An Overview of Information
• Information Technology deals with the use of
electronic computers and computer software to
convert, store, protect, process, transmit and
securely retrieve information.
• Today IT encompasses various functions which
Engineering Computer Hardware
. ( and the list goes on)
Backbone of IT: The Computers
• A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a
set of instructions.
• The two principal characteristics of a computer are:
1. It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-
2. It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions.
• On a broad scale a computer has two parts:
• It comprises of all the physical components that
makes up a computer.
• Consists of components through which we enter
the raw data in the computer.
• Includes keyboard, scanner, webcam, optical pen,
• Is responsible for the processing of the data entered by the
• Consists of Arithmetic Logical Unit, control unit & the main
• Consists of devices which are used to
communicate the results of data processing
carried out by the processing unit to the outside
• Computer software, or just software is a general term used to
describe the role that computer programs, procedures and
documentation play in a computer system.
• Types of Software:
Allow user to
Used as a
Managing Data: Database
• Database in short implies Management of data.
• Technically, A database is an
integrated collection of logically
related records or files which
consolidates records into a common
pool of data records that provides
data for many applications.
• A database is a collection of information that is organized so
that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated.
• Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of
computer programs that controls the creation,
maintenance and the use of the database of an
organization and its end users.
• It allows organizations to place control of
organization-wide database development in the
hands of database administrators (DBAs) and
• E.g. Oracle 8i, 9i,
• MS Access,
• IBM DB2
• An operating system (commonly abbreviated as either OS or
O/S) is an interface between hardware and user.
• An OS is responsible for the management and coordination of
activities and the sharing of the resources of the computer.
• Major Operating systems:
Red Hat Linux
Connecting Computers: Networks
• A computer network is a group of interconnected computers.
• A computer network allows computers to communicate with
each other and to share resources and information.
Types of Networks
• On a broad scale Networks are classified into three
Local Area Network - LAN
• Network confined to relatively smaller area E.g. School building.
• In a typical configuration one computer is designated as a file
server which stores all information which can be shared by the
computers attached to it.
Metropolitan Area Network - MAN
• It covers larger geographical areas such as cities, schools,
districts by interconnecting smaller networks within a large
• Generally used by local libraries and government agencies.
Wide Area Network - WAN
• It connects larger geographical area throughout the world.
• Trans- oceanic cabling and satellite uplinks may be used to
connect this type of network
Enterprise Resource planning
• Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP is a way to
integrate the data and processes of an organization
into one single system.
• In order to achieve integration, most ERP systems
use a unified database to store data for various
functions found throughout the organization.
• Ideal ERP System
Advantages of ERP
• A totally integrated system.
• The ability to streamline different processes and workflows.
• The ability to easily share data across various departments in an
• Improved efficiency and productivity levels.
• Better tracking and forecasting.
• Lower costs.
• Improved customer service.
Disadvantages of ERP
• Customization in many situations is limited.
• The need to reengineer business processes.
• ERP systems can be cost prohibitive to install and run.
• Technical support can be shoddy.
• ERP's may be too rigid for specific organizations that are either
new or want to move in a new direction in the near future.