Global climate change threatens our economy, national security and the physical landscape itself, denying the urgency of global warming. That is why we cannot abandon the Kyoto Protocol , which calls for industrialized nations to take the lead in reducing greenhouse gas emissions
Carbon credits are a key component of national and international attempts to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). One Carbon Credit is equal to one ton of Carbon. Carbon trading is an application of an emissions trading approach
The objective of the Kyoto climate change conference was to establish a legally binding international agreement, whereby all the participating nations commit themselves to tackling the issue of global warming and greenhouse gas emissions. The target agreed upon was an average reduction of 5.2% from 1990 levels by the year 2012.
Kyoto Agreement Global Status Countries Signed & ratified Countries Signed & not yet ratified Countries , not yet decided Countries , no intention of signing
The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has significantly increased in the last few years. The "Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association (IWTMA)“ has played a leading role in promoting wind energy in India
As of November 2008 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 9587.14 MW
Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power
Today's wind turbines are much more lightweight than the turbines used on windmills of old. The wind turbine is usually standard in design, consisting of two or more rotor blades. The energy output of a wind turbine is determined largely by the length of the blades, which installers and engineers call "sweep.“
Majorly , there are three types:
Large or medium/ small wind turbines
Down or Up wind turbines
Horizontal or vertical access wind turbines
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Small turbine towers - The case of small wind systems (more than a 1KW) is less simple, with several types of towers and different heights and configurations: guyed towers and non-guyed towers, cylindrical/pipe and lattice configurations, etc.
Their installation should be done a) far enough of obstructions, and on the top or on windy hill sides: see Wind Turbines Location; b) with enough room to raise and lower the tower for maintenance and stabilization
Guyed small cylindrical Towers - Many small wind turbines use narrow pole towers (pipe, tubing) supported by guy wires. It’s a cheap solution, though with some disadvantages: they aren't easy climbable (for inspections or repairs) and require more land than self-supporting towers, due to the guy wires.
Non-guyed cylindrical towers - Non-guyed tilt-up/cylindrical towers use pipe or tubing and a self-supporting design. They do not use guy wires and have a small footprint. These towers can include climbing pegs but are a relatively expensive type of tower.
Lattice configuration - Lattice towers use welded steel profiles and are a cheap and tested solution. Most lattice towers aren’t guyed, but there are also guyed configurations: three legged lattice structures suspended on all three sides by guy wires. They are usually climbable.
Wind speed at the ground is near zero, and increases with height.
A 15m –18m tower will produce between 15%-25% more energy than a 12m tower
Buildings, trees and other obstacles increase both surface roughness, slowing the wind down, and cause turbulence, which significantly affects turbine efficiency. This can cause more than a 50% energy loss
Dense urban areas suffer from low wind speeds due to high surface roughness. Rooftops additionally suffer from turbulence
Battery bank sizing can be one of the more complex and important calculations in your system design. If the battery bank is oversized, you risk not being able to keep it fully charged; if the battery bank is sized too small, you won't be able to run your intended loads for as long as you'd planned.
Before tackling the calculations, start by identifying a few key pieces of information:
of electricity usage per day
Number of Days of Autonomy
Depth of Discharge limit
Ambient temperature at battery bank
Step Process Example 1 Identify total daily use in Watt-hours (Wh) 6,000 Wh/day 2 Identify Days of Autonomy (backup days); multiply Wh/day by this factor 3 Days of Autonomy: 6,000 x 3 = 18,000 W 3 Identify Depth of Discharge (DoD) and convert to a decimal value. Divide result of Step 2 by this value 40% DoD: 18,000 / 0.4 = 45,000 W 4 Derate battery bank for ambient temperature effect. Select the multiplier corresponding to the lowest average temperature your batteries will be exposed to. Multiply result from Step 3 by this factor. Result is minimum Wh capacity of battery bank: Temp. in [degrees] F. Factor 80+ 1.00 70 1.04 60 1.11 50 1.19 40 1.30 30 1.40 20 1.59 60° F. = 1.11 45,000 x 1.11 = 49,950 W 5 Divide result from Step 4 by system voltage. Result is the minimum Amp-hour (Ah) capacity of your battery bank. 49,950 / 48 = 1,040 Ah