Job Analysis Job Analysis is not a one time activity as jobs are changing constantly The job and not the person – an important consideration in job analysis is conducted of the job and not of the person It simply highlights what are the minimum activities that are entailed in a job.
Definitions Job analysis - systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization Job description – document providing information regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job Job specification – minimum qualifications to perform a particular job
Job Analysis Skill Range Does the job cover a reasonable but not too extensive range of different tasks? Are there opportunities to use knowledge and skills associated with effective performance of the job? Can the individual make full use of their skills and develop their skill base?
Job Analysis Job Purpose Is the purpose of the job clearly and unequivocally Is its contribution to the organisation’s objectives evident? Is its contribution to its dept obvious? Is the post holder responsible for the successful completion of the whole job? Do the internal systems help the post holder do the job?
Job Analysis Relationships Are the formal relationships clearly specified and related to the achievement of the objectives? Is there opportunity to develop working relationships within and across the department’s boundaries? Are colleagues available with whom the post holder can discuss professional issues
Job Analysis Job Outcomes: Can the post holder see the result of their efforts? Can the results of the post holders efforts be recognised? Does the post holder have the opportunity to influence their own levels of performance? Rewards Are the rewards appropriate and obtainable? Are the rewards linked directly with the performance of the post holder?
Steps in Job Analysis1. Organizational Analysis – Overview of various jobs in the organization and the linkages between them and the contribution of various jobs towards achieving organizational efficiency and effectiveness.2. Uses of Job Analysis Information3. Selection of jobs for analysis4. Collection of Data5. Preparation of Job description – tasks, duties, responsibilities6. Preparation of Job Specification – personal attributes required in terms of education, training, aptitude and experience to fulfill the job description
Methods of collecting information Job Questionnaire: Most cost effective method Elicits information from workers & their immediate supervisor You can get intimate detailed knowledge of their jobs Questionnaire needs to be structured in advance Responses can be used to create a job description
Questionnaire method Disadvantages Right population – questions can be interpreted differently Not everyone is able to describe fully & exactly Questionnaire not easy to make to cover all aspects
Interview Disadvantages: Time consuming Quality and experienced analyst Distrust of interviewers
Observation It is good for simple and repetitive jobsDisadvantages: Presence of analyst can cause stress Jobholder may purposely reduce the pace of activity to justify overtime Cannot be used where job requires personal judgment and intellectual ability
Independent Observers Diary – One or more incumbents note duties and frequency of tasks performed Critical Incidents – Incumbents brainstorm of critical incidents that happen routinely and infrequently – this method is excellent for training Photo tape recording Review of records – Maintenance records, repair records at seasonal variations
Data collected List of tasks List of decisions made Amount of supervision received Supervision exercised Diversity of functions performed Interaction with other staff Physical conditions Software used
Definitions Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in an organization
Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool Human Resource Planning Tasks Responsibilities Duties Recruitment Selection Training and Development Job Descriptions Performance Appraisal Compensation and Benefits JobAnalysis Safety and Health Job Specifications Employee and Labor Relations Legal Considerations Job Analysis for TeamsKnowledge Skills Abilities
Job Description Difficult to have a perfect and fully inclusive JD – as one moves up in the hierarchy of the organization, a detailed JD becomes very difficult. Most orgs would prefer not to describe the job fully, because employees would stick to it and not do anything beyond Supervisors job may become redundant Rapid technological changes
Job Description A job description Clarifies work functions and reporting relationships, helping employees understand their jobs. Aids in maintaining a consistent salary structure. Aids in Performance evaluations. Is a set of well written duty statements containing action words which accurately describe what is being done.
Duty statements should focus on primary, current, normal, daily duties and responsibilities of the position (not incidental duties, an employee’s qualifications or performance, or temporary assignments). Related or similar duties should be combined and written as one statement. Should be a discreet, identifiable aspect of the work assignment, described in one to three sentences, and should be outcome-based, allowing for alternate means of performing the duty, changes in technology, preferences of employees and supervisors, and accommodations of workers with disabilities, without altering the nature of, and/or the duty itself.
Writing a JD Duties are to be listed in order of importance, not necessarily frequency. There is no need to group tasks/duties under sub headings, however it is acceptable. Commence each statement with a verb eg processes, maintains, records etc, . Avoid using the term responsible for rather describe the action e.g. obtains, coordinates etc.
Writing a JD Frequencies should be identified in multiples of 5%. Duties that take less than 5% of the officers time should not be shown as separate but grouped with other duties. Use action verbs which tell what the position does. Examples include "supervises", "programs", "directs" and "analyzes". Provide specific examples to illustrate the duties Avoid ambiguous terms such as "oversees" or "manages", instead, describe the activities involved in overseeing or managing. Quantify activities when possible. Examples may include: How often is the activity performed? How much money does this position manage? What is the volume of work handled?
Writing a JD : Primary Function What is the Positions objective? What is the Role of Position (including key relationships)? Position summary [Briefly state the purpose or objective of the position]: Essential job functions [State the major responsibilities, indicate New (N) or Existing (E), and the estimated percent of time devoted to each - include descriptive statements of typical or representative tasks associated with the major responsibilities/functions]: State briefly the general function of your position, including the basic nature of the department and the relationship of your position with other positions in your work area
Person Specification Person Specification is a statement derived from the job analysis process and the job description Of the characteristics that an individual would need to possess in order to fulfill the requirements of a job
Compiling a person specification Attainment: What educational requirements and specialist knowledge are really required for successful completion of the task Experience: What roles and tasks should have been occupied to ensure that the post holder is adequately equipped? Abilities: What skills need to be deployed for the competent performance of the tasks? Aptitude: Where will the post-holders strengths lie;what particular talents do they need to possess? Interests: What interest relevant to the work will suggest possession of sought after skills /aptitudes?
Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis Staffing – would be haphazard if recruiter did not know qualifications needed for job Training and Development – if specification lists a particular knowledge, skill, or ability, and the person filling the position does not possess all the necessary qualifications, training and/or development is needed Compensation and Benefits – value of job must be known before dollar value can be placed on it
Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis (Continued) Safety and Health – helps identify safety and health considerations Employee and Labor Relations – lead to more objective human resource decisions Legal Considerations – having done job analysis important for supporting legality of employment practices
Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis Work Activities – work activities and processes; activity records (in film form, for example); procedures used; personal responsibility Worker-oriented activities – human behaviors, such as physical actions and communicating on the job; elemental motions for methods analysis; personal job demands, such as energy expenditure Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used Job-related tangibles and intangibles – knowledge dealt with or applied (as in accounting); materials processed; products made or services performed
Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis Work performance – error analysis; work standards; work measurements, such as time taken for a task Job context – work schedule; financial and nonfinancial incentives; physical working conditions; organizational and social contexts Personal requirements for the job – personal attributes such as personality and interests; education and training required; work experience
Conducting Job Analysis The people who participate in job analysis should include, at a minimum: The employee The employee’s immediate supervisor Other key stakeholders in the organization