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  • 1. EDX2370 Assignment 1 Multimedia Presentation Kylie Villinger 006 102 4334
  • 2. Annotations
  • 3. Teaching and learning multiliteracies: changing times, changing literacies (Book) Anstey, M., & Bull, G. (2006). Teaching and learning multiliteracies: changing times, changing literacies (pp. 56-81). Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association. This article serves as a guide for teachers and provides specific aims for teaching for multiliterate students. It suggests teachers to reflect upon their pedagogy and explains the place and principles of a relevant, and multiliterate curriculum in the classroom. Anstey and Bull (2006) provides for teachers, specific guidelines for lesson planning inline with a multiliteracy pedagogy. Both Cazden (1967) and Gee (1992) are analysed for their role in multiliteracy development. The characteristics of both literate and multiliterate people are identified and examined. It is stressed that to be multiliterate, you must recognise certain qualities and be able to use both different and new practices in literacy.
  • 4. Multiliteracies : new literacies new learning (Journal) Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (2009). Multiliteracies : new literacies new learning, Pedagogies : an International Journal, 4 (3), 164-195. This paper examines multiliteracies and asks what constitutes as appropriate literacy pedagogy after evaluating why and how the communication environment is changing. The communication environment has (and continues to,) change causing people’s citizenship, work and personal lives to be drastically altered aswell. This has prompted for changes to literacy teaching and learning. In a world of new technologies and globalisation literacies can be divided into two parts. Multimodal, meaning the different modes to literacy. These are the linguistic, visual, audio, gestural and spatial modes of meaning used in our everyday lives and media. The second part is Multilingual, which refers to the globalisation and the fact that our everyday experiences of meaning making is increasingly one of negotiation across discourses. Education, particularly literacy education, has responded to these changes with what Cope and Kalantzis (part of The New London Group) call a Multiliteracies pedagogy. The new pedagogy includes a range of “moves”. These include “situated practice,” “overt instruction,” “critical framing” and “transferred practice.” Since the initial idea of Multiliteracies in 1996, things have continued to drastically change. Almost everyone carries a mobile phone, complete with a camera, internet connection and social media access and text message options. As mentioned above, these impact people’s citizenship, work and personal lives. Education lead to better employment, personal growth and an enhanced capacity to participate in a civic life. Therefore, teachers, cannot ignore these impacts and must work to “promote a culture of flexibility, creativity, innovation and initiative.” (p.170). Since the original New London Group article in 1996, there has been intellectual continuity aswell as change in pedagogy of multiliteracy development. The pedagogy has been implemented in various ways across primary, secondary and tertiary educational institutions around the world.
  • 5. Teaching Multiliteracies Across the Curriculum: Changing contexts of text and image in Classroom Practice Unsworth (2001) provides a framework for use in classrooms that includes traditional literacy And multiliteracy pedagogies for children in preparation for the twenty-first century. The framing perspectives chapter states that while the fundamental language-based literacy pedagogies are still useful, they are not sufficient. The new millennium demands a literacy pedagogy suitable for an evolving age of information. Children already engage with both electronic and conventional format texts outside of school and Unsworth claims these are rarely acknowledged as part of school literacies. It is suggested that students need to understand how the resources of the language, image and digital rhetoric's can be deployed independently and interactively to construct different meanings. “In the twenty-first century the notion of literacy needs to be reconceived as a plurality of literacies and being literate must be seen and anachronistic. If schools foster the developments if these changing multiple literacies it is first necessary to understand the basis of their diversity.”
  • 6. Language and learning: An introduction for teaching Emmitt, M., Komesaroff, L. and Pollock, J. (2006). Language and learning: an introductory guide for teaching (4th ED). New York: Oxford University Press. Emmitt, Komesaroff and Pollock (2006) address information, communication and technology in chapter eleven where they adopt the view of Beavis (2005) in accepting that technologies are a part of everyday life. Technologies are a sociocultural practice and not just a separate part of a school’s literacy curriculum and can be embedded as such. They address the technology disadvantaged and the ‘digital divide’ to continue on to cover the ‘digital natives’ opposed to the ‘digital immigrants’ from Prensky, 2001. The digital immigrant instructors, teach in an outdated language while the new generation speak an entirely new language. As a future educator, this implication can be addressed with teachers facilitating open-ended lessons where both teachers and students are able to learn through exploring and sharing.
  • 7. Reading in the Primary School Years Harris, P., Turnbill, J., Fitzsimmons, P. and McKenzie, B. (2001). Reading in the primary school years (2nd ED). South Melbourne: Cengage Learning. Chapter six in Harris et al. addresses the challenges for young readers and implications for teachers that are caused by the technological changes which were covered in chapter three. Regardless of the media children are exposed to, they need to be able to code break when using written language. Harris et al. uses the comparison of using a physical library opposed to the internet to source information. Both the code breaking exercise of navigating library shelves and book and researching on the internet require specific coding orientations. Children need to learn different concepts of print, decode the print and understand it. The added computer skills required include mouse clicking, curser control, recognising icons, opening and closing programs, searching and scrolling. Children born into this digital age are divided into two groups, the ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots.’ Teachers must not make assumptions about children’s access and abilities in regard to various media. The chapter goes on to recommend strategies to support young readers from diverse backgrounds. The variations in home experiences mean that children bring different amounts and kinds of ‘capital’ to school. The challenge for teachers is to work with, rather than against, these differences. It is suggested for teachers to provide contexts where code breaking, the reading practice, is valued, used and made explicit. (p. 137-138). Classroom recommendations include using real life languages, books that are personally and culturally relevant, clear font styles and exercises that develop the knowledge of letter/sound relationships. Teaching activities could include shadow reading and cloze activities that include guided process of predicting during reading.
  • 8. Cyber-schooling and technological change: Multiliteracies for new times Luke, C. (2000). Cyber-schooling and technological change: Multiliteracies for new times. In Bill Cope & Mary Kalantzis, (Eds.), Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design for social futures (pp. 69-84). New York: Routledge. In this article, Luke addresses the Information revolution and its impacts and issues in relation to literacy education in schools. “Today, the internet is generating profound changes in the way we communicate, and how we access, produce, and distribute information and knowledge.” (p.70). The Multiliteracies of digital texts are based on the notions of hybridity and also, intertextuality. The technology user must use a variety of knowledges about both traditional and the newly blended genres, conventions, cultural and symbolic codes. Icon symbols used in computer software and online can easily become lost in a translation across cultures. In a world of icons, animations, print text, photographs and movie clips across hotlinks, sites and buttons, the user is immersed in a multimodal and nonlinear universe. Luke recognises that users must be able to think linear and seek relevant information across connecting and relevant pieces of information. They must interact with others conscious of their culturally divergent backgrounds and also understand the political and material consequences of technological change, because some benefit while others are disadvantaged by new technology. “Literacy requirements have changed and will continue to change as new technologies come onto the marketplace and quickly blend into our everyday lives.” (p. 71). Software developers and internet website creators have been given the power to decide what and how we learn. And therefore, we as educators must be aware of the many issues which are at stake. Educators need to react to these radical and continuous changes by developing pedagogies that are appropriately. As a pre-service teacher, I must know where and how to intervene with both critical and positive multiliteracy teaching strategies. Much of us no longer have to leave the screen or house in order to conduct daily business in our everyday private and professional lives, and do so in a much faster time frame. Luke explains that simultaneously, these rapid changes are occurring in education. Luke predicts that the industrial model schooling will soon be outdated. “The industrial-model, print-and book-based practices will become less relevant in the age of virtual classrooms, hypertexts, and online communities of learners.” (p.88).
  • 9. Using the four resources model across the curriculum (Book) Santoro, N. (2004). Using the four resources model across the curriculum. In A. Healy, & E. Honan (Eds.), Text next : new resources for literacy learning (pp. 51-67). Newtown, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association This paper assists in developing subject-specific literacies in students for the transition between primary and secondary schools (the middle years). New age literacy is defined by Santoro as a way of operating with a variety of texts within a particular set of social situations. These are accessible in student’s everyday lives, on the computer, in school, out of school and socially. We interact with written, spoken, visual, digital and multimodal texts. Literacy is not only taught in literacy lessons but is taught in a multitude of contexts across subject areas. Using the Four Resources Model as a pedagogical tool, Santoro explains how students are aided in deconstructing multimodal texts critically and develop the multiliteracy skills required in a changing and technologically-advanced global world.
  • 10. A pedagogy of multiliteracies: designing social futures (Journal) The New London Group (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66 (1), 60-93. Retrieved from EJS database. The New London article is the first of the Multiliteracy-related papers and covers the connections between changing social environments and the resulting new approach to literacy pedagogy- Multiliteracy. Today’s changing social environment demands a new, vast and complex view to literacy, beyond a limiting traditional language-based literacy approach. The changing technology, and therefore the organisational shape of working life, provides some people with access The New London group also asks “How do we ensure that differences in culture, language and gender are not barriers to educational success?” (p.61). Stakeholders include females, immigrants and indigenous people, and this needs to be catered for by teachers for a greater local and global connectedness. It is proposed that students develop a metalanguage, the what (design process and elements) and the how (situated practice, overt instruction, critical framing and transformed practice).
  • 11. Write Ways: Modelling Writing Forms Wing Jan, L. (2009). Write ways: modelling writing forms (4th ED). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Literacies and language are embedded in everyday contexts. Wing Jan acknowledges technological literacy’s rapid growth and its impact on the way we communicate in integral life within and beyond school. There is a forever growing range of formats in the way content is published and presented. The book begins by explaining how literacy practices are shaped by culture, society and situation, the language mode, roles and relationships of the participants and knowledges which are brought to or taken from text interactions. Multiliteracies are addressed from chapter one, where the need to effectively communicate across cultural and social settings is mentioned. Wing Jan briefly explains how multimodal texts are constantly changing because our information and communication technologies are evolving. Students need to be able to understand linguistic, visual, spatial, audio and gestural elements so that they can gain meaning from multimodal texts. This is achieved when students are immersed in, and use technology to use, create and change texts for a variety of purposes (p.4).
  • 12. Ludoliteracy: Defining, Understanding and Supporting Games Education Zagal, J.P. (2010). Ludoliteracy: defining, understanding and supporting games education. Pittsburgh: ETC Press. Zagal (2010) justifies the idea of gaming as a new form of literacy by associating it with visual literacy (television), computer literacy, information literacy and digital literacy. Cope and Kalantzis (2000) is quoted in stating that “Gaming requires new forms of cultural and communicative competencies.” Literacy is now more than just coding and encoding, or reading and writing and this is explained by asking and answering the question “Are games distinct enough to warrant its own literacy.” Playing video games requires an ability to decode in that the player is asked to access the game and play it. The player is asked to understand semiotic meanings in games and, when creating games, asked to produce semiotic meanings. Online gaming demands participation in social and communicational play, and is complete with a specialised language.
  • 13. References: Anstey, M., & Bull, G. (2006). Teaching and learning multiliteracies: changing times, changing literacies (pp. 56-81). Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (2009). Multiliteracies : new literacies new learning, Pedagogies : an International Journal, 4 (3), 164- 195. Emmitt, M., Komesaroff, L. and Pollock, J. (2006). Language and learning: an introductory guide for teaching (4th ED). New York: Oxford University Press. Harris, P., Turnbill, J., Fitzsimmons, P. and McKenzie, B. (2001). Reading in the primary school years (2nd ED). South Melbourne: Cengage Learning. Luke, C. (2000). Cyber-schooling and technological change: Multiliteracies for new times. In Bill Cope & Mary Kalantzis, (Eds.), Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design for social futures (pp. 69-84). New York: Routledge. Santoro, N. (2004). Using the four resources model across the curriculum. In A. Healy, & E. Honan (Eds.), Text next : new resources for literacy learning (pp. 51-67). Newtown, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Slide 5 image: retrieved from http://multiliteracyrevolution.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/picture-6-tkr9k7.png on August 25, 2013.
  • 14. References continued: Slide 7 image: retrieved from http://www.sinclair.edu/about/locations/englewood/pub/images/computer-classroom.jpg on August 25th, 2013. Slide 10 image: retrieved from http://www.backgroundsy.com/file/preview/pencil.jpg on August 25, 2013. Slide 12 image: retrieved from http://www.futurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/gamepad_1.jpg on August 25, 2013. Slide 13 image 1: retrieved from http://static.guim.co.uk/sys- images/Guardian/About/General/2012/3/14/1331741366300/Encyclopedia-Britannicas-007.jpg on August 25, 2013. Slide 14 image 2: retrieved from http://staff.ee.sun.ac.za/~gvrooyen/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/0506-scholarlrg.gif retrieved on August 25, 2013. The New London Group (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66 (1), 60-93. Retrieved from EJS database. Unsworth, L. (2001). Teaching Multiliteracies Across the Curriculum: Changing contexts of text and image in Classroom Practice. Philadelphia: Open University Press. Wing Jan, L. (2009). Write ways: modelling writing forms (4th ED). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Zagal, J.P. (2010). Ludoliteracy: defining, understanding and supporting games education. Pittsburgh: ETC Press.