Intro marine ecology_power_point (1)

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Intro marine ecology_power_point (1)

  1. 1. Intro Marine Ecology <ul><li>Ecology : relationship of living things/environment </li></ul><ul><li>Marine Ecology : interdependence of all organisms in the ocean . </li></ul>
  2. 2. Marine Environment <ul><li>Abiotic Factors : nonliving elements/ Chemical, Geological, Physical Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors :organisms / interactions among organisms </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is abiotic/biotic? <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>pH value </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Substratum </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved Gases </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Tides </li></ul><ul><li>Currents </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Waves </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to Air </li></ul>
  4. 4. Biotic Levels of Organizations <ul><li>Individual : one organism </li></ul><ul><li>Population : group of individuals of one species (organisms) Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Communities : plants and animals inhabiting the same physical area . </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems : Many communities / large geographic area. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Population
  6. 6. Communities
  7. 8. Characteristics of an Ecosystem <ul><li>Requires a source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms capturing energy / produce organic molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic material available to all. </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle nutrients between environments </li></ul>
  8. 9. Zonation of Marine Environment <ul><li>See handout </li></ul>
  9. 10. Ecological Distribution <ul><li>Pelagic Organisms : in the water Plankton - drifting organisms. Nekton - swimmers </li></ul><ul><li>Benthic Organisms : in or on substrate (sand/rock) burrow, crawl, walk, or affixed Epifauna :live on. Infauna :live within </li></ul>
  10. 11. Plankton/ Nekton
  11. 12. Epifauna/Infauna
  12. 13. Trophic (Feeding) Relationships <ul><li>Autorophs : absorb sunlight energy & transform inorganic mineral nutrients into organic molecules. Producers </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs : consumers / cannot synthesize their own food. Need producers. </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers : live on dead plant and animal. Break down organic material / inorganic nutrients. </li></ul>
  13. 18. Energy Transfer <ul><li>Pyramid of numbers : numerical relationship of trophic (feeding) levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Pyramid : energy distribution at each trophic level. </li></ul>
  14. 19. Pyramid of Numbers
  15. 20. Pyramid of Numbers
  16. 21. Pyramid of Numbers
  17. 22. Energy Pyramid
  18. 23. Energy Pyramid
  19. 24. Lost Energy/Energy Pyramid <ul><li>Consumer do not consume (eat) entire organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy used in capture (food). </li></ul><ul><li>Energy used in metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy lost as heat. </li></ul><ul><li>* 10% energy pass to next level. </li></ul>
  20. 25. Lost Energy/Energy Pyramid
  21. 26. Food Chain/Energy Pyramid
  22. 27. Food Web
  23. 28. Types of Food Relationships <ul><li>Predator - Prey : Predator Needs? Prey Needs? </li></ul><ul><li>Scavenger : Feed on dead plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiotic / Symbiosis : nutritional association </li></ul>
  24. 30. Symbiosis in Marine Animals <ul><li>Parasitism : (+;-) one benefits, one harmed or interfered with body function. </li></ul><ul><li>Commensalism : (+;0) one benefits, one neither gains or loses. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualism : (+;+) both benefit. </li></ul>
  25. 31. Parasitism/ Isopod on Fish
  26. 32. Commensalism/Anemone &Crab
  27. 33. Mutualism/Clown & Sea Anemone
  28. 34. Mutualism/Clam & Zooplankton
  29. 35. Population Cycles <ul><li>Changes season/season and year/year </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated by Natality (new organisms) and Mortality (rate of death) </li></ul><ul><li>What are factors that affect population cycles? </li></ul>
  30. 36. Biomass Lab Activity <ul><li>The Living Ocean: </li></ul>

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