Value Stream Mapping Process Product Family Current State Drawing Work Plan & Implementation Future State Drawing Understand how the value currently flows Design a Lean flow Plan how to get there and execute the plan Define the Value Stream
Does the shop floor (gemba) promote waste-free flow of parts through the process?
Is the work area messy and disorganized? Does the shop floor apply the principles of 5S? How are these principles applied? How would you rate the organization using the Crane Aerospace 5S scoring sheet?
Is manufacturing managed through a push or pull system? How are orders communicated to the upstream process? How are components passed to the downstream process?
Does production occur in large lots, small batches or one-piece flow
Is customer demand being met? Does the company work to takt time? Have they determined the pitch?
Are there many forms of inventory, transportation, waiting, and motion waste?
Value Stream Mapping Process Product Family Current State Drawing Work Plan & Implementation Future State Drawing Understand how the value currently flows Design a LEAN flow Plan how to get there and execute the plan Define the Value Stream
Customer withdraws what it needs when it needs it using “Withdrawal Kanban”
Supplying process produces to replenish what was withdrawn using a “Production Kanban”
First In, First Out (FIFO)
Lane between two decoupled process. FIFO Lane or chute holds a specific amount of inventory
When the FIFO lane gets full, the supplying process stops producing until the customer has used some of the inventory
There are too many part numbers to hold inventory of each in a supermarket
Supplying process produces a predetermined quantity directly to the customer process’s order
Sometimes called the “golf ball system”
Number of Kanban Card Sets k = Expected demand during lead time + Safety Stock Size of container k = D L ( 1 + S ) C k = Number of kanban card sets (a set is a card) D = Average number of units demanded over some time period L = Lead time to replenish an order (same units of time as demand) S = Safety stock expressed as a percentage of demand during lead time C = Container size
Orderliness means organizing the way needed things are kept so that anyone can find and use them easily
For the necessary items arrange them so that everyone can see where it is kept, can easily pick it up, use it, and return it to its proper place
Standardization of where items are kept
Signboard strategy is implemented to clearly display where to keep all the needed items
Other techniques: First-In-First-Out (FIFO), Painting, Improving the Layout of Parts and Operator Motion, and Document Organization
Types of Simplifying Type Identification Markers Location Markers Quantity Markers Standard Methods Tags Andon Kanban Performance Display Defect Display Personnel Board Examples Signboards, name labels, photos, or shapes of items. Tape strips, color coding, numbering. Signs indicating number (min/max), standard files, number of spaces for items indicators of normal operating values. Charts of cycle time and work sequence, standard procedures, flowcharts, photos of operation or process flows. Errors, excess or extremes (red flag), “broken” items or process Visual (lights, flags) and audio (bells, buzzers, tones) signals to draw immediate attention for help. Card, empty container or blank information space signaling that activity or Process schedule and quantities, quality, costs, safety, or improvement activities. Tables or boards or other forum / venue showing defective processes, information, or paperwork. Availability (in/out), assignment and location of department personnel, cross-training status vs. plan. movement is authorized.
The U.S. Standard railroad gauge (distance between the rail tracks) is 4 feet and 8.5 inches, which is a very odd number
Why was that gauge used?
Because that is the way they built the railroads in England, and the U.S. railroads were built by English expatriates Why did the English people build them like that? Because the first railroads were built by the same people who built the pre-railroad tramways, and that is the gauge they used Why did “they” use that gauge then? Why did the wagons use that odd wheel spacing? Why did the old wheel ruts have that distance for the wheel spacing? Because if they tried to use any other spacing, the wagons would break on some of the old, long distance roads because that was the spacing of the old wheel ruts Because the first long distance roads in Europe were built by Rome for the benefit of their legions, and the ruts were the spacing of Roman war chariots based on the back ends of 2 horses Because the people who built the pre-railroad tramways used the same jigs and tools they used for building wagons, which used that wheel spacing
The Space Shuttle has two giant solid rocket boosters (SRBs) built by Morton Thiokol at a factory in Utah
The engineers who designed the SRBs wanted them wider
However, the SRBs had to be shipped by train from Utah to the launch site in Florida
The railroad from Utah ran through a mountain tunnel
The SRBs had to fit through the tunnel, and the tunnel is slightly wider than the railroad track
The design width specification of one of the major components on the world’s most advanced space vehicle was determined by the width of a Roman chariot or more accurately by the width of two horse’s rear ends