABYLONIA<br />
    51. 51. BABYLONIA<br />There were over 300 laws and they differentiated among nobles, commoners, slaves and women. The aristocrat got a lot more rights and the slaves and women nearly nothing at all. <br />The punishments discouraged people from committing crimes thus leading to an orderly society.<br />
    52. 52. BABYLONIA<br />
    53. 53. BABYLONIA<br />
    54. 54. ASSYRIA<br />
    55. 55. ASSYRIA<br />
    56. 56. ASSYRIA<br />At first the capital was Assur but when it became an empire Nineveh was made capital.<br />Nineveh<br /> Symbol of Assyrian cruelty and harshness.<br />Prisoners were put and executed in Nineveh. Treasure<br /> grabbed from other lands were deposited in the city of Nineveh.<br />
    57. 57. ASSYRIA<br />
    58. 58. ASSYRIA<br />
    59. 59. ASSYRIA<br />Ashurbanipal<br />Was the last great ruler of Assyria.<br />He was a harsh ruler like his predecessor but he contributed to the world the first library.<br />The first library has more or less 20,000 clay tablets that came from different parts of Mesopotamia and nearby lands conquered by the Assyrians<br />
    60. 60. ASSYRIA<br />
    61. 61. ASSYRIA<br />
    62. 62. ASSYRIA<br />
    63. 63. CHALDEA<br />Also called Neo-Babylonian Empire<br />As it wanted to revive the glory of the Old Babylonian Empire.<br />Its greatest extent and prosperity was attained during the time of Nebuchadnezzar.<br />
    64. 64. CHALDEA<br />
    65. 65. CHALDEA<br />
    66. 66. CHALDEA<br />
    67. 67. CHALDEA<br />
    68. 68. CHALDEA<br />
    69. 69. CHALDEA<br />
    70. 70. CHALDEA<br />
    71. 71. Summary of Mesopotamian History<br />Civilizations in Mesopotamia started as a farming settlement.<br />The rise of Mesopotamian civilization was manifested by the development of farming settlements in to cities.<br />They rose due to strong rulers.<br />
    72. 72. Summary of Mesopotamian History<br />Civilizations in Mesopotamia expanded through conquering of other lands.<br />Their expansion were manifested by the establishment of an empire.<br />Civilizations in Mesopotamia had many contributions.<br />
    73. 73. Mesopotamians fell due to weak and ineffective rulers and due to the invasion of other groups of people.<br />Summary of MesopotamianHistory<br />
    74. 74. 1. Mesopotamian civilizations were made stronger by the rise and fall cycle.<br />Ups and downs of life make us stronger and better person.<br />2. After the fall of one civilization another civilization will rise.<br />If we fail/fall, we need to rise/stand up to continuously make our life bette.r<br />Values that we can get from Mesopotamia<br />
    75. 75. 3. Civilizations in Mesopotamia rose and fell due to strong and weak rulers respectively.<br />In choosing the right leader we should use our mind and based our predicaments on the ability and not on popularity.<br />4 .Mesopotamians were able to contribute to the world in spite of limitations in technology due to cooperation.<br />We also have limitations so what we could offer to the world is cooperation and unity to make this world a better place to live in.<br />Values that we can get from Mesopotamia<br />
    76. 76. EGYPT<br />
    77. 77. World’s second cradle of civilization<br />First civilization established in Africa<br />Egypt developed an advance way of life that was the first in Africa<br />EGYPT <br />
    78. 78. EGYPT <br />
    79. 79. EGYPT <br />Slightly younger than Mesopotamia<br />Egyptian civilization emerged at a time when Sumerian city states already had several hundred years of development behind them.<br />The world’s longest lasting civilization<br />Compared to Mesopotamia, Egyptian civilization was more durable and survived for 3000 years.<br />Ancient Egypt was transformed into a state by 3100 BCE and persisted for almost 3 millennia.<br />However, China is the second longest lasting <br />civilization but the oldest existing civilization.<br />
    80. 80. EGYPT <br />
    81. 81. EGYPT <br />Egypt was cut off from its neighbors. These made Egypt difficult to invade and lasted for a long time.<br />To the east were the big deserts of Libya, the west held the Red Sea, to the north was the Mediterranean Sea, and in the south, the mountainous jungle. <br />The only successful route was the desert near the isthmus of Suez.<br />
    82. 82. EGYPT <br />
    83. 83. EGYPT <br />The Nile River is the longest river in the world, covering nearly 7,000 kilometers or stretching for about 4,160 miles and flows from south to north.<br />It originates from Central Africa particularly Lake Victoria and empties into the Mediterranean Sea.<br />It crosses the countries of Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt.<br />It traverses the country of Egypt from south to north.<br />
    84. 84. EGYPT <br />
    85. 85. EGYPT <br />
    86. 86. EGYPT <br />Egypt is given the title “Gift of the Nile”.<br />
    87. 87. EGYPT <br />Because without the Nile River, Egypt would be desert and very few people could live on it.<br />Deserts comprise a large part of Egypt. Only the Nile River supplies its water needs because rainfall is scant.<br />Because of the Nile, Egypt’s land becomes fertile. The regular rising of the Nile every July enriched the soil and advanced agriculture. <br />The annual flooding only ceased to occur in 1970 when the Aswan dam was constructed in order to provide electricity and regulate the supply of water.<br />
    88. 88. EGYPT <br />
    89. 89. EGYPT <br />
    90. 90. EGYPT <br />Egypt’s old name was Kemet<br />Black land/Dark land<br />Because the fertility of the Egyptian land was due to the black loess or silt or soil or mud that the Nile River left after the flood receded.<br />
    91. 91. EGYPT <br />
    92. 92. EGYPT <br />Geographically, Egypt is divided into two regions:<br /> =Upper Egypt<br /> -Situated in the southern part where most of the stone cliffs and deserts are found<br /> =Lower Egypt <br /> -Situated in the northern part, also called the Nile Delta Region. The most fertile region of Egypt. Lower Egypt is so named because it is the lower part of the River Nile emptying itself into the Mediterranean Sea.<br />
    93. 93. EGYPT <br />
    94. 94. EGYPT <br />Egyptian civilization existed for 3000 years with 30 dynasties.<br />DIVISION OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY<br /> -Pre-dynastic Period<br /> -Archaic Period<br /> -Historic Period<br /> -Old Kingdom<br /> -Middle Kingdom<br /> -New Kingdom<br />
    95. 95. EGYPT <br />Pre-dynastic Period<br />Egyptian civilization started as a farming settlement like most of the civilizations.<br />Then , 2 kingdoms appeared:<br />Upper Kingdom<br />Lower Kingdom<br />
    96. 96. EGYPT <br />
    97. 97. EGYPT <br />
    98. 98. EGYPT <br />
    99. 99. EGYPT <br />Archaic Period<br />First and Second Dynasties of Egypt<br />Founded by King Menes (king of Lower Kingdom)<br />Unification of the 2 kingdoms, Upper and Lower, under King Menes and the capital was Memphis.<br />
    100. 100. EGYPT <br />Historic Period<br />
    101. 101. EGYPT <br />Old Kingdom is called Age of Pharaoh:<br />Because this was the first time when the Egyptians were ruled by a central government.<br />And the central government was headed by an absolute ruler called pharaoh.<br />Which means ‘Great House”<br />The Egyptians honored their rulers or kings as gods.<br />
    102. 102. EGYPT <br />Old Kingdom is called Age of Pyramid:<br />Because in this time Egyptians started to regard so much their pharaohs even in time of death of a pharaoh.<br />Pharaohs were buried in pyramids in which the brilliance of ancient Egyptian architecture and engineering are embodied.<br />
    103. 103. EGYPT <br />Middle Kingdom is called Age of Feudalism:<br />Because in this time, pharaoh started to appoint officials who will rule the provinces.<br />Feudalism is a political system wherein the ruler appoints/grants land to the landlord in return of the allegiance/loyalty of the landlords to the king.<br />
    104. 104. EGYPT <br />Middle Kingdom is also called Age of Foreign Rule:<br />Because during this time, Egypt was invaded, administered and governed by the Hyksos.<br />Hyksos were from Asia and it literally means “princes from foreign lands”.<br />Hyksos were believed to be the reason why the Hebrew people then were given the privilege to live and settle in Egypt. Because they were cousins, the Hebrews and Hyksos.<br />
    105. 105. EGYPT <br />New Kingdom is called Age of Empire:<br />Because it was a period of aggressive expansion of Egyptian lands at the hands of powerful Pharaohs<br />
    106. 106. EGYPT <br />
    107. 107. EGYPT <br />
    108. 108. EGYPT <br />
    109. 109. EGYPT <br />
    110. 110. EGYPT <br />
    111. 111. EGYPT <br />
    112. 112. EGYPT <br />
    113. 113. EGYPT <br />
    114. 114. EGYPT <br />
    115. 115. EGYPT <br />
    116. 116. EGYPT <br />
    117. 117. EGYPT <br />
    118. 118. EGYPT <br />
    119. 119. EGYPT <br />
    120. 120. EGYPT <br />
    121. 121. EGYPT <br />
    122. 122. EGYPT <br />
    123. 123. EGYPT <br />Contributions to the World<br />1. Mummification<br /> - Preservation of dead bodies. It has 2 stages: embalming and wrapping. Dead pharaohs were the ones being mummified in Ancient Egypt. Because the Egyptians believed that Pharaohs are gods and for the soul of the pharaoh to go back to heaven as one of the gods, his body on earth must not rot.<br />
    124. 124. 2. Pyramid-making<br /> - Pyramids serve as tombs of the deceased pharaohs. Egyptians willing fully participated in the pyramid making because they believed that it is one of their holy duties to their pharaoh-god. Only simple tools and strengths of the laborers were used in pyramid construction. Pyramid making shows mastery of the Egyptians in the field of geometry and mathematics (fractions and square roots) <br />EGYPT <br />
    125. 125. 3. Theocratic government headed by a pharaoh.<br />4.Religion – polytheistic<br /> - monotheistic<br />5. Book of the Dead – first book in the world. It contains spell and chants for the easy passage of soul to the afterlife.<br />EGYPT <br />
    126. 126. 6. MateriaMedica – first book on medicine about illness and diseases and their cure or treatment. It also contains the processes of mummification.<br />7. Hieroglyphics – the 2nd known writing system in the world. A pictograwriting system. A greek word, literally means sacred writing.<br />EGYPT <br />
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