Cu cmjv{SobIpfnapdnbn FÃmhcpw ácmWv

                                            kmenjv hmSm¸Ån


    "aXcwK¯v   _n(k)bps...
Ckvemansâbpw apkveowIfpsSbpw ·¡mbn apPmlnZv {]Ømw cmjv{Sob
cwKt¯¡v AXnsâ ]SnhmXnepIÄ Xpd¶n«p. "CkvemanI hncp²aÃm¯ cq]¯nÂ
n...
3. ""....-A-Xn-m R§Ä ]d-bp-¶p. Pm-[n-]-Xy-¯n-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb GsXÃmw ]mÀe-saâp-
Ifpw Akw-»nbpw C¶v ne-hn-eptïm Ah-bn AwK-...
""nb-a-nÀam-W-¯nse AÃm-lp-hnsâ ]c-am-[n-Imcw ncm-I-cn-¡p-Ibpw AXv P-
§Ä¡m-sW¶p {]Jym-]n-¡p-Ipbpw sN¿p¶ ]mÀ«n-I-fn AwK-§-f...
Xpd¶p ]d-bp-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p.''(P-am-As¯ Ckvem-anbpw hnaÀi-Icpw þ t]Pv 42 ssiJv
apl-½Zv Imc-¡p¶v þ sF.-]n.-F-¨v)

    "Pohn-X-...
F. Ckvem-anI cmjv{S-¯n t]mepw CtZym-K-§Ä¡pw Ømam--§Ä e`n-¡-¯¡
tkh--§Ä¡pw kzbw ØmmÀYn-I-fmbn n¡p-¶Xp _n Xncp-ta-n(k)-bpsS...
¯nsâ `qan-bn ap-jy³ Xsâ cmPXzw {]I-S-am-¡p-I-bm-Wv. CXnsâ ma-t[-b-as{X {]Pm-
b¯w''(-inÀ¡v AYhm _lp-ssZ-hXzw, ]pdw 190 þ s...
¡mpw AXn Xsâ kpJ-ku-I-cy-§Ä¡v ]gp-Xpïm¡n-¯oÀ¡p-hm-p-ambn Nn´n-¨p-sIm-
-n-cn-¡pI IqSn sN¿pI F¶-XmWv'' (C-kvem-anI {]Ømw t]...
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Ee rashtreeya kulimuriyil_ellavarum_nagnaraanu

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Ee rashtreeya kulimuriyil_ellavarum_nagnaraanu

  1. 1. Cu cmjv{SobIpfnapdnbn FÃmhcpw ácmWv kmenjv hmSm¸Ån "aXcwK¯v _n(k)bpsS tXrXzhpw kmaqlnI cmjv{Sob cwK§fn A_qPmlnensâtbm atäm tXrXzhpw kzoIcn¨ GsX¦nepw Hcp kzlm_nsb NqïnImWn¡msm¡ptam'?!! apPmlnZv {]Øm¯nsâ cmjv{Sob ho£Ws¯ A]lkn¨p sImïv PamAs¯ CkvemanbpsS ]ÞnX·mcpw {]mkwKnIcpw sXm«v B kwLSbnse "aq¶mwInS' ]uc·mcmb "apX^nJpI'Ä hsc tNmZn¨p sImïncp¶ Hcp tNmZyamWv apIfn mw hmbn¨Xv. F´v sImïmWv apPmlnZv {]Øm¯nsXnsc C¯csamcp tNmZyw ChÀ sXmSp¯phn«Xv? hÀ¯am kw`h hnImk§Ä Cu tNmZys¯bpw AXnpÅ D¯cs¯bpw Hcn¡Â IqSn {]kàam¡p¶p. aX kzmX{´yhpw aX{]t_m[ kzmX{´yhpw ]ucsâ auenI AhImiambn hIsh¨psImSp¡p¶ `cWLSbmWv C´ybptSXv. cmPy¯nsâ Cu "skIypeÀ' kz`mhw yq]£amb apkvenw kaql¯npe`n¨ Gähpw henb Ap{KlamWv. F¶m C´ybpsS Cu "sk¡ypeÀ' kz`mhs¯ in¸n¡p¶XneqsS am{Xta cmPys¯ Hcp sslµh cmjv{Sam¡n amäm³ Ignbq F¶v Xncn¨dnª ^mjnÌv iànIÄ kzmX{´y¯np ap³]pXs¶ AhcpsS KqV{]hÀ¯§Ä XpS§nIgnªncp¶p. C¶Xv Hcp `oIc kXzambn "th«'bmcw`n¨ncn¡p¶p. AXnm kzm`mhnIambpw C´y³ apkveowIÄ¡p ap³]n cmjv{Sob cwK¯pns¶mcp tNmZyapbÀ¶pn¶p. C´ybpsS `cW N{Iw Xncn¡m³, ^mjnkw thWtam? AtXm atXXc Pm[n]Xyw aXntbm? yq]£amb C´y³ apkvenw kaqlw H¶S¦w D¯cw ]dªp. "^mjnkw thï atXXc Pm[n]Xyw aXn' ChnsSbmWv Ckvemln {]Øm¯nsâ cmjv{Sob ho£Ww {]kàamIp¶Xv. ImcWw kzmX{´ym´c C´ybpsS Ncn{X¯nen¶phsc Cusbmcp tNmZyaÃmsX, ssZhnI `cWw thWtam? AtXm atXXcPm[n]Xyw aXntbm? F¶ asämcp tNmZyw DbÀ¶p hcmpsÅmcp kmlNcyw Hcp¡s¸«n«nÃ. AXnm ^mjnk¯np]Icambn atXXcPm[n]Xys¯ ]n´pW¡pI Fs¶mcp t]mwhgnam{Xta apkvenw kaql¯np ap³]nepïmbncp¶pÅq. AXpsImïp Xs¶ cmPy¯nsâ "skIypeÀ' kz`mhs¯ nenÀ¯phm³ apkvenw kaplw aX]cambpw `uXnIambpw nÀ_ÔnXcmbn XoÀ¶Xv kzm`mhnIw am{Xw. cmPy¯nsâ Ap{KloXamb skIypeÀ kz`mhs¯ Xm§nnÀ¯p¶ XqWpIfmWv C´ybnse tIm¬{Kkv, PXmZÄ t]mepÅ tZiob cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«nIfpw apkvenw eoKv t]mepÅ yq]£ cmjv{Sob {]Øm§fpw. F{XXs¶ t]mcmbvaIÄ Ah¡v Atcm]n¡s¸«mepw apkvenwIÄ¡v AhcpsS AkvXnXzkwc£WmÀ°w C¯cw {]Øm§sf B{ibnt¡ï nÀ_Ô kmlNcyw C´ybpsS cmjv{Sob cwK¯v cq]s¸«p. Cu `qanIbn n¶psImïmWv apPmlnZv {]Øm¯nsâ cmjv{Sob ho£Ww mw hnebncpt¯ïXv. ]cnip²IzpÀB³ ]dbp¶p. ""aXImcy¯n n§tfmSv bp²w sN¿mXncn¡pIbpw, n§fpsS hoSpIfn n¶v n§sf ]pd¯m¡mXncn¡pIbpw sN¿p¶hsc kw_Ôn¨nSt¯mfw n§fhÀ¡v ·sN¿p¶Xpw n§fhtcmSv oXnImWn¡p¶Xpw AÃmlp n§tfmSv ntcm[n¡p¶nÃ. XoÀ¨bmbpw AÃmlp oXn]men¡p¶hsc CjvSs¸Sp¶p.'' (60: 8) 1 | Cu cmjv{SobIpfnapdnbn FÃmhcpw ácmWv
  2. 2. Ckvemansâbpw apkveowIfpsSbpw ·¡mbn apPmlnZv {]Ømw cmjv{Sob cwKt¯¡v AXnsâ ]SnhmXnepIÄ Xpd¶n«p. "CkvemanI hncp²aÃm¯ cq]¯n n§Ä¡v tZiobþyq]£ cmjv{Sob {]Øm§fnepw ]mÀ«nIfnepw {]hÀ¯n¡mw' F¶p ApbmbnIÄ¡Xv amÀKZÀiw ÂIn. PamAs¯ Ckveman HgnsI Gsd¡psd FÃm apkvenw kwLSIfpw kzoIcn¨Xv kzmKXmÀlhpw KpWIchpamb Cu coXn Xs¶bmWv. AkvXnXz kwc£WmÀ°w hnhn[ cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«nIfn {]hÀ¯n¡m³ ApbmbnIÄ¡psImSp¯ Cu kzmX{´y¯np tsc PamA¯pImÀ "sImªw Ip¯n'; ""ZoocwK¯v Ckzvemlo {]ØmtXrXzhpw cmjv{Sob cwK¯v eoKvþtIm¬{KkmZnIfpsS tXrXzhpw kzoIcn¡p¶htc, aXcwK¯v _n(k)bpsS tXrXzhpw cmjv{SobcwK¯v A_qPlensâ tXrXzhpw kzoIcn¨ Hcp kzlm_nsb¦nepaptïm CkvemanI Ncn{X¯n ns¶®phm³?'' ]XnämïpIfmbn ]cnlmk¯nsâ Cu tNmZyapbn hnjw]pc«n S¶hcn¶nXm Hcp cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n¡v cq]w ÂInbncn¡p¶p. PmXnþ aXþhÀ¤þhÀ®t`Zaty GhÀ¡pw kzmK-X-tam-Xp¶ Hcp I£n-cm-jv{So-b-¯nsâ "iISw' ]Wn-bm-sm-cp-§p-¶p. apPm-ln-Zp-IÄ¡pw kp¶n-IÄ¡pw XpS§n JmZn-bm-n-IÄ¡p-hsc kzmK-Xw. NÀa ku`mKyw A]mcw Xs¶! Ncn-{X-¯n kvXw`n¨p n¡m³ XmÂ]-cy-an-Ãm¯ Pam-A-¯nsâ kzm`m-hn-Ihpw An- hm-cy-hp-amb hnIm-k-am-Ws{X cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«o cq]o-I-cWw. GXm-bmepw "Dfp-¸n-Ãmbva' - sImïv cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n-cq-]o-I-cn-¡m³ tbmKy-cmb Ch-cpsS sshcp-²y§-fpsS tLmj- bm{X Iïv A£-cmÀ°-¯n kvXw`n-¨p-t]m-b-hÀ¡v NneXv ]d-bm-p-ïv. 1. ""B[p-nI temI¯v Xulo-Zn-s-Xnsc DbÀ¶p-h¶ AXn-i-à-amb shÃp-hn-fn-I-fn- sem-¶mWv kmaq-ln-I-þ-km-¼-¯n-I-þ-cm-jv{Sob taJ-e-I-fnse nb-a-nÀam-W-¯nsâ ]c-am-[n- Imcw P-§Ä¡m-sW¶ kn²m´w. C´y³ `cW hyh-Ø-bpsS ASn-Øm-hpw AXp- Xs¶'' (P-am-As¯ Ckvem-anbpw hnaÀi-I-cpw sF.-]n.-F¨v) AÃm-lp-hn-tâXv am{X-amb Hc-h-Im-is¯ ntj-[n-¡p-Ibpw (Ip-^vÀ) krjvSn-IÄ¡v B Ah-Imiw hI-sh-¨p-sIm-Sp-¡p-Ibpw (inÀ¡v) sN¿p¶ C´y³ `c-W-L-S-¡p Iogn Hcp cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n cq]o-I-cn-¡p-t¼mÄ {]mtbm-Kn-I-X-e-¯n Pam-As¯ Ckvem-anbpw nÀh- ln-¡p¶ tPmen nb-a-nÀam-W-¯n-pÅ ]c-am-[n-Imcw AÃm-lp-hn n¶pw "]nSn-¨p-hm§n' P-§Ä¡p hI-sh-¨p-sIm-Sp-¡pI F¶-XtÃ? F¦neo qäm-ïnse Gähpw henb "XzmKq¯v' Pam-A-¯tÃ? AÃm F¶m-sW-¦n nb-a-nÀam-W-¯nsâ Ah-Imiw P- §Ä¡m-sW¶ C´y³ `c-W-L-S-¡v IS-I-hn-cp-²-ambn, B A[n-Imcw ssZh-¯n-p-am-{X-am- sW¶ XXzw ASn-Øm--]-c-ambn kzoI-cn-¡p¶ Hcp cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n¡p P·w sImSp-¡m³ C´ybn km[y-amtWm? 2. ""An-kvem-anI `cW hyh-Ø-bpsS S-¯n-¸n `mK-am-¡m-hp-¶Xv apkvenw-Isf kw_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯mfw njn-²-am-sW¶v Pam-As¯ Ckveman hniz-kn-¡p-¶p. AXn-m GsX-¦nepw An-kvem-anI {]Øm--hp-ambn Iq«p-tNÀ¶v `c-W--S-¯n-¸n ]¦p-Im-cm-hp- Itbm B {]Øm--§Ä¡v thm«p ÂIp-Itbm sN¿p-¶Xv Pam-A-¯nsâ ho£-W-¯n Ap-h-Z-o-b-a-Ã.'' ({]-t_m-[w 1970 Pqsse) An-kvem-anI `cW hyh-Ø-bpsS S-¯n-¸n `mK-am-¡m-hp-¶Xv "ldmw' BsW¶v mgn-I¡v m¸-Xp-h«w Hmcn-bn-«n-cp-¶-hÀ C¶m hyh-Ø-bpsS S-¯n-¸n `mK-`m-¡m-Ip- hm³ cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n- cq-]o-I-cn-¡p¶ mWw sI« ]cn-{i-a-¯n-em-Wv. Fgp-]-Xp-I-fnse "ldmw' C¶v lemÂ. shdp-sX-bà P-§Ä Pam-A-¯nsâ iqdsb "kp-l-tZm-kp-IÄ' Ft¶m-a-n¨p hnfn-¨-Xv. 2 | Cu cmjv{SobIpfnapdnbn FÃmhcpw ácmWv
  3. 3. 3. ""....-A-Xn-m R§Ä ]d-bp-¶p. Pm-[n-]-Xy-¯n-e-[n-jvTn-X-amb GsXÃmw ]mÀe-saâp- Ifpw Akw-»nbpw C¶v ne-hn-eptïm Ah-bn AwK-am-Ip-¶Xv ldm-am-Wv. AhÀ¡v thm«p sN¿epw ldm-am-Wv. F´p-sIm-sï-¶m thm«v sN¿pI F¶-Xnsâ AÀ°w-X-s¶, Xulo-Znsâ ]cn-]qÀW ntj-[-amb nb-a-nÀ½mWw ne-hn-epÅ `c-W-L-S--¡-p-kr-X- ambn nÀh-ln-¡m³ Hcmsf mw Xs¶ sXc-sª-Sp-¡p-I-sb-¶-Xm-Wv.''(au-Zq-Zn-þ-d-km-C hm akm-CÂ, `mKw 1, t]: 315,353) thm«v sN¿pI F¶ "inÀ¡v' ap³t] sNbvXv auZq-Zn-k-¯nsâ aq¡n-en-hÀ ]ªn-sh-¨p. Cn thm«v sN¿n-¸n-¡pI F¶ inÀ¡v IqSn-bm-bmÂ, auZq-Zn-kw Ipgn-sh«n aqSp-¶-XmIpw ChÀ¡v Ã-Xv. 4. ""C¡m-e¯v nb-a-k-`-I-fnepw aäpw AwK-am-I ldm-am-Wv. AhÀ¡p-thïn thm«v sImSp-¡pI F¶-Xnsâ AÀ°w Xs¶ ØmmÀ°n-bmbn n¡p-¶-bmsf A`n-{]m-b-s¸«v Ab-¡p-¶Xv C¶s¯ sXc-sª-Sp¸v hyh-Ø-bpsS ASn-Øm--¯n nba nÀ½mWw sN¿p-hm-tm, nÀh-ln-¨p-I-gnª nb-a-§Ä¡v ]n³_ew sImSp-¡p-hmtm Bbn-cn-¡p-sa- ¶p-Å-Xm-Wv. AXv GI-ssZh hnizm-k-¯nv ]msS FXn-cm-Wv.'' (auZq-Znþ XÀPp-am-p JpÀ- B³) Hm IjvS-ta....! Pam-As¯ Ckveman lnµv F¶p t]cp-amän Pam-As¯ XzmKq¯v lnµv F¶m-¡p-¶-Xtà Cn-bn-t¸mÄ ÃXv? 5. ""apkvenw hncp² ap³hn-[n-IÄ ià-am-hp-Ibpw apkvenw-IÄ¡p tsc-bpÅ A{I-a-W- §Ä s]cp-Ip-Ibpw apkvenw-Isf cïmw InS ]uc-·m-cm¡n ASn-¨-aÀ¯m³ ^mjn-Ìp-I-£n- IÄ InWªp {ian-¨p-sIm-ïn-cn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p¶ hÀ¯-am kml-N-cy-am-Wv, cmjv{So-b- ambn kPo-h-am-tI-ï-Xp-s-¶v HmÀan-¸n-¡m³ Pam-As¯ Ckvem-ansb t{]cn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv. ]pXnb cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n cq]-h-XvI-cn-¨p-sIm-ïmImw Cu cmjv{Sob Pm{K-X.'' ({]-t_m-[w þ hw-_À 15þ2008) XzmKq¯n hyh-Ø¡p Iogn B hyh-Øsb ]cn-t]m-jn-¸n-¨p-sImïv Xs¶ cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n cq]o-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xnse ymb-§-fmWv tZiob A²y-£³ ]mÀ«o Pnlz-bneo hnf-¼n-b- Xv. ]s£ C¯cw sRmïn-ym-b-§Ä sIm-sïm¶pw XSn-bq-cm³ auem k½-Xn-¡n-Ã. auZq-Zn-bpsS D{K-Xm]w ImWp-I. ""............-F-¶m Cu hyh-ØnXn ChnsS aqSp-d-¨n-cn-¡p-¶p. Pohn-X-¯nse kIe kwK-Xn- Ifpw CtXmSv _Ô-s¸-«p-In-S-¡p-¶p. AXn-m ½Ä sXsc-sª-Sp-¸n ]s¦-Sp-¡p-Itbm `c-W-¯n `mK-`m-¡m-hp-Itbm sNbvXn-sÃ-¦n C¶ C¶ jvS-§-sfms¡ ap-¡p-ïmIpw Fs¶Ãmw ]d-bp-¶Xv Cu {]iv-¯nv ymbo-I-c-W-a-Ã. C¯cw ymbo-I-c-W-§Ä sImsïm¶pw ASn-Øm ]c-ambpw ldm-amb Hcp Imcyw lem-em-¡m³ ]mSn-Ã. ico-A- ¯n ldm-amb H¶pw Xs¶ s]mXp--·-bp-sStbm nÀ_-Ôn-Xm-h-Ø-bp-sStbm t]cn lem-em-¡p¶ {]iv-hp-an-Ã.'' (au-Zq-Zn, dkm-C h akm-CÂ-þ-`m-Kwþ1, ]n: 350, 351) H¶p-In If-cn¡v ]pd¯v BtàBimsâ s©¯v! 6. Ckzvemln {]Ømw Ckvem-an-I -hn-cp-²-a-Ãm¯ cq]-¯n cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n-I-fn {]hÀ¯n-¡p-hm³þA-Wn-IÄ¡p ÂInb kzmX-{´s¯ ]cn-l-kn-¨p-sImïv Hcp iqdm-sa- ¼À X«n-hn-Sp-¶Xp ImWp-I. 3 | Cu cmjv{SobIpfnapdnbn FÃmhcpw ácmWv
  4. 4. ""nb-a-nÀam-W-¯nse AÃm-lp-hnsâ ]c-am-[n-Imcw ncm-I-cn-¡p-Ibpw AXv P- §Ä¡m-sW¶p {]Jym-]n-¡p-Ipbpw sN¿p¶ ]mÀ«n-I-fn AwK-§-fmbn tNÀ¶v Ah-bpsS e£y-]qÀ¯o-I-c-W-¯n-mbn {]hÀ¯n-¡-p¶-Xns kw_-Ôn¨v B`n-{]m-b-sa-´mWv?'' (P-am- As¯ Ckvem-anbpw hnaÀi-Icpw þ t]Pv: 69 sF.-]n.-F-¨v.) Cn-bn¸w B A`n-{]mbw þ nb-a-nÀam-W-¯nse AÃm-lp-hnsâ ]c-am-[n-Imcw ncm-I-cn- ¡p-Ibpw AXv P-§Ä¡m-sW¶p {]Jym-]n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p¶ `cW hyh-Ø¡p IognÂ, B hyh-Ø-bpsS aqSp-Xm§n ]mÀ«n- cq-]o-I-cn-¡m³ Hm¨m-n¨p n¡p-¶-hÀ Xs¶ ]d- bs«!!! 7. cmjv{Sob {]Øm--cq-]o-I-c-W-hp-ambn _Ô-s¸«v tIcf AaoÀ Sn. Bcn-^-en-bpsS þ C¶-se-IÄ hnkva-cn¨ þ hmNm-e-X-IÄ ImWp-I. "tZiob Xe-¯n Hcp cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n cq]hXvI-cn-¡m³ Ignª amkw tNÀ¶ tI{µ- I-½nän tbmKw þ aPvenkv iqdm-þ-Xo-cp-am-n-¨n-«p-ïv. AXv s]s«-¶p-sÅmcp Xocp-am--am-sW¶v ]d-bm³ ]än-Ã. Pam-As¯ Ckveman Imem-Im-e-§-fmbn apt¶m-«p-sh¨ cmjv{Sob, kmaq- lnI ne-]m-Sp-I-fnse ]pXn-sbmcp Nph-Sm-bn -am-{Xta AXn-s ImWm³ Ign-bq.... Pam- As¯ Ckvem-an-bpsS kzm`mh-nIhpw An-hm-cy-hp-amb Hcp hnIm-k-am-bn-«mWv AXns a- kn-em-t¡-ï-Xv. Imew NneXv Bh-iy-s¸-Sp-t¼mÄ amdn-n¡m³ ]än-Ã. mw Ncn-{X-¯n kvXw`n¨p t]mIp-¶-h-cm-h-cp-Xv.... Rm³ ]d-ª-tÃm, Pam-A¯v cmjv{Sob {]Øm--¯nv X¿m-sd-Sp-¡p-¶p-sh-¶Xv AXnsâ {Ia-{]-hr-²-amb hfÀ¨-bpsS Anhmcy-am-sbmcp L«w am{X-amWv'' (am-[yaw Zn-]{Xw hw-_À 21 2008) Cn mw Pam-A¯v AaoÀ hnkva-cn¨ C¶-seIÄ ImWp-I. ""HcmÄ ssZth-Xc `c-W-hy-h-Ø¡p Iogn ssZth-Xc `cW hyhØ S-t¯-ï-Xn- mbn sXc-sª-Sp-¸n aÕ-cn-¡p-Ibpw Akw-»n-bn t]mIp-Ibpw sN¿p¶ ]£w AXv Xulo-Znp hncp-²hpw A-p-h-Z-o-b-hp-amWv''(C´y³ Pam-As¯ Ckvem-anbpsS Ccp-]- ¯n-tbgv hÀjw) ""An-kvem-anI `c-W-hy-h-Ø-bpsS S-¯n-¸n `mK-`m-¡m-hp-¶Xv apkvenw-Isf kw_- Ôn-t¨-S-t¯mfw njn-²-am-sW¶v Pam-As¯ Ckveman hniz-kn-¡p-¶p.'' ({]-t_m-[w amknI þ Pqsse 1970) ""C¶s¯ atXXc `uXnI cmjv{S-¯n ØmmÀYn-bmbn n¡mtm aäp-hà ØmmÀYn-I-fp-sSbpw hnP-b-¯n-p-thïn {]hÀ¯n-¡mtm thm«p tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯m³ Xs¶- bptam nhr-¯n-bnÃ'' ({]-t_m-[w, 1954þ hw-_À 10) ""sXc-sª-Sp-¸n aÕ-cn-¡p-¶Xpw Akw-»n-bn t]mIp-¶Xpw Hc-n-kvem-anI `c-W-hy- h-Ø-¡p -Io-gn Hcp atX-Xc Pm-[n-]Xy tÌäv Øm]n-¡m-m-sW-¦n AXv ½psS XuloZv BZÀi-¯npw aX-¯npw hncp-²-am-bn-cn¡pw'' (tNm-tZym-¯-c-§Ä-þ-au-emm auZq- Zn, t]Pv : 357) ""F¶m Pam-As¯ Ckveman AXnsâ Cu BZÀi-¯n Ct¶mfw Hcp hyXn-bm- hpw hcp-¯n-bn-«n-Ã. AY-hm, AÃm-lp-hnsâ ]c-am-[n-Imcw ncm-I-cn-¡p¶ An-kvem-anI `c-W-hy-h-Ø-bpsS Øm]-hpw S-¯n¸pw Dt±-in¨v Ce-Ivj-n ]s¦-Sp-¡p-¶Xv njn- ²hpw Xulo-Znv hncp-²-hp-am-sW¶v AXv Dd¨v hniz-kn-¡p-¶p; kwib cln-Xamw hn[w 4 | Cu cmjv{SobIpfnapdnbn FÃmhcpw ácmWv
  5. 5. Xpd¶p ]d-bp-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p.''(P-am-As¯ Ckvem-anbpw hnaÀi-Icpw þ t]Pv 42 ssiJv apl-½Zv Imc-¡p¶v þ sF.-]n.-F-¨v) "Pohn-X-¯nsâ _lp-apJ taJ-e-I-fn nb-a-nÀam-W-¯nsâ ]c-am-[n-Imcw {]]-©-m-Y- p- am-{X-am-sW¶ kXyw ncm-I-cn-¡p-Ibpw AXv ap-jyÀ¡p Xs¶bm-sW¶p {]Jym-]n-¡p- Ibpw sN¿p¶' Hcp `cW hyh-Ø-¡p-Io-gn cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n cq]o-I-cn-¨p-sImïv B hyh- Ø-bpsS S-¯n-¸n `mK-`m-¡m-hp-Ibpw B hyh-Øsb kzPo-hn-X-¯nse `c-W-hy-h-Ø- bm-¡p-hmpw P-§-fpsS Pohn-Xs¯ A hyh-Ø-¡p-Ån hmÀs¯-Sp-¡p-hm-p-ambn auZq- Zn-Ìp-IÄ Xs¶ apt¶m-«v h¶Xv AXv Pam-A-¯nsâ {Ia-{]-hr-²-amb hfÀ¨-bpsS An-hm- cy-L-«hpw AXnsâ kzm`m-hn-Ihpw An-hm-cy-hp-amb Hcp hnIm-k-hp-am-b-Xp-sIm-ïm- Ws{X!!! Kw`o-c-am-bn-cn-¡p-¶p, A`n-km-cn-I-bpsS Nmcn-{Xy{]-kw-K-t¯-¡mÄ Kw`ocw. 8. An-kvem-anI `c-W-Iq-S-§sf Nqïn ChÀ ]ïp-]-dªp S¶p, "".....CX-Ãm¯ BZÀi-¯nepw ]²-Xn-bnepw A[n-jvTn-X-amb apgp-h³ `c-W-Iq-S-§-sfbpw Ckvemw FXnÀ¡p-¶p. Ahsb ]qÀ®-ambpw in-¸n-¡-W-sa¶v AXm-{K-ln-¡p-¶p. `cWw S-¯p-¶Xv Bsct¶m Kh¬saâv GsXt¶m ChnsS {]iv-a-Ã. Ckvem-ansâ e£yw AXnsâ BZÀi-¯nsâ D¶-a--am-Wv. ssZhnI hyh-Øn-Xn-bpsS hym]--am-Wv. Cu BZÀi- ¯n-sâbpw ]²-Xn-bp-sSbpw ASn-Øm--¯n-epÅ `c-W-Iq-S-§-fpsS kwØm-]--amWv'' (au- Zq-Zn, PnlmZv ]pdw: 9, lnµp-Øm³ ]»n-t¡-j³kv) An-kvem-anI hyh-Ø-Isf in-¸n-¡m-mbn P·w sImï Cu "ssZh-¯nsâ {]Xn-n-[n- IÄ' C¶p-]-d-bp-¶tXm?!! ""apkvenwIfpsS am{X-aà FÃm-hn-`m-K-§-fp-sSbpw kmaq-lnI oXn¡pw bYmÀY Pm-[n- ]-Xy-¯npw thïn ]cn-{i-an-¡pI F¶-Xm-bn-cn¡pw ]pXnb ]mÀ«n-bpsS þ A¯-c-sam-¶p-cq- ]o-Ir-X-am-Ip-¶-]£wþapJy APï'' ({]-t_m-[w þ 2008 hw-_À 15þ Pem-ep-±o³ A³kÀ Da-cn) Hm amtem-Itc n§Ä sNhn s]m¯p-I.!!! 9. ""½psS A`n-{]m-b-¯n C¶p apkvenw-I-Ä sNt¿ï icn-bmb {]hr¯n sXc-sª- Sp-¸n n¶v AhÀ XnI¨pw hn«p-n¡pI F¶ ntj-[-mß-I-X-bn n¶m-Wm-cw-`n-¡p-¶- Xv. AhÀ kzbw ØmmÀYn-I-fmbn n¡p-Itbm CXc ØmmÀYn-IÄ¡v thm«p ÂIp- Itbm Acp-Xv. bYmÀY hgn-bn IqSn Nen-¡m-pÅ H¶m-as¯ Ime-Sn-bm-WnXv'' ({]-t_m-[- wþ1956, Pqem-bv) bYmÀY hgn-bn IqSn Nen-¡m³ Pam-A-¯n-p-XmÂ]cyw Atijw CÃm-¯-Xn-m-emWv ]tï sX-c-sª-Sp-¸n ]s¦-Sp-¯Xv. t]mcm-ªn«v bYmÀY -h-gn-bn Nen-¡m³ Bin-¡p-¶- h-cpsS Ime-Sn- sX-än-¡m³ Hcp cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«nbpw IqSn cq]o-I-cn-¡p-¶p. Htc-k-abw fmÃpw(]ng-¨-hpw) apfnÃpw (]ng-¸n-¡p-¶-hpw)B-Ip-¶-Xnsâ {XnÃn-emWv Ckvem-an-Ìp-IÄ F¶À°w. 10.""Ckvem-anI ZrjvSn-bn IqSn tm¡p-t¼mÄ nb-a-nÀamW k`-I-fn-te-¡pÅ sa¼À Øm-¯n-p-thïn apkvenw-IÄ ØmmÀYn-I-fmbn n¡p-¶Xv hnhn[ Imc-W-§-fm Akw-_-Ô-am-sW¶v ImWmw: 5 | Cu cmjv{SobIpfnapdnbn FÃmhcpw ácmWv
  6. 6. F. Ckvem-anI cmjv{S-¯n t]mepw CtZym-K-§Ä¡pw Ømam--§Ä e`n-¡-¯¡ tkh--§Ä¡pw kzbw ØmmÀYn-I-fmbn n¡p-¶Xp _n Xncp-ta-n(k)-bpsS hyà- amb nÀt±-i-§Ä¡v hncp-²-am-Wv. _n(-k)-A-cp-Ä sN¿p-¶p: o A[n-Imcw tNmZn¨p hm§-cp-Xv... At¸mÄ Cu B{K-lhpw ØmmÀYn-Xzhpw Hc-n-kvem-anI KhÀsaânsâ DtZym-K-¯np thïn-bm-sW-¦n AsX-{X- am{Xw tZmj-I-c-am-bn-cn-¡p-sa¶v CXnÂn¶v hyà-am-Ip-¶-Xm-Wv. A¯cw ØmmÀYn-Isf klm-bn-¡p-¶Xp apkven-anp F{X-Iïp Ap-tbm-Py-am-sW¶pw CXn n¶pw a-Ên-em-¡mw.'' ({]-t_m-[w, ]p.4, e¡w 3) "apkvenw-IÄ¡tà AsXms¡ Ap-tbm-Py-a-Ãm-¯-Xv, Ckvem-an-Ìp-IÄ¡v ]s£ AsXm¶pw t_m[-I-aÃ' F¶m-bn-cn-¡ptam cmjv{Sob mb-I-·mÀ Cn-bn¸w kn²m-´n-¡m-n- cn-¡p-¶-Xv. "mbsS hmev ]´n-cm-bncw sImÃw Ipgen-en«v AXv nh-cp-¶Xpw' Im¯v mw kabw If-tb-ï-Xn-Ã. 11. ""AXnp ]pdsa nb-a-nÀamW k`-sb-Ip-dn¨pw Nn´n-t¡-ï-Xp-ïv. emC-eml CÃÃm apl-½-ZpÀd-kq-epÃm F¶ ASn-Øm hmIy-¯n hniz-kn-¡p¶ Hcp apkvenw nb-a-nÀam- Wm-[n-Imcw AÃm-lp-hnsâ am{Xw Ah-Im-i-am-sW¶p a-Ên-em-t¡-ïn-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. F¶n- cns¡ ap-jyv kzX-{´-amb nb-a-nÀam-Wm-[n-Imcw ÂIp-Ibpw InXm-_n-sbpw kp¶- ¯n-sbpw ]msS Ah-K-Wn-¨psImïp Ah-Imiw D]-tbm-K-s¸-Sp-¯p-Ibpw A{X-bp-a-Ã, AÃm-lpsh ]c-ky-ambn ]cn-l-kn-¡pI IqSn sN¿p¶ Hcp nb-a-nÀamW k`-bn sa¼-dm- Ip-Itbm AXn-te-¡pÅ ØmmÀ°n-Isf klm-bn-¡p-Itbm sN¿m³ Hcp apkven-anp nhr-¯n-bn-Ã. kzbw ØmmÀYn-I-fmbn n¡msX thm«v D]-tbm-Kn-¡epw sXämWv''(A- _p-ssÃ-kv, apkvenw-Ifpw hcm-n-cn-¡p¶ s]mXp sXc-sª-Sp-¸pw þ {]t_m-[w þ]p: 4, e¡w :3) emC-eml CÃ-Ãmlv apl-½-Zp-d-kq-ep-Ãmlv F¶ ASn-Øm hmIyw ]n¨n-No-´Â, AÃm- lp-hnsâ am{X-amb Hc-h-Imiw Ah-n n¶pw ]nSn-¨p-hm-§Â, AXp ap-jyp ÂIn krjvSm-hns [n¡-cn-¡Â, InXm-_n-sbpw kp¶-¯n-sbpw tXm«n-se-dn-bÂ, am{X-aà AÃm- lp-hns ]c-ky-ambn ]cn-l-kn-¡p¶hcpsS IqsS-bn-cp¶p ]Ãn-fn-¡m-mbn nb-a-nÀamW k`-bn Ccn-¸nSw icn-s¸-Sp-¯Â.... A§ns nïp-t]m-Ip-¶p auZq-Zn-Ìp-I-fpsS cmjv{Sob {]Øm--¯nsâ kw`m-h--IÄ. "Cu cmjv{Sob Ipfn-ap-dn-bn FÃm-hcpw Kv-cmWv' 12. ""{_n«o-jp-ImÀ t]mbn C´y-¡mÀ hcp-¶Xv em¯-t]mbn am¯ hcp-¶-Xp-t]m-se-bm- sW¶v auZq-Zn-]-d-ªtXm? hyhØm amä-an-ÃmsX `cn-¡p¶ ssII-Ä amdn-b-Xp-sImïp am{Xw {]tbm-P--sam-¶p-an- sÃ-¶ÀYw. ssZh-¯nsâ ]c-am-[n-Im-c-¯np ]Icw Hscm-ä-bm-fpsS ]c-am-[n-Im-c-am-bmepw Iptd-bm-fp-I-fpsS ]c-am-[n-Im-c-am-bmepw auen-I-amb amä-sam-¶p-an-sö ]c-a-kXyw hyà-am- ¡pI am{X-amWv k¿nZv auZqZn sNbvX-Xv. BZÀi-hm-Zn-IÄ¡v adn-s¨mcp ne-]mSv kzoI-cn- ¡pI km[y-hp-aÃ'' (ap-Jm-ap-Jw-þ-t]Pv: 120 þ ssiJv apl-½Zv Imc-¡p¶v þ sF.-]n.-F-¨v) C¶-se-I-fn ssZh-¯nsâ ]c-am-[n-Imcw Øm]n-¡p-hm³ ]pd-s¸-«-h-cpsS C¶s¯ Ah-Ø-sb´v ?! ]mÀen-saâm-Ip¶ hn{K-lm-e-b-¯n Pm-[n-]-Xy-sa¶ IÅ ssZhs¯ IpSn-bn-cp-¯m-p-sÅmcp cmjv{Sob {]Øm--¯nsâ t]äp-tm-hn-em-W-hÀ.!!! BZÀi-hm-Zn- IÄ¡tà asämcp ne-]mSv kzoI-cn-¡m³ h¿m-¯Xv? auZq-Zn-Ìp-IÄ¡ÃtÃm.? 13. ""Cu `uXnI aX-¯n ap-jysâ ssZhw Xm³ X-s¶-bm-Wv. Xn-¡p-thïn Xm³ Xs¶ nbaw nÀ½n-¡p-¶p. Xsâ ta Xm³ Xs¶ B[n-]Xyw S-¯p-¶p. AsX, ssZh- 6 | Cu cmjv{SobIpfnapdnbn FÃmhcpw ácmWv
  7. 7. ¯nsâ `qan-bn ap-jy³ Xsâ cmPXzw {]I-S-am-¡p-I-bm-Wv. CXnsâ ma-t[-b-as{X {]Pm- b¯w''(-inÀ¡v AYhm _lp-ssZ-hXzw, ]pdw 190 þ sF.-]n.-F-¨v. Aao³ Alvk³ Ckvem- ln) "AXp--S-¸n hcp-¯m³ cmjv{Sob "KÀ`w' [cn-¨-h-cs{X Pam-As¯ Ckveman' F¶pIqSn þ ]qÀ®-X-¡p-thïnþmw tNÀ¯p hmbn-¡p-I. ""Pam-A¯v Cu sXc-sª-Sp¸v _ln-jvI-cn-¡p-Ibpw apkvenw-IÄ apgp-h³ AXp _ln- jvI-cn-¡-W-sa¶v Bi -{]-I-Sn-¸n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvX-Xv, {]]© IÀ¯m-hmb AÃm-lp-hn-sbpw Ahsâ nÀt±-i-§-sfbpw Xnc-kvI-cn-¨p-sIm-ïpÅ Hcp `uXnI cmjv{S-t¯mSv kzbw kl- I-cn-¡p-I-sb-¶Xp X§Ä {]Xn-n-[o-I-cn-¡p¶ Ckvem-anv XnI¨pw IS-I-hn-cp-²-am-sW¶v Pam-A¯v hniz-kn-¡p-¶-Xp-sImïv am{X-amWv'' ({]-t_m-[w þ 1952 ss^{_p-h-cn) Cn mw AXp-Xn-cp¯n hmbn-¡p-I. "Pam-A¯v Hcp cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n cq]o-I-cn-¡p-Ibpw apkvenw-IÄ apgp-h³ AXn ]¦p- sIm-Å-W-sa¶v Bi {]I-Sn-¸n-¡p-Ibpw sNbvX-Xv, {]]-©-IÀ¯m-hmb AÃm-lp-hn-sbpw Ahsâ nÀt±-i-§-sfbpw Xnc-kvI-cn-¨p-sIm-ïpÅ Hcp `uXn-I-cm-jv{S-t¯mSv kzbw kl-I- cn-¡m-pÅ sh¼Â sImsïm-¶p-am-{X-am-Wv.' 15. ""HcmÄ sXc-sª-Sp-¸n aÕ-cn-¡p-Ibpw Akw-»n-bn t]mhp-Ibpw sN¿p-¶Xp Xulo-Znv FXn-cm-hp¶p'' (P-am-As¯ Ckveman 27 hÀjw) "XuloZns'XIÀ¡m³ Hcp cmjv{Sob ]mÀ«n cq]o-I-cn¨ temI-N-cn-{X-¯nse GI Ckvem-anI {]Øm--as{X Pam-As¯ Ckvem-an. 16. ""apkven-anv, apgph³ Pohn-X-¯nepw AÃm-lp-hnsâ Zon-sm¯v {]hÀ¯n-¡p-sa¶v Xocp-am-n-¨p-I-gnª apkven-anp hà An-kvem-anI cmjv{So-b-¯nepw ]¦p-h-ln-¡pI Hcn- ¡epw tbmPn-¨-X-Ã. C¶s¯ atX-Xc `uXnI cm{j-{So-b-¯n ØmmÀYn-bmbn n¡mtm aäp-hà ØmmÀYn-I-fp-sSbpw hnP-b-¯n-mbn {]hÀ¯n-¡mtm thm«p tcJ- s¸-Sp-¯m³ Xs¶-bptam Hcp apkven-anv nhr-¯n-bn-Ã. Fs´-¶m Xm³ mSnsâ DS-am-h- Im-in-bm-sW¶v apkvenw Icp-Xp-¶n-Ã. A§s Icp-Xp-¶psï-¦n-età B Ah-Imiw asäm- cmÄ¡p ssIamäw sN¿m³ Ahv km[n-¡p-I-bp-Åq. A{]-Imcw Xs¶ Xm³ m-Snsâ nb- a -nÀam-Xm-hm-sW¶pw Ah³ hnNm-cn-¡p-¶n-Ã. F¶m-età {]kvXpX A[n-Imcw asäm-cmsf `c-ta¸n-¡m³ Ahv Ign-bp-I-bq-Åq. Ckvem-ansâ ZrjvSn-bn CsXÃmw Zon¶v Xosc hncp-²-am-Wv. Hcp bYmÀY apkven-anv AsXm-cn-¡epw Ap-tbm-Py-aÃ'' (C-kvem-anI ]mT- - §Ä, A_q-keow A_vZpÂl¿v) Ncn-{X-¯n kvXw`n¨p n¡m³ XmÂ]-cy-an-Ãm-¯Xp sImïm-Ws{X Ckvem-anI ZrjvSn-bn Zon¶v Xosc hncp-²hpw Hcp bYmÀ° apkven-anv Hcn-¡epw Ap-tbm-Py-hp-a- Ãm¯ ]Wn¡v Pam-A¯v Hcp-§n-]p-d-s¸-«Xv. GXm-bmepw mSnsâ DS-am-h-Im-ihpw nb- anÀam-Wm-[n-Im-chpw ssZh-¯n n¶pw ]nSn-¨p-hm§p¶ B "Ncn-{X-ap-lqÀ¯w' mw ImtXmÀ¯n-cn-¡p-I. 17. ""Im]Syw F¶-Xp-sIm-ïpÅ hnh£ ap-jy³ GsXmcp Zons Ap-K-an-¡p¶p F¶p hmZn-¡p-¶pthm AtX Zonv hncp-²-am-b....... njn-²hpw mi-I-chpw cmPy-t{Zm-l-]-c- hp-amb hyh-Ø-sb-¯s¶ Xn¡v ^e-{]-Z-am-¡n-¯oÀ¡mpw AXn n¶v em`-sa-Sp- 7 | Cu cmjv{SobIpfnapdnbn FÃmhcpw ácmWv
  8. 8. ¡mpw AXn Xsâ kpJ-ku-I-cy-§Ä¡v ]gp-Xpïm¡n-¯oÀ¡p-hm-p-ambn Nn´n-¨p-sIm- -n-cn-¡pI IqSn sN¿pI F¶-XmWv'' (C-kvem-anI {]Ømw t]Pv: 8) Zonv hncp-²-am-b, njn-²hpw mi-I-chpw cmPy-t{Zm-l-]-c-hp-amb Cu hyh-Ø-bn n¶pw em`-sa-Sp-¡p¶, kpJ-ku-J-cy-§Ä¡p ]gpXp X¸p¶ A`n-h auZq-Zn-Ìp-IÄ¡v auem Xs¶ NmÀ¯nb Im]-Sy-lmcw Gäp-hm-t§ïn h¶Xpw Pam-A-¯nsâ {Ia-{]-hr-²- amb "hfÀ¨'-bpsS An-hm-cy-am-sbmcp L«w am{X-amtWm?!!! 18. ""An-kvem-anI `cW hyh-Ø-bpsS S-¯n-¸n `mK-`m-¡m-hp-¶Xp apkvenw-Isf kw_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯mfw njn-²-am-sW¶v Pam-As¯ Ckveman hniz-kn-¡p-¶p. AXn-m GsX-¦nepw AnkvemanI {]Øm--hp-ambn Iq«p-tNÀ¶p `c-W--S-¯n-¸n ]¦p-Im-c-hp- Itbm B {]-Øm--§Ä¡v thm«v ÂIp-Itbm sN¿p-¶Xv Pam-A-¯nsâ ho£-W-¯n Ap-h-Z-o-b-aÃ'' ({]-t_m-[w amkn-I, 1970 Pqem-bv) F{X-sb{X ldm-ap-IÄ lem-em¡n, F{X-sb{X lem-ep-IÄ ldm-am¡n Ch-cpsS "kp-l- tZmkp'IÄ? F¶mepw ]dbpw FÃmw ]mÀ«n t]mfnkn t{]m{Kmw am{Xw. "D]-tbmK iqy- amb' incÊv Igp-¯n t]dnb Ap-bm-bn-I-fp-sï-¦n GXp {]Øm-hpw C§s Noªp-m-dp-sa-¶-sXmcp {]IrXnbm°mÀXyw am{Xw. 19. mÂ]-Xp-I-fn C´y³ kzmX-{´y-k-a-c-¯n ]s¦-Sp¯ apkvenw-IÄ¡p tsc, kzmX{´y e_v[n¡p tijw hcm-n-cn-¡p¶ atX-Xc tZiob Pm-[n-]Xy¯np tsc, auZqZn Ipdn-¨n« Xo s]mÅp¶ hm¡p-IÄ Cs¶mcp hnem] Imhyw IW-s¡, Ckvem-an-Ìp- I-fpsS kzm`m-hn-Ihpw An-hm-cy-hp-amb hnIm-k-¯np ap³]n kvXw`n¨v n¡msX, mw ]mSpI Imew NneXv Bh-iy-s¸-Sp-t¼mÄ mw Ncn-{X-¯n kvXw`n¨p n¡-cpXv' ""apkÂam-·msc kw_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯mfw RmnXm Ah-tcmSp Xpd¶p {]kvXm-hn-¡p-¶p. B[p-nI atX-Xc tZiob Pm-[n-]Xyw n§-fpsS Ckvem-anpw Cuam-npw IS-I-hn-cp-²-am- Wv. n§-f-Xnsâ ap¼n kÀÆm-ßm Xe Ipn-¡p-I-bm-sW-¦n n§-fpsS hnip-² -IzpÀ- Bs ]pd-tIm«p hen-s¨-dn-b-em-bn-cn-¡pw. n§-f-Xnsâ kwØm-]--¯nepw S-¯n-¸nepw ]¦p-h-ln-¡p-I-bm-sW-¦n n§-fpsS Xncp-Zq-X-tcmSp sN¿p¶ ISp¯ h©bmbncn¡pw. n§fXnsâ sImSn ]nSn¡pIbmsW¦n n§fpsS ssZh¯nsXnsc cmPyt{Zml sImSn DbÀ¯embncn¡pw. GsXmcp ]cnip² Ckvemansâ t]cn apkvenwIsf¶v n§Ä kzbw AhImis¸Sp¶ptïm AXnsâ Bßmhpw Cu Ahnip² hyhØnXnbpsS Bßmhpw X½n Xpd¶ kac¯nemWv. AXnsâ auenI XXz§fpw CXnsâ auenIXXz§fpw X½n {]Xy£ kwL«amWv. AXnsâ Hmtcm LSIhpw CXnsâ Hmtcm LSIhpambn kÔnbnÃm¯ bp²amWv. {]kvXpX hyhØnXnbpambn Ckvemw tbmPn¡p¶ Hä t]mbnâpanÃ. B hyhØnXn A[nImcw hmgp¶nS¯v Ckvemw shdpw PetcJbmbncn¡pw'' (PamAs¯ CkvemanbpsS ktµiw, t]Pv:32þ33, 1979, auemm auZqZn,) ]n³Ipdn: "kzmX{´ym´c `mc¯nse {InbmßI atXXcXzs¯ ]pÂIm³ PamA¯nv hntijn¨v BtemNntï-n h¶n«nÃ,' (Sn. Bcn^en, PamA¯v kwØm AaoÀ, am[yaw, 2009 Pphcn 1) Cóv PamA¯v cmjv{Sob hmXnepIÄ Hmtcmópw ap«n Fñmhscbpw ]pðIpóXv ImWpt¼mÄ… "Hm amtemItc Cnbpw n§Ä sNhn s]m¯p¶ntÃ'?!! 8 | Cu cmjv{SobIpfnapdnbn FÃmhcpw ácmWv

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