BIODIVERSITY
CONSERVATION
By
Kumeh Mensah Eric
Final Year
BSc. Natural Resource Mgt.
FRNR-CANR
KNUST
Ghana
Presentation Outline
 Definition and origin of biodiversity

 Components of biodiversity
 Gene diversity
 Species dive...
Presentation Outline(Cont.)
 Factors militating against biodiversity
 Species Introduction
 Global Warming and Climate ...
Definition
What does ―Bio‖ mean?

BIO =
What does ―DIVERSITY‖ mean?

DIVERSITY = VARIETY
20/11/2013
Biodiversity
 Biodiversity is the variety of life on earth and
the essential interdependence of all living
things (specie...
Components of Biodiversity
Genetic Variety
 Differences in inheritable characteristics that
are present in a population

...
Species Variety
 Species is a particular type
of organism or population
of organisms which share
some characteristics and...
Ecosystem Variety
 An ecosystem is made up of interacting
populations and the abiotic factors that
support them.

20/11/2...
Benefits of Biodiversity
Food Security
 Many species not
now commonly
used for food
could be.

20/11/2013
Medicine
 Every species that
goes extinct
represents one lost
opportunity to find a
cure for
cancer, hepatitis &
HIV/AIDS...
Economic Benefits
 Affluent tourists pay
good money to see
wildlife, and protected
ecosystems.

20/11/2013
Environmental & Ecological Benefits
Protection from floods
and droughts
 Stable ecosystems with
adequate trees help
regul...
Soil Fertility Sustenance
 Micro-organism
and macroorganism
activities aerate
soils.
 Nutrient cycling
by deep rooted
tr...
Aesthetic Benefits
 Biophilia; human love for and attachment to
other living things; ―the connections that human
beings s...
Benefits of Biodiversity
 Research (Motivation and generation of
ideas)

20/11/2013
Factors Militating Against Biodiversity
Population Growth
 7 billion people who
need to be fed.

20/11/2013
Overexploitation of Resources
 Extraction of flora
and fauna
resources beyond
sustainable
thresholds

Deforestation

20/1...
Global Warming and Climate Change
 Emissions of ―greenhouse
gases‖ are causing
temperatures to warm
worldwide, increasing...
Species Introduction
 Accidental or intentional
introduction of exotic
species to new areas.
 Most do not establish
or e...
Species Introduction

20/11/2013
Pollution
 Air and water pollution;
agricultural runoff, industrial
chemicals.

20/11/2013
Pollution (cont.)
Eutrophication
 Eutrophication occurs
when fertilizers,
animal wastes, sewage,
or other substances
rich...
Pollution (cont.)
Acid Rains
 Sulfur and nitrogen compounds react
with water and other substances in the
air to form sulf...
Pollution (cont.)
Biological magnification
 Biological
magnification is the
increasing
concentration of toxic
substances ...
Conservation
 Conservation is an ethic of use, allocation and
protection of valued resources.
 Biodiversity Conservation...
Why Biodiversity Conservation?
1. To Ensure Food Security

Ireland Potato famine 1845

20/11/2013
Why Biodiversity Conservation?
2. Prevents extinction of species
 30 per cent of
amphibians, 23 per
cent of mammals
and 1...
Why Biodiversity Conservation?
3.To sustain
ecosystem
services

20/11/2013
Why Biodiversity Conservation?
4. Maintenance
of cultural
heritage.

Parrot – Totem of
Agona
20/11/2013
The Way Forward
Policy and Legislation
 Policy is a proposed or
adopted course of action that
guide decision to obtain
ra...
The Way Forward
 Conventions, Protocols & Treaties
Trade Record
Analysis of Flora
and Fauna in
Commerce
(TRAFFIC)

Cartag...
The Way Forward
 Education

20/11/2013
The Way Forward
Restoring Ecosystems
 Bioremediation
 The use of living organisms, such as
prokaryotes, fungi, or plants...
The Way Forward
Biological Augmentation
 Adding natural predators to
a degraded ecosystem is
called biological
augmentati...
The Way Forward
Controlled breeding programs

20/11/2013
The Way Forward
Natural Resource Management
 Sustainable Forest and Wildlife Mgt.

20/11/2013
The Way Forward
Sustainable Aquaculture
Raising of fishery
resources in controlled
environments.

20/11/2013
The Way Forward
Agroforestry
Careful integration trees,
crops and/or animals
on the same land
management
unit.

20/11/2013
Did You Know?
 Bamboo can grow up to three feet in a 24 hour
period.

20/11/2013
Did You Know?
 According to UN Food and Agriculture
Organization estimates, 100 crop species
supply 90 percent of the wor...
Did You Know?
 As estimated by the IUCN, 50 percent of all
endangered species live in the rainforest. The
planet’s larges...
Did You Know?
 Grasshopper Mouse uses Scorpion Venom as a
―Painkiller‖

20/11/2013
Conclusion

20/11/2013
References
 Admiraal, J.F., Wossink, A., de Groot, W.T., de Snoo,
G.R., 2013. More than total economic value: how to
comb...
References Cont’d
 Haines-Young, R., Potschin, M., 2013. Common
International Classification of Ecosystem Services
(CICES...
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Biodiversity Conservation

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This Presentation Contains:
Defintion of Biodiversity
Importance
Factors Militating Against Biodiversity
Why we should conserve Biodiversity
and
How to improve Biodiversity Conservation

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Biodiversity Conservation

  1. 1. BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION By Kumeh Mensah Eric Final Year BSc. Natural Resource Mgt. FRNR-CANR KNUST Ghana
  2. 2. Presentation Outline  Definition and origin of biodiversity  Components of biodiversity  Gene diversity  Species diversity  Ecosystem diversity  Benefits of biodiversity  Economic benefits  Ecological and environmental benefits  Aesthetic and scientific benefits  Factors militating against biodiversity  Population growth  Climate change and global warming  Deforestation 20/11/2013
  3. 3. Presentation Outline(Cont.)  Factors militating against biodiversity  Species Introduction  Global Warming and Climate Change  Pollution  Definition of Conservation and Biodiversity Conservation  Why Biodiversity Conservation  The Way Forward     Policy and Legislation Education Restoring Ecosystems The Role of Natural Resource of Management  Did You Know? 20/11/2013
  4. 4. Definition What does ―Bio‖ mean? BIO = What does ―DIVERSITY‖ mean? DIVERSITY = VARIETY 20/11/2013
  5. 5. Biodiversity  Biodiversity is the variety of life on earth and the essential interdependence of all living things (species).  The term was coined by Edward O. Wilson amongst others, as an ecological concept to include all the living organisms of a given system, from the monera to the trees, annelids to mammals. 20/11/2013
  6. 6. Components of Biodiversity Genetic Variety  Differences in inheritable characteristics that are present in a population Chihuahua 20/11/2013 Beagle Rottweilers
  7. 7. Species Variety  Species is a particular type of organism or population of organisms which share some characteristics and can interbred to produce a fertile offspring 20/11/2013
  8. 8. Ecosystem Variety  An ecosystem is made up of interacting populations and the abiotic factors that support them. 20/11/2013
  9. 9. Benefits of Biodiversity Food Security  Many species not now commonly used for food could be. 20/11/2013
  10. 10. Medicine  Every species that goes extinct represents one lost opportunity to find a cure for cancer, hepatitis & HIV/AIDS. Rosy periwinkle 20/11/2013
  11. 11. Economic Benefits  Affluent tourists pay good money to see wildlife, and protected ecosystems. 20/11/2013
  12. 12. Environmental & Ecological Benefits Protection from floods and droughts  Stable ecosystems with adequate trees help regulate the water cycle by acting as temporal sinks. 20/11/2013
  13. 13. Soil Fertility Sustenance  Micro-organism and macroorganism activities aerate soils.  Nutrient cycling by deep rooted trees Earthworm in soils 20/11/2013
  14. 14. Aesthetic Benefits  Biophilia; human love for and attachment to other living things; ―the connections that human beings subconsciously seek out with the rest of life‖: Keeping of pets Valuing real estate with landscape views Interest in escaping cities to go hiking, birding, fishing, hunting, backpacking, etc. 20/11/2013
  15. 15. Benefits of Biodiversity  Research (Motivation and generation of ideas) 20/11/2013
  16. 16. Factors Militating Against Biodiversity Population Growth  7 billion people who need to be fed. 20/11/2013
  17. 17. Overexploitation of Resources  Extraction of flora and fauna resources beyond sustainable thresholds Deforestation 20/11/2013
  18. 18. Global Warming and Climate Change  Emissions of ―greenhouse gases‖ are causing temperatures to warm worldwide, increasing the frequency of extreme weather events. Polar bear on melting ice 20/11/2013
  19. 19. Species Introduction  Accidental or intentional introduction of exotic species to new areas.  Most do not establish or expand, but some do—likely because they are ―released‖ from limitations imposed by their native predators, parasites, and competitors. 20/11/2013 Japanese Kudzu
  20. 20. Species Introduction 20/11/2013
  21. 21. Pollution  Air and water pollution; agricultural runoff, industrial chemicals. 20/11/2013
  22. 22. Pollution (cont.) Eutrophication  Eutrophication occurs when fertilizers, animal wastes, sewage, or other substances rich in nitrogen and phosphorus flow into waterways, causing extensive algae growth. 20/11/2013
  23. 23. Pollution (cont.) Acid Rains  Sulfur and nitrogen compounds react with water and other substances in the air to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid.  Acid precipitation removes calcium, potassium, and other nutrients from the soil, depriving plants of these nutrients.  It damages plant tissue and slows their growth. 20/11/2013
  24. 24. Pollution (cont.) Biological magnification  Biological magnification is the increasing concentration of toxic substances in organisms as trophic levels increase in a food chain or food web. 20/11/2013
  25. 25. Conservation  Conservation is an ethic of use, allocation and protection of valued resources.  Biodiversity Conservation implies the use, allocation and protection of the variety of flora and fauna resources in a manner that ensures the sustainability of these resources. 20/11/2013
  26. 26. Why Biodiversity Conservation? 1. To Ensure Food Security Ireland Potato famine 1845 20/11/2013
  27. 27. Why Biodiversity Conservation? 2. Prevents extinction of species  30 per cent of amphibians, 23 per cent of mammals and 12 per cent of birds are threatened (IUCN 2006). DODO BIRD 20/11/2013
  28. 28. Why Biodiversity Conservation? 3.To sustain ecosystem services 20/11/2013
  29. 29. Why Biodiversity Conservation? 4. Maintenance of cultural heritage. Parrot – Totem of Agona 20/11/2013
  30. 30. The Way Forward Policy and Legislation  Policy is a proposed or adopted course of action that guide decision to obtain rational outcomes.  Legislation proclamation of laws by a recognized institution. 20/11/2013
  31. 31. The Way Forward  Conventions, Protocols & Treaties Trade Record Analysis of Flora and Fauna in Commerce (TRAFFIC) Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety 20/11/2013
  32. 32. The Way Forward  Education 20/11/2013
  33. 33. The Way Forward Restoring Ecosystems  Bioremediation  The use of living organisms, such as prokaryotes, fungi, or plants, to detoxify or remove pollutants.  Technologies can be generally classified as in situ or ex situ.  Oleispira antarctica 20/11/2013
  34. 34. The Way Forward Biological Augmentation  Adding natural predators to a degraded ecosystem is called biological augmentation.  Ladybugs can be introduced into an ecosystem to control aphid populations. 20/11/2013
  35. 35. The Way Forward Controlled breeding programs 20/11/2013
  36. 36. The Way Forward Natural Resource Management  Sustainable Forest and Wildlife Mgt. 20/11/2013
  37. 37. The Way Forward Sustainable Aquaculture Raising of fishery resources in controlled environments. 20/11/2013
  38. 38. The Way Forward Agroforestry Careful integration trees, crops and/or animals on the same land management unit. 20/11/2013
  39. 39. Did You Know?  Bamboo can grow up to three feet in a 24 hour period. 20/11/2013
  40. 40. Did You Know?  According to UN Food and Agriculture Organization estimates, 100 crop species supply 90 percent of the world's food and bees pollinate more than 70% of these crops! 20/11/2013
  41. 41. Did You Know?  As estimated by the IUCN, 50 percent of all endangered species live in the rainforest. The planet’s largest rainforest –The Amazon – lost more than 17 percent of its forest cover in the last century due to human activity. 20/11/2013
  42. 42. Did You Know?  Grasshopper Mouse uses Scorpion Venom as a ―Painkiller‖ 20/11/2013
  43. 43. Conclusion 20/11/2013
  44. 44. References  Admiraal, J.F., Wossink, A., de Groot, W.T., de Snoo, G.R., 2013. More than total economic value: how to combine economic valuation of biodiversity with ecological resilience. Ecol. Econ. 89, 115–122.  Bai, Y., Zhuang, C., Ouyang, Z., Zheng, H., Jiang, B., 2011. Spatial characteristics between biodiversity and ecosystem services in a human-dominated watershed. Ecol. Complexity 8, 177–183.  Dunne, J.A., Williams, R.J., 2009. Cascading extinctions and community collapse in model food webs. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B-Biol. Sci. 364, 1711–1723.  Egoh, B.N., Reyers, B., Carwardine, J., Bode, M., O’Farrell, P.J., Wilson, K.A., Possingham, H.P., Rouget, M., De Lange, W., Richardson, D.M., Cowling, R.M., 2010. Safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services in the little karoo, South Africa. Conserv. Biol. 24, 1021–1030. 20/11/2013
  45. 45. References Cont’d  Haines-Young, R., Potschin, M., 2013. Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES): Consultation on Version 4, August-December 2012. EEA Framework, Contract No EEA/IEA/09/003.  Reyers, B., Polasky, S., Tallis, H., Mooney, H.A., Larigau derie, A., 2012. Finding common ground for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Bioscience 62, 503–507.  Tscharntke, T., Klein, A.M., Kruess, A., SteffanDewenter, I., Thies, C., 2005. Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity – ecosystem service management. Ecol. Lett. 8, 857–874.  Salles, J.-M., 2011. Valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services: why put economic values on nature? C.R. Biol. 334, 469–482. 20/11/2013
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