WHITE PAPERBLACKBOX Multimodal Display PlatformMultimodal Interface Design as aSolution for Data Display, DataFusion and D...
1 Introduction“We are drowning in data…”The integration of senses by the human is a natural form of data fusion.Extensions...
intelligence applications, security, aviation, simulators, weather analysisplatforms, and video games. MIDs augment displa...
fragments fused can be web services and conventional application files such asPowerPoint, web browsers, MP4 video assets a...
Fig. 2 NASA BLACKBOX4 Force MultiplyCommand centers and fusion centers are designed to provide situationalawareness and a ...
5 The Market for New Ways to CommunicateThe market for new ways to communicate continues to grow and evolvedramatically. O...
highlighting the depth and power of BLACKBOX including the ability to translatea multitude of data points into graphs and ...
8 BLACKBOX ArchitectureThe BLACKBOX application runs as an externally or internally deliveredapplication that includes bui...
The BLACKBOX application development follows best practices established byAdobe Technical Services and partners. We use Ca...
A Cairngorm application consists of:   • Architectural Layers that separate classes with different kinds of      responsib...
Fig. 4 BLACKBOX Extension DiagramComponent ModelBLACKBOX utilizes the Spark component architecture to support a seamlesswa...
Fig. 5 BLACKBOX Component ModelClass DiagramBLACKBOX class diagram in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) describesthe str...
Fig. 6 BLACKBOX Class Diagram9 APIThe BLACKBOX API provides a way to extend the core capabilitiesof BLACKBOX in a seamless...
includes the ability to access the raw HTML DOM. Taken together this providesrich hooks to content objects and functionali...
Further reading around Adobe AIR security can be found in the followingreferences:         •   http://help.adobe.com/en_US...
•    Give (consistency in tense) control to the analyst to customize their data         views without needing support from...
2. EDWARD TUFTE, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information,         Graphics Press; 2nd edition (May 2001), ISBN-10: ...
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Blackbox security white paper april 27, 2012

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Blackbox security white paper april 27, 2012

  1. 1. WHITE PAPERBLACKBOX Multimodal Display PlatformMultimodal Interface Design as aSolution for Data Display, DataFusion and Data SharingAuthorKurt Kratchmankurt@blackbox.tvAbstract – Today data comes at us from different directions in different formats,structured and unstructured. Viewing so much data and creating data narrativesis challenging due to the various types of sources, supporting operating systems,hardware, software, platforms, devices, channels, formats, codec, streamingdata, and proprietary data architectures, just to name a few. Fusing data is anenormous challenge and opportunity we are focused on solving. The displaylayer - the human computer interface - is the frontier this paper addresses. Weattempt to provide context, frame the problem statement and offer a strategicparadigm and solution that is pragmatic, tactical and cost effective. Thefunctional role of a multimodal display platform is to assist the end user inorganizing and presenting multimedia content. At the lowest level, the displayplatform organizes disparate data types and organizes relevant incoming data. Atthe highest level, the system presents actionable intelligence to the user. In thispaper, we use the BLACKBOX model as a reference for displaying data drivencontent, which utilizes multimedia fusion and multimodal characteristics toenhance user performance. The design allows for the user to passively monitorand actively interact with the display system with controls for interfacecustomization, template creation, interactivity with web services, high end designand usability features, and a client / cloud based architecture. We present a newdisplay paradigm that utilizes a multimodal interface to (1) take advantage of thehuman’s ability to fuse multisensory information, (2) facilitate situationalawareness, (3) enhance the users cognitive task analysis and (4) shareintuitively.Keywords: adaptive interface, cognitive task analysis, command control, crossplatform, common operating picture, display bridge, display platform, forcemultiplier, fusion, information sharing, multimodal interface design, multimedia,situational awareness, synthetic vision, user interface, visual technology.  
  2. 2. 1 Introduction“We are drowning in data…”The integration of senses by the human is a natural form of data fusion.Extensions to human processing include computer displays to guide attention,facilitate efficient task analysis, and provide cues for situation awareness. Acomputer is good at processing large amounts of object data while a human isgood at making inferences over the data. Thus, the key question to ask is “Whatframework the human has to inference over the data and what capabilities allowfor active reasoning?” To develop the user refinement capabilities to include in adesign, four issues are paramount (1) situational awareness, (2) cognitive taskanalysis, (3) multimodal interface and (4) easy information sharing. The focus ofthis paper is multimodal interface and describes a highly scalable display modelcalled BLACKBOX. BLACKBOX provides a multimedia interactive displayplatform that transforms the way information is communicated. BLACKBOX isspecifically designed for fusion/command center analysts who need to view andanalyze data from secure and public sources in context. With BLACKBOXdynamic data can be displayed by simultaneously force multiplying your existingscreens with video feeds, web services, analyst reports, digital content, chartsand graphs all on a single screen.BLACKBOX makes having your own mission control affordable and easy to setup. BLACKBOX gives IT and security organizations important enhancementsthat not only help reduce support and remediation costs, but can also provide afoundation for future solutions as security and communications needs change tosupport increasingly virtualized or “multi-tenant” shared data center resources.BLACKBOX is architected to be available as an externally or internally deliveredapplication that has built-in application and content syncing and caching. Userscan integrate a wide variety of content types and existing applications to bedelivered within BLACKBOX.  2 Multimodal Interface DesignPassive computer presentations might accurately present the fused data,however if the mental model of the human operator is not consistent with thedisplay, the system usability might not improve performance. One way to improveoperator performance is to design an interactive interface that allows for thecapability to interact and refine the display. As an example, we might be able torefine the data collection so as to get more image perspectives for a 3D targetpresentation or multiple looks on the same target. When we interact with thesystem, the end user is transformed from a passive operator to an active user.Another way to improve human operator performance is to design a multimodalinterface. Multimodal interface design (MID) is a concept that leverages ourability to filter incoming data. MID design is a key feature in military andwww.blackbox.tv 2
  3. 3. intelligence applications, security, aviation, simulators, weather analysisplatforms, and video games. MIDs augment display information with controlinputs, audio warnings, and some proprioceptive information. Such examples areaudio warnings for threat assessment and control interactions affording theanalyst the ability to cue in on data or drill down to areas of interest. Additionally,we might think of classifying image fusion selections as an extension to the MIDdesign. For instance, allowing the user to select between electrical-optical (EO),synthetic-aperture radar (SAR), and infrared (IR) for day, high-altitude, and nightmissions, respectively, would enhance the multimodal visual capabilities. A keycomponent of the MID is the ability to facilitate the analyst’s cognitive ability tofuse multiple image presentations for task completion.Most fusion systems are highly specialized, designed as narrow point solutions,and are expensive to build and operate, like the examples above. Some softwarepackages are so complex they are sold with their own analysts and engineers.The typical Law Enforcement/intelligence fusion/command center cannot affordsuch luxuries yet the operators are being asked to evolve their skills to handlemore time sensitive demands. What if the end user was empowered to selecttheir own data sets, live feeds, PowerPoint files, web services, maps and othercontent for a fused display presentation with out support from software engineersand consultants? What if they could set up templates of existing and approvedfeeds and share them? This would assist in removing the need for time-constrained resources and let the experts manage what they know best. Moretimes than not, the least dramatic fusions of data can have the greatest impacton day-to-day productivity.3 Content is Data, Rich Media, and MultimediaAs previously mentioned, the key to a multimodal interface system design is theability of the system to convey information desired by the user. With the growth ofrich media in all forms of communication and analysis, information technologysystems have more to deliver for users who handle and analyze multimedia.Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different contentforms. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content forms)or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content forms. Theterm is used in contrast to media, which use only rudimentary computer displaysuch as text only, or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material.Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video,or interactivity content forms. The key to consuming multimedia on displayscreens is the interface, referred to as a GUI (graphical user interface).Multimedia terminology has evolved over the years and conceptual terms suchas rich media, or layered media, have entered the professional lexicon.More synthesized forms of content include the multimedia presentation of theassets organized into PowerPoint, web pages and other curated forms of digitalcontent, often relied on during mission briefs and presentations. Digital contentcan be stored locally or on remote servers such as cloud based data. The datawww.blackbox.tv 3
  4. 4. fragments fused can be web services and conventional application files such asPowerPoint, web browsers, MP4 video assets and their players. (this seemsrepetitive of the first sentence) Compatibility between operating systems, filestandards, proprietary software, and platforms make it difficult to fuse data into acommon view that can be presented on a display screen.With our reliance of computer displays, interface design has become a criticalarea of focus to increase performance. The objective of designers anddevelopers of interactive software systems is to align the mental model of thehuman with the display of the data. One way UX (user experience) designersimprove operator performance is to design an interactive interface enabling thehuman operator the capability to interact and refine the display.   Fig. 1 NASA Mission Control – Johnson Space Centerwww.blackbox.tv 4
  5. 5. Fig. 2 NASA BLACKBOX4 Force MultiplyCommand centers and fusion centers are designed to provide situationalawareness and a common operating picture. Command centers such as NASA’sare proliferating around the world. Sensors, surveillance and intelligencesolutions rely more and more on video imagery. Video displays are sharing thereal estate with computer screens. As prices go down, the demand for largedisplays increases, driving new requirements and benefits. But most displaysare not utilized to their full potential. Historically, splitting the screens and runningmultiple applications on a single view require additional hardware and softwarecomponents. Consumer oriented Smart TVs are leveraging web services andweb applications running through browser like application. While this makes theviewing experience more dynamic, it is quite narrow and limited. In missioncritical command centers, rarely is budget spent on enhancing the usability of thecontent that these architectures provide. Most system integrators and ITprofessionals are not trained in user experience or interface design and suchresources have not been made a priority in the designers of NOCs or fusioncenters. Yet it is the human computer interface that is paramount tounderstanding what the data means in context. Data presentation that createsactionable intelligence saves lives and protects our security. Synthetic visionsupports our air force pilots. Where is the synthetic vision support for the analystswho are piloting our security data centers?www.blackbox.tv 5
  6. 6. 5 The Market for New Ways to CommunicateThe market for new ways to communicate continues to grow and evolvedramatically. Organizations expect and are willing to pay for, seamlessintegration between their access to data, media and new technologies.BLACKBOX consolidates data driven content through its unified digital displayplatform.Few organizations have the resources or expertise to manage large internalteams of strategic, technical and creative personnel necessary to executecomprehensive integrated digital media solutions in-house. BLACKBOXempowers users to easily display multiple types of data and media tailored tovarying audiences for maximum impact. BLACKBOX’s award-winning interfaceassembles new and existing technologies, enabling business and technical usersto combine information maintained in numerous databases across variousplatforms. CIO’s and CFO’s are able to maximize their return on investment withdozens of features that enables end users to access data that might nototherwise be available or difficult to find.6 Usage ModelsMAJOR MILITARY DEFENSE CONTRACTOR. A leading military defense andaerospace pioneer focused on intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissancesolutions for the US military worked with BLACKBOX to develop a customizedversion of the BLACKBOX software as a multimodal interface paradigm for theirwide ranging software R&D and drone programs. The problem for most of thesecompanies is that they spend so much money on responding to RFPs, buildingprototypes too slowly, developing intense hardware, software engineering andsystem integration solutions that take months if not years of planning, design anddevelopment, that by the time the end user operator gets to interface with thesystem, they have run out of time or money to consider the adapting needs of theend user and the context they need to see the data in. More often than not, theneeds of the ultimate end user are never studied or designed. Great ideas andsolutions die because of a failure to develop an interface that makes the systemusable. Hence interface design and usability together the next generation inadvancement for all software solutions and BLACKBOX is helping to set theagenda.NASA. Imagine the need to obtain approval for $30 million in funding; knowingthat the program you are trying to sell is extremely complicated and difficult foreven management to understand. This is the task that faces the engineers onthe Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle Simulation program at NASA. Theteam at NASA knows that in order for their project to survive they need be able todemonstrate what they are attempting to accomplish with real data. Standardpresentation tools were not even an option. We proposed our solution to NASAwww.blackbox.tv 6
  7. 7. highlighting the depth and power of BLACKBOX including the ability to translatea multitude of data points into graphs and charts (HDF5 conversion). To acommon viewer the data is meaningless, but to an engineer trying to analyze realtime and simulation data this is a valuable tool. The team at NASA recognizedthe value in being able to show live satellite feeds, adjacent to sensor data viewsin context with their plans and their mission – all as a means to get funding.Project approved.MAJOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION. Private and public educators are forcedto adapt and augment curriculums, pedagogy, and content distribution to remainrelevant in a world of digital technology. A leading private content creator andpublisher has a news program broadcast via satellite to 8,000 middle and highschools across the United States. The company even partners with the largestbroadcasting company in the world to help produce their content. Traditionally, allof this content was broadcast on a single TV video screen in the classroom.Recognizing the need to keep up with new technologies the company contactedBLACKBOX to create an interactive learning platform. Desiring to engagestudents and empower teachers even more, the educational leader will run a pilotprogram utilizing BLACKBOX as a tool to augment content and provide a deepereducational experience. BLACKBOX will be used to merge content and activelearning applications providing a more interactive approach to teaching andlearning. BLACKBOX offers schools a powerful tool to improve teachereffectiveness. With the integration of interactive whiteboards, students trulybecome active participants in the daily news broadcast, interacting with digitalcontent in real-time.GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE BRAND. This company is known throughout the worldfor their innovations at every level in the global automotive industry.Unfortunately marketing communication tools and messaging has not kept pacewith this rapidly changing market. A tailor-made version of BLACKBOX wascreated for the marketing teams to be used as a sales tool to access informationabout assets available to dealerships, as well as marketing resources that theymight not otherwise know existed. Management discovered that BLACKBOX isalso an effective tool for recruiting and employee on boarding.7 How BLACKBOX WorksBLACKBOX provides the ability to display a multitude of media in a singlepresentation screen: streaming video, web browsers, audio, RSS Feeds, GoogleMaps, PDF, HDF5 data, graphs…the list of application driven “pods” goes on andwill continue to grow. There can be up to sixteen (16) pods on a screen. Therecan be an unlimited number of screens, or “acts” that are the rotating sides of abox. BLACKBOX allows this same content to be rearranged, overlaid orenlarged on demand. The BLACKBOX platform allows multiple types of contentto be shared and distributed at the same time through an adaptive interface thatallows users to simultaneously control the display and organization of any type ofdigital content.www.blackbox.tv 7
  8. 8. 8 BLACKBOX ArchitectureThe BLACKBOX application runs as an externally or internally deliveredapplication that includes built in application syncing and caching. It is built usingAction Script 3 for the Adobe Air platform as a key technology. Adobe AIR is across-platform runtime environment developed by Adobe Systems for buildingRich Internet Applications (RIA) that can be run as desktop applications or onmobile devices. The Adobe AIR Runtime is the core of the application delivery.Not unlike a JVM or other virtual machine, it provides a base layer for theapplication.BLACKBOX customers are provided with either an external or internal (behindthe firewall) installation of the system. Installations can be a single machinerunning locally only or can consist of several machines with varioussynchronization patterns as best suits the needs of the customer.The BLACKBOX application is built on top of Adobe Air and provides corefeatures including playback, editing, content and application synchronization andcaching. The application is made up of several major components including: • Authentication and Authorization. The application validates a single installation on a single machine and ensures appropriate authorization to access the installer. • Update Manager. This is used to keep application versions consistent within an installation. Update manager also can push content as part of a regular update. • Playback. The application is able to execute playback of a series of acts (pages) and pods (individual windows). Pods can consist of a wide variety of different media types and applications and can be expanded. • Content Editor. This allows users update the content that will be played via each instance of the application. Through the update manager this will be pushed across the installations.www.blackbox.tv 8
  9. 9. The BLACKBOX application development follows best practices established byAdobe Technical Services and partners. We use Cairngorm as the foundation onhow we deliver successful enterprise Flex and AIR projects. Most large-scaleapplications within Adobe Technical Services are built by applying patterns andpractices of Cairngorm 3 using Inversion-of-Control (IoC) containers. Designpatterns advocated with Cairngorm MVC, such as encapsulating operationswithin command objects, declaring models and services externally, andseparating presentation and domain concerns, can be applied with Inversion-of-Control containers to simplify development and testability. The following diagramillustrates the BLACKBOX software framework. Fig. 3 BLACKBOX Framework Diagramwww.blackbox.tv 9
  10. 10. A Cairngorm application consists of: • Architectural Layers that separate classes with different kinds of responsibility • Functional Areas that group classes related to the same area of functionality • Design Patterns that coordinate objects in consistent waysArchitectural LayersClasses with different kinds of responsibility belong to different layers than canbe changed separately from one another. So if the visual design needs to betweaked, most changes are confined to the classes in a presentation layer, andnot other parts of the code. Cairngorm recommends the layers described by EricEvans in Domain-Driven Design: 1. Presentation - presents data to the user and gathers input. i.e. the fancy UI 2. Application - performs the operations of the application. i.e. saving a form 3. Domain - models the business concerns of the application. i.e. the form data 4. Infrastructure - coordinates objects and integrates with other systems. i.e. talking to the serverExtensionsThe BLACKBOX architecture uses an extend relationship to specify that one usecase (extension) extends the behavior of another use case (base), increasingproduct flexibility and adaptability. This type of relationship reveals details abouta system or application that are typically hidden in a use case. While the baseuse case is defined independently and is meaningful by itself, the extension usecase is not meaningful on its own. The extension use case consists of one orseveral behavior sequences (segments) that describe additional behavior thatcan incrementally augment the behavior of the base use case. Each segmentcan be inserted into the base use case at a different point, called an extensionpoint. The extension use case can access and modify the attributes of the baseuse case; however, the base use case is not aware of the extension use caseand, therefore, cannot access or modify the attributes and operations of theextension use case. The diagram below illustrates the BLACKBOX extensions.www.blackbox.tv 10
  11. 11. Fig. 4 BLACKBOX Extension DiagramComponent ModelBLACKBOX utilizes the Spark component architecture to support a seamlessway to customize the visuals and behaviors of components in a much more directand effortless manner. Spark is the name of the new component skinningarchitecture and component set that is part of the Adobe Flex 4 open sourcesoftware development framework. The main tenet of the Spark architecture is askinning model that provides a neat separation of a component’s visual elementsfrom its logic. This separation gives designers and developers more freedom,because the visual elements of a Flex component can be designed in anunfettered manner, independent of the implementation of the logic powering thecomponent. The following diagram illustrates the BLACKBOX Spark ComponentModel.www.blackbox.tv 11
  12. 12. Fig. 5 BLACKBOX Component ModelClass DiagramBLACKBOX class diagram in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) describesthe structure of the system by showing the systems classes, their attributes,operations (or methods), and the relationships among the classes. The classdiagram is the main building block of object-oriented modeling. It is used both forgeneral conceptual modeling of the systematics of the application, and fordetailed modeling translating the models into programming code. The classes inthe class diagram below represent both the main objects and or interactions inthe application and the objects to be programmed. In the BLACKBOX classdiagram below these classes are represented with boxes which contain twoparts: • The upper part holds the name of the class • The bottom part gives the methods or operations the class can take or undertakewww.blackbox.tv 12
  13. 13. Fig. 6 BLACKBOX Class Diagram9 APIThe BLACKBOX API provides a way to extend the core capabilitiesof BLACKBOX in a seamless way. The Open Pod provides a container that issimilar to modern web browsers. HTML, CSS and JavaScript are used topresent content and access BLACKBOX functionality through JSON. The APIwww.blackbox.tv 13
  14. 14. includes the ability to access the raw HTML DOM. Taken together this providesrich hooks to content objects and functionality giving a simple mechanism that iswidely used by software engineers as a means to build interesting extensionsBLACKBOX.10 SecurityWhen discussing security for BLACKBOX applications, its first important tounderstand that this is a controlled delivery environment that is quite differentfrom the security issues that exist when delivering Flash or Adobe AIRapplications across public web sites. Most installations use the controlledenvironment as the first layer of protection that eliminates entry of maliciouscode. Coupling that with code signing from Adobe AIR provides a high degree ofprotection. Adobe AIR requires developers to digitally sign their applications inorder to maintain the integrity of the software and the identity of its publisher.BLACKBOX has a certificate from one of the most respected CertificationAuthorities (CA) - Thawte. Digitally signing AIR files provides significantassurance to users that the application they are installing has not been altered.That said, BLACKBOX is being built to work in public installations that will havebroader security concerns. Thus, weve architected it to leverage several of thecore security features of the Adobe AIR framework:SandboxThe Adobe AIR runtime like other kinds of JVMs prevents code from runningdirectly on the machine. Further, the Adobe AIR sandbox provides additionalsecurity that limits application access according to given security specifications.BLACKBOX leverages the sandbox to restrict access of the application.Memory RestrictionsBLACKBOX also leverages the built in memory restrictions of Adobe AIR thatprevent buffer overflow, memory corruption or other cross application memoryissues.Data EncryptionFor added security we have initiated the Data Encryption to store local data in anAES-CBC128-bit encryption. This ensures that local data cannot be attacked orcorrupted by malicious attacks. Further we restrict local data to non-script data,i.e., that is not executed. Rather it is only content oriented information that wouldcause playback issues but is not an entry for execution.HTML SecurityBLACKBOX is capable of rendering HTML that includes untrusted JavaScript.This is greatly restricted by the sandbox and the AIR runtime.Referenceswww.blackbox.tv 14
  15. 15. Further reading around Adobe AIR security can be found in the followingreferences: • http://help.adobe.com/en_US/air/security/air_security.pdf • https://docs.google.com/open?id=15SBR17kOVz8kVADOBgIGqAacKe jhNSCKSEMNf0J0igbtV-Bc3yJJy_DbGCYy   • http://help.adobe.com/en_US/air/security/index.html11 BLACKBOX System RequirementsThe system requirements for BLACKBOX playback are as follows:Windows • Intel® Pentium® III 1GHz or faster processor; Intel Pentium 4 2GHz or faster • Microsoft® Windows® XP Home, Professional, or Tablet PC Edition with Service Pack 2 or 3 (including 64-bit editions); Windows Server® 2003 or 2008; Windows Vista® Home Premium, Business, Ultimate, or Enterprise (including 64-bit editions) with Service Pack 2; or Windows 7 (including 64-bit editions) • 512MB of RAM (1GB recommended)MAC OS • Intel Core™ Duo 1.83GHz or faster processor • Mac OS X v10.5 or v10.6 • 512MB of RAM (1GB recommended)12 SUMMARYMost enterprise software tools execute only on functional requirements andsystem architectures designed in isolation of other point solutions,communication systems and end user contexts. The demands for integration andsharing across channels are more dynamic than ever. Today’s businesses andorganizations need this kind of enhanced productivity to help optimize criticalcustomer, employee, and financial data, and preserve systems infrastructure.This grows ever more crucial as companies adopt more virtualized, shared, andmulti-tenant infrastructure models.With BLACKBOX enabled solutions you can: • Leverage existing infrastructure and force multiply the views of data to help make informed decisions • Improve productivity and operator effectiveness by fusing disparate data feeds into a multimodal interface • Improve communications across the enterprise, with customers and constituentswww.blackbox.tv 15
  16. 16. • Give (consistency in tense) control to the analyst to customize their data views without needing support from designers, front-end coders, and IT for rapid data fusion - reduce strain on IT resources and limited budgets • Share complex data views at multiple levels on multiple platforms • Address the increasing and evolving security threats across your physical and virtual infrastructure through display enhancements • Facilitate compliance with government and industry regulations and data protection standards • Reduce precious real estate costs by using less hardware • Reduce hardware costs by reducing the need for more displays and dedicated computers - doing more with less • Reduce user fatigue by removing all the visual noise from the useful content the operator needs to focus on“Few organizations have the resources orexpertise to manage large internal teams ofstrategic, technical and creative personnelnecessary to execute comprehensive integrateddigital media solutions in-house.”Overall, BLACKBOX is enabling a significant opportunity for organizations to“future proof” their infrastructures. Using BLACKBOX-enabled solutions, theycan get ahead of the curve of emerging technologies. IT organizations can gainimportant data display solutions for their growing virtualized environments toallow them to better control the flow of confidential, privileged, or sensitiveworkloads or data by restricting these to more thoroughly evaluated or trustedplatforms. While at the same time, enable their customers to rapidly exploit newdata feeds with minimum strain on existing infrastructure. While the near-termmodel will be the creation of up-sell and cross sell strategies amid their legacysystem vendors, increasingly, BLACKBOX platform trust will grow on the abilityto take advantage of the data to create unfair advantage for the “good guys.”Having the BLACKBOX platform enables a baseline level of assurance assystems are refreshed - essentially “raising the bar” for fusion and data centeroptimization, profitability and security over time.13 Suggested Reading 1. EDWARD TUFTE, Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative, Graphics Press (February 1997), ISBN-10: 0961392126.www.blackbox.tv 16
  17. 17. 2. EDWARD TUFTE, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Graphics Press; 2nd edition (May 2001), ISBN-10: 0961392142. 3. EDWARD TUFTE, Beautiful Evidence, Graphics Pr; 1St Edition (July 2006), ISBN-10: 0961392177. 4. STEPHEN FEW, Information Dashboard Design: The Effective Visual Communication of Data, OReilly Media; 1 edition (January 1, 2006), ISBN-10: 0596100167. 5. JERALD HUGHES, Baruch College, CUNY and KARL LANG, Baruch College, CUNY, White Paper: “Transmutability: Digital Decontextualization, Manipulation, and Recontextualization as a New Source of Value in the Production and Consumption of Culture Products,” Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2006. 6. DIMITROS TZOVARAS, Multimodal User Interfaces: From Signals to Interaction (Signals and Communication Technology), Springer; (November 25, 2010), ISBN-10: 3642097030. 7. OLIVIERO STOCK (Editor), MASSIMO ZANCANARO (Editor), Multimodal Intelligent Information Presentation (Text, Speech and Language Technology), Springer; 1st edition (April 29, 2005), ISBN-10: 1402030495. 8. ANDREW LOSOWSKY, Visual Storytelling: Inspiring A New Visual Language, Gestalten, Berlin, 2011, ISBN 978-3-89955-375-8.www.blackbox.tv 17

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