Indian Management Thoughts and Practices Submitted to :- Mrs. RukiMirchandani
Oecef The term dharma (Sanskrit: dhárma, Pāḷidhamma) is an Indian spiritual and religious term that means one's righteous duty, or any virtuous path. A Hindu's dharma is affected by a person's age, class, occupation, and gender. In modern Indian languages it can be equivalent simply to religion. The word dharma means that which upholds or supports, and is generally translated into English as law. “Dharma” means “protection”. By practising Buddha’s teachings we can protect ourself from suffering and problems. All the problems we experience during daily life originate in ignorance, and the method for eliminating ignorance is to practise Dharma. 2
Oecefff The path to enlightenment is really very simple – all we need to do is stop cherishing ourself and learn to cherish others. According to the various Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, the human beings that live in accordance with Dharma proceed more quickly toward dharma yukami.e.moksha or nirvana (personal liberation). Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism are called Hindu Dharma, Bauddha-Dharma, Jain-Dharma and Sikh dharma, respectively. It is difficult to provide a single concise definition for dharma, as the word has a long and varied history and straddles a complex set of meanings and interpretations. 3
Righteousness According to S. N. Goenka, teacher of Vipassana Meditation, the original meaning of dhamma is "dharetiitidharmma", or "that which is contained". Dharma in the Buddhist scriptures has a variety of meanings, including "phenomenon" and "nature" or "characteristic". Dharma also means "mental contents," and is paired with citta, which means heart-mind. 4
Righteousness The pairing is paralleled with the combining of kaya (body) and vedana (feelings or sensations which arise within the body but are experienced through the mind), in major sutras such as the Mahasatipatthana sutra. Dharma is also used to refer to the teachings of the Buddha, especially the discourses on the fundamental principles (such as the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path), as opposed to the parables and to the poems. 5
Elements of Dharma Satya This means complete truth and thoughts , intensions, words and deeds. If there is any discrimination either in intensions, spoken words or thoughts and one’s deeds it is not Satya. In short, Satya means complete truth only when the thoughts, intension, and spoken words are similar and the one who accomplishes all this is called a Dharmic person. 6
Elements of Dharma Yagna It means sacrificing one’s cherished dreams, aspirations for a common good. In yagna – like in the Holy fire, we offer our dreams and aspirations and have full faith in the divine power. We do this selfless act as we wish to do maximum good of maximum number of people. If any person does it irrespective of his religion or caste, he is truly Dharmic person. 7
Elements of Dharma Tapasya This refers to sublimation of one’s desires, instinct and passion, leading disciplined life, purifying the body, mind and soul. In various religions practised in India there are various rituals and fasts observed to purify our body, mind and soul. 8
Adopting dharma Countless enlightened beings have discovered that by abandoning self-cherishing and cherishing only others they came to experience true peace and happiness. Once we view each and every living being as important we shall naturally develop good intentions towards them. Compassion is a mind that is motivated by cherishing other living beings and wishes to release them from their suffering. The main reason we do not cherish all living beings is that we are so preoccupied with ourself, and this leaves very little room in our mind to appreciate others. Since we regard our self or I as so very precious and important, we exaggerate our own good qualities and develop an inflated view of ourself An exaggerated sense of our own importance thus leads to a critical attitude towards other people and makes it almost impossible to avoid conflict. For as long as our good feelings for others are conditional upon their treating us well, our love will be weak and unstable and we shall not be able to transform it into universal love. Patience is a mind motivated by a virtuous intention that happily accepts difficulties and harm from others. 9
Harmony with nature can teach you how to live a balanced life The purpose is to be a significant influence in the lives of people who want to know the wisdom of love, inner peace, happiness, and harmony in their own lives and at the same time make the world a better place. It helps people improve; their own life skills, the lives of others, and the health of the Earth. Living in dynamic harmony with nature allows one to find ancient and new age wisdom. This is the wisdom of all love and all power. When one has acquired total acceptance it will be easy to know inner peace. With inner peace there will be more happiness, even in times of change. To understand human nature we need to understand the dynamic harmony between love and power. 11
Objectives A long term goal is to establish several communities that integrate modern knowledge and technology with local cultures, to evolve a modern model for sustainable living and human development.
To help people find inner peace
To help people understand self acceptance and acceptance of others
To help people see that unconditional acceptance leads to unconditional love.
To promote recycling and the conservation of resources
All this can be explained with the help of an example: Taking care of your garden’s performance. Even if your gardening activity does not extend beyond a window box, the plants need planting and checking for pests. In other words, fairly continuous attention is required to succeed. Gardening is not an exact science, more of an art-form slowly learned and in most cases this is a life-long process. If you have been gardening for a number of years you develop an eye for things that a mere novice would miss. A trained eye is an important tool and an important first step along the way to becoming a better gardener. One very crucial starting point to the art of gardening successfully is to know your plants. Very often a plant's original home is the key to understanding its environmental needs. Even simple things like knowing when and how much to water your plants is something we all have to learn ourselves. 13