Krystol Magazine 14.2
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Krystol Magazine Volume 14, Issue 2 provides readers with the top 5 things to know about permeability-reducing admixtures, profiles a key Kryton project in the Alaskanada Dam, and features a Kryton ...

Krystol Magazine Volume 14, Issue 2 provides readers with the top 5 things to know about permeability-reducing admixtures, profiles a key Kryton project in the Alaskanada Dam, and features a Kryton CEO Column, "Ask a Kryton Expert," and Kryton news from around the world.

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Krystol Magazine 14.2 Document Transcript

  • 1. Kryst l Magazine ® ®www.kryton.com Leaders in Integral Crystalline Waterproofing Volume 14 | Issue 2 Waterproofing the Alakanada Dam PLUS: Selecting a Waterproofing System for ICFs Spotlight on Australia & New Zealand Krystol® Magazine 1
  • 2. photo credit: dejahthorisWATERTIGHT CONCRETE.KIM® was selected as the waterproofing solution that could meet the technicalcomplexities of the Aquarium at YVR within a tight schedule.Kryton’s unique self-sealing Krystol® technology waterproofs your concrete and protects your reputation. We assure you’ll meet and exceedspec because of our extensive testing, code approvals and conformance to ACI and PCA admixture guidelines for Permeability ReducingAdmixtures under Hydrostatic water pressure (PRAH). Kryton’s concrete waterproofing system is used to waterproof the world’s iconic buildings, tunnels, dams and infrastructure developments of allsizes where quality is paramount.Contact us to see how we can help you.www.kryton.com ® +1-800-267-8280 At the Lab. In the Field. By Your Side.
  • 3. Contents Volume 14 | Issue 24 Top Five Things to Know About Permeability Reducing Admixtures6 Waterproofing a Dam in Rugged India – The Alakanada Dam9 CEO Column10 Selecting a Waterproofing System for ICFs12 Kryton News13 Ask a Kryton Expert 1014 Kryton in Australia and New Zealand Learn about how to waterproof concrete while using Insulating Concrete Formwork (ICF). Krystol® Magazine is printed by 6 Kryton International Inc. 1645 East Kent Avenue Vancouver, BC V5P 2S8 Canada www.kryton.com For information about this publication or about Kryton International Inc., write to the above address, phone 604-324-8280 or 1-800-267-8280, or email info@kryton.com. Copyright © 2011 Kryton International Inc. All rights reserved. Editors/Contributors Alain Lok Kevin Davis Alex Emlyn Kevin Yuers Ali Biparva Sheila Dong Jeff Bowman Krystol Group PTY Ltd. Jillian Work Fraser Brown & Stratmore Ltd. Kari Yuers Design/Production Yvonne Lee Printed in Canada by Horseshoe Press Inc.Read how Kryton products are helping to extend the life of the concrete at the massiveAlakanada Dam in India. Krystol® Magazine 3
  • 4. Top Five Things to Know About Permeability Reducing AdmixturesThe American Concrete Institute (ACI) for Hydrostatic conditions (PRAH). at repelling rain water and reducing wateris a long-standing, globally recognized The new categories do away with the ingress under damp conditions.institution that sets standards followed old terms of “damp-proofers” and However, with PRANs, the resistance toby the construction industry around the “waterproofers”, which were vague, water pressure is limited or temporary atworld. Its extensive library of reports and poorly defined and lead to confusion best. As a result, PRANs are unsuitablebody of educational programs has made regarding the capabilities and limitations for use in structures exposed toit an essential resource for all in of each admixture. hydrostatic pressure.the industry. PRAHs on the other hand, use a poreThe recently re-published ACI 212.3R-10: blocking mechanism that makes themReport on Chemical Admixtures for capable of resisting water pressure.Concrete includes a new chapter, Chapter This allows PRAHs to be used in15, specifically discussing permeability more demanding applications suchReducing Admixtures (PRAs). These as basements, tunnels and wateradmixtures reduce the rate at which water containment structures. PRAHs areenters into the concrete matrix. sufficiently stable to water under pressure that they can protect the structure for thePrior to the addition of Chapter 15, lifetime of the concrete.PRAs were mentioned only in passing aswaterproofers or damp-proofers, and the 2. There are three differentinformation was buried in a section of compositions of PRAsthe report entitled “Miscellaneous”. Today,this specific category of admixtures has PRA materials fall into three broadfound its rightful place. Below is a list of categories: 1) hydrophobic or waterthe top five things to know about PRAs. repellent chemicals, 2) finely divided solids or “densifiers” and 3) crystalline1. There are two new categories chemicals. Water repellent chemicalsof Permeability Reducing describe soaps, stearates and oils designedAdmixtures to increase water repellency and reduce The Santa Lucia Canal in Mexico was adsorption. Finely divided solids are clay, waterproofed with a PRAH solution thatPermeability Reducing Admixtures now could resist hydrostatic pressure. silica and polymers that take up spacehave a new system of classification. Today and densify the concrete. Crystallineall PRAs can be either categorized as With a PRAN, water absorption is chemicals hydrate with cement andPermeability Reducing Admixtures for reduced through the use of water water to reduce porosity and grow poreNon-hydrostatic conditions (PRAN) repellent chemicals or small, filler blocking deposits. This creates a networkor Permeability Reducing Admixtures particles (densifiers). PRANs are effective of pore blocking crystals that becomes 4 www.kryton.com
  • 5. 4. Some products claim to be PRAHs but are not Some products include a superplasticizer so they can be tested with a much lower water-cement ratio compared to a control concrete. This increases water resistance in the short term, butCrystalline chemicals fill the concrete’s pores blocking the flow of water. does not address the shortcomings of hydrophobic water repellents or finelyintegrally bound within the concrete. 3. Different testing methods are divided solids. These materials stillThe crystals will continue to form in necessary for each PRA category fuction as PRANs. Furthermore, not allthe presence of water over the lifetime admixtures that claim to be crystallineof the concrete, and can even self-seal There are different means of testing a are true hydrophilic crystalline. Someleaking cracks. PRA – some are appropriate for testing chemical admixtures, such as those based PRANs, while others are only suitable on sodium silicate, merely “crystallize”Hydrophobic water repellent chemicals for testing a PRAH. Absorption tests, as they dry. This short term reactionare PRANs because the concrete pores such as BS 1881-122 (or ASTM C1585), is very limited compared to on-goingare not blocked in any way. While immerse or partially immerse a sample of hydrophilic crystalline reactions, andfinely divided solids provide some pore concrete in water and measure the weight does not provide the long-term waterblocking and water resistance in damp gain over time. However, absorption tests resistance or self-sealing propertiesconditions, their resistance to water do not apply to water under pressure; required for an admixture to be apressure is not stable enough to withstand therefore, they are inappropriate for PRAH. These admixtures are stilllong-term water pressure. Crystalline testing products that must withstand classified as PRAN.admixtures are PRAHs because theyoffer the highest and most stable waterresistance, have self-sealing propertiesand continuously improve over time. Competitor A KIM Control (Untreated) Permeability test showing the depth of water penetration of three samples. hydrostatic conditions. A pressure driven 5. The long term success of a test, such as DIN 1048-5 or BS EN PRAH relies on three main factors 12390-8, is required to test whether an admixture is a PRAH because these are When choosing a PRAH, look for a the only tests that compare performance product that offers high levels of water under hydrostatic conditions. These resistance compared to a control (60 to tests apply pressurized water to one side 90 per cent improvement compared to a of a concrete sample over a period of control concrete) tested using a pressure time. Results are reported as a time to driven test and without the use of a full saturation, depth of water superplasticizer. It should also have the penetration or as a coefficient of following traits in order to act as a reliable permeability (a numerical expression of replacement for external waterproofing the concrete’s permeability). In a pressure membranes: the ability to improve overAbsorption test showing how much water driven test, a PRAH should be able to time, the ability to self-seal hairline crackswas absorbed into the concrete block. demonstrate the ability to significantly and a long performance history. It is onlyProducts that promote absorption testing reduce water penetration. by having all these features that you canare generally a PRAN. rely on your product to perform as a PRAH over the lifetime of your concrete. Krystol® Magazine 5
  • 6. Waterproofing a Dam in Rugged IndiaThe Alakanada DamThe Alakanada River runs through the capital region of Delhi, the second and proximity to mountain run off. Itfoothills of the Himalaya Mountains largest metropolitan area in India, with a provided the best chance to developand is a major water source for northern population of nearly 14 million people. hydro electricity and manage the level ofIndia. In 2005 GMR Energy started the river.developing a 330 megawatt (MW) The project includes a 40 metre (m)hydroelectric dam and power plant on high dam, a three kilometre (km) long This site is nestled in a mountain valley.the riverbanks to help satisfy the headrace tunnel and an underground While the surrounding mountains aregrowing seasonal demand for power in penstock leading to an underground vast and breath-taking, it is a very remotenorthern India. power station with two 70 MW run of region that presents challenges to travel river turbines. The total head of water on and year-round work schedules. GettingConsistent electricity is one of the major the project is 480m. to the site requires a 340 km drive fromissues facing India. Many homes and New Delhi on sometimes unreliable,businesses throughout India maintain The dam and power plant is located winding mountain roads, which can takegas generators to ensure a consistent just outside the town of Srinigar in 12 to 14 hours in travel time. The locationsupply of electricity. Most of the power Uttarakhand (formerly Uttaranchal) has snowfall for between four and sixgenerated by the dam and power plant State in northern India. This site was months a year, so construction cannotwill be channeled to serve the national chosen due to its location on the river take place during the winter. As a result, 6 www.kryton.com
  • 7. Kryton has been working closely with the onsite ready-mix plant to optimize the mix design. waterproofing concrete with a of Srinigar. Modern day Srinigar was re- straightforward, dependable and established by the British between 1897 guaranteed system offers an indispensible and 1899. They used urban planning level of protection, particularly for dam methodology to create a new grid-iron walls with steel reinforcement. If water patterned town on the upper third terrace enters cracks in the concrete, it can southeast of the previous city site. The damage the reinforcing steel below the town was granted urban status in 1931 concrete surface. Steel expands when it and today is a major economic, cultural corrodes, which leads to more cracks and and educational centre in the region. water ingress. Over time, the concrete deteriorates and fails, which can result in Due to the extreme risk potential in devastating floods. building or waterproofing a dam, governments and engineers are turning The town of Srinigar is all too familiar increasingly to integral crystalline with the devastation of floods. On August waterproofing manufacturers for help. 26, 1894, over 10,000 million cubic feet Integral systems can add decades to of water from the breached Gohna Lake the life of a concrete structure. Unlike completely swept away the original town membrane systems that can deteriorateit is anticipated that it will take double DID YOU KNOW?the normal length of time to completethe project. The project is scheduled toachieve commercial operation in 2014. The Alakanada River forms one of theIn addition, it is also an active seismic headstreams of the mighty River Ganges,zone at risk of earthquakes. On the holy river for followers of Hinduism.September 8, 1803, the area suffered Hindu followers believe the Alakanadaa powerful earthquake that shook the River split off from the Ganges River when itwhole region and devastated the town of descended from heaven. It originates from Lake Satopath, a triangularSrinigar. As a result, the engineering and lake 4,402 metres above sea level, high in the Nar and Narayan mountain ranges,construction teams have taken noticeable and flows 190 kilometres through the Alakanada Valley in Uttarakhand State. Insteps to improve the soil stabilization on India, the river is also known as a destination for rafting and kayaking adventurethe slopes surrounding the project area. trips. In fact, the Alakanada River is among the best in the world for river rafting due to its high grade rapids.Concrete is bound to crack if it is notproperly placed or cured. Therefore, Krystol® Magazine 7
  • 8. BY YOUR SIDEApproximately 1,000 tonnes of Kryton’s waterproofing system will be used to treat tens ofthousands of square metres of concrete at the massive dam.over time, integral systems become part Membrane (KIM), to the dam face, canalof the concrete matrix, waterproofing and two tunnels.from the inside out. This gives thesesystems added reliability over other Going forward, the 1.8 km long canalwaterproofing systems as they cannot leading to the pen stocks and two spillwaybe punctured or torn. In addition, tunnels that are each one kilometre long Kryton provided onsite and lab support forintegral systems won’t be worn away will be waterproofed entirely using KIM. the project in India.by constant exposure to water, salts or Krystol T1 and T2 will be applied to theother contaminants and are not affected upstream section of the dam face, whichby UV rays or concrete expansion and measures 128m by 340m. Kryton’s team has provided valuablecontraction. Finally, integral systems onsite support to the crews working onare a green solution. They can extend In all, approximately 1,000 tonnes of the mammoth waterproofing project atthe serviceable life of structures by Kryton’s waterproofing systems will be the Alaknanda Dam and continues to dodecades and also allow the concrete to used to treat tens of thousands of square so today.be recycled after its useful life is over. For metres of concrete.hydroelectric dams, which are a green In addition to the initial site visit byform of energy, integral waterproofing Kryton’s Director of Sales Kevin Davis,systems make sense. the Delhi based sales and engineering staff has travelled to the dam severalKryton International Inc. became times since 2009. While there, theyinvolved in the project in 2010 after provide onsite technical support fortaking part in a site review meeting. concrete pours and application training.Although Kryton has been involved inconstructing numerous hydroelectric Kryton also held a training programdams, this is the first time Kryton has for the engineering staff to ensure theycontributed to the construction of a understood all of the steps that neededhydroelectric dam in India. to be taken in using the various products in Kryton’s waterproofing system. TheKryton is working with the onsite company worked with the onsite The two 1 km long spillways will be ready-mix plant to optimize the mixready-mix plant to optimize the mix waterproofed with KIM.design. Achieving the optimum mix is design for the mass concrete and assistedproving to be challenging due to the Using Kryton’s waterproofing system on in reducing shrinkage cracking onvast annual temperature fluctuation at the dam face, canal and the tunnels concrete sections.the site. In addition, Kryton is helping offers a cost effective solution that willthe onsite construction team to test surpass performance requirements and As the completion date for the dam isand apply Kryton’s surface-applied ensure the dam’s concrete structure a few years away, Kryton’s teams willwaterproofing system, Krystol T1 and T2, remains durable, reliable and safe for continue to provide ongoing supportand its internal system, Krystol Internal decades to come. and guidance to ensure the project is successfully completed. 8 www.kryton.com
  • 9. CEO ColumnBy: Kari Yuers, President & CEO, Kryton International Inc.I’ve been in the concrete industry for overseas distributors and customers. By changes we’ve seen in the informationmost of my life. My father created the late 1980s, the fax machine replaced technology world.Kryton International Inc. from the the Telex.ground up. My brother and I had our Over the years, if there is one steadfastchores as children – often sweeping With the arrival of the “World Wide Web” lesson I’ve learned about the concretethe factory floor and labeling pails of in 1989, you could communicate with industry, it is that relationships areKryton products. In those days, we made anyone around the globe with an email important. Although technology haswaterproofing treatments and at one address. Google has only existed for a given us a range of positives, I’ve mostpoint had more than 150 products for little more than 10 years and current valued the new tools that have helpedrepairing, coating and building mainstays like Facebook and YouTube Kryton stay in touch with ourconcrete structures. didn’t exist even a half dozen years ago. distributors and customers. We’ve Each new technology, amazing in itself, integrated those new communicationIn 1991, I finished my studies, gained seemed to defy replacement by a superior tools to strengthen our relationships, andwork experience and returned to invention, but that was not the case. to better serve the global market that myKryton as Vice President of Technical father once envisioned.Services. Ten years later, I became Similarly, concrete has developedPresident and CEO. As I reflect on two from its simple origins as a mixture of Today, we no longer use the Telex. Instead,decades with the company, I am awed by rock, sand, cement and water into an we’re building online communitiesthe rapid changes in technology and the increasingly complex and sophisticated through our blog, Concrete Thoughtsoverall marketplace. chemical product. The applications are (blog.kryton.com) and Krystol more versatile than ever – from soaring Connection e-newsletters you can sign upWhen Kryton first opened, my father skyscrapers to historical structures in for on our website. As new technologiesenvisioned a business that would serve a need of delicate restoration. come and go I would like nothing moreglobal industry. Within two years, Kryton than the concrete industry to becomesecured its first international customer. Concrete has been used for thousands of early adopters of these advancements,In those pioneering days, I remember years, yet the innovations happening now putting us on the forefront of change.my mother sitting at the Telex machine are likely to create the same exponential Please join the conversations we’ve startedsending and receiving information from and let’s stay connected. Krystol® Magazine 9
  • 10. Worker treats concrete joints with the Krystol Waterstop System.Selecting a Waterproofing System for ICFsWith growing pressure to build green, polystyrene, extruded polystyrene or move easily into formwork, filling evenhigh performance structures – without closed cell polyurethane, these foam the most congested designs withoutthe usual expensive eco-price tag – the forms interlock without the need for glue the vibration typically required in mostglobal industry is readily embracing or mortar and retain structural strength ICF applications.Insulating Concrete Formwork (ICF). via plastic or galvanized steel ties.First developed in Germany in the 1950s, Concrete is inherently porous, sothe technology is currently used in more Concrete is then pumped into the forms placement becomes critical to avoidthan eight per cent of all low-rise housing in a circular pattern. This allows for better cold joining and honeycombing.in Canada and the U.S. According to concrete consolidation, mitigating air Unintentional joints can provide aa survey conducted by the Insulating pockets. Once set, the forms become high weak point where water ingress is moreConcrete Form Association, 36 per cent strength and air tight. Since the forms likely to happen. Once the water enters,of builders say they have used ICFs in the stay in place, even after the concrete it can corrode reinforcement withinlast decade. Across the pond in the UK, has set, builders benefit from increased the concrete and lead to cracking andthere is a growing number of approved durability, energy efficiency and sound structural deterioration. This is whybasement walling systems that use ICF deadening. To further strengthen the many ICF structures need waterproofing.and the technology has been noted as a structure, reinforcing steel can alsoModern Method of Construction by the be incorporated or steel fibres can be External Membrane WaterproofingBuilding Research Establishment, English added to the ready mixed concrete to anPartnerships and Communities England. engineer’s specification. A waterproofing membrane acts as an external barrier to prevent water fromA large part of ICF popularity is its With the introduction of self- seeping into the ICF structure. Most oftendurability. The system is based on light- consolidating concretes, also known as they are polyurethane-based, spray orweight and hollow interlocking forms, self-compacting concretes, the efficacies brush applied or peel-and-stick. Solvent-which concrete is poured into. Composed of ICF’s have been further enhanced. based membranes, common in manyof insulating foam such as expanded These flowable, non-segregating concretes other types of concrete construction 10 www.kryton.com
  • 11. An ICF prior to application. Integral Crystalline Waterproofing structure. Water The ongoing challenges with that enters behind waterproofing membranes have led to the membrane a rise in the use of integral crystalline will also affect waterproofing for ICF systems. Part of its adhesion to the attraction is it can easily be added the concrete to concrete during the mixing process. surface, leading Once added, the chemical compounds to failure at the remain active for the life of the concrete. membrane seams The chemicals react with available water and weakening and cementitious components within the remaining dry the concrete to grow long, prism shaped concrete sections. crystals inside the capillary pores, cracks and joints, blocking water flow. If a new Installation with ICF crack forms later in the concrete and systems can also be a water penetrates, the chemicals react challenge. To properly adhere to stop water ingress. This ever-present membranes to ICF’s, the surface must chemical process ensures ongoing be clean, dry, smooth and even. Because waterproofing years into the future. membranes must be carefully wrapped around corners and protrusions, pipes, Because the waterproofing ability is conduit and other penetrations, the integrated within the concrete, crystalline installation crew needs to be skilled waterproofing systems can be used on any at cutting and lapping. Also, most concrete shape and cannot be scraped, membranes require a certain amount of punctured or torn. This makes the time space for correct installation. To meet consuming and often difficult installation this need, and to comply with Health and process of membranes obsolete. It allows Safety regulations, excavation size need other construction steps to proceed to be scaled up. This means higher costs without delay, saving time and money. for digging, handling and back filling asA luxury home in the United Kingdombeing constructed out of ICFs. well as a possible restriction on the size of Finally, integral crystalline waterproofing basement you can build on a given plot. helps to create greener ICF structures. ICF systems are already well known foraren’t compatible with ICF systems their multiple environmental benefits – itbecause they destroy the foam. is estimated that every ICF home saves approximately eight and a half trees.External waterproofing systems tend ICFs also eliminate the soil erosion andto have much stronger tensile strength habitat destruction that is associatedthan rival waterproofing coatings and with timber building. Integral crystallineare always a consistent thickness. These waterproofing products extend themembranes can also effectively bridge serviceable life of concrete structures,cracks, joints and other defects. This can enable the future recycling of thebe important when dealing with ICFs, concrete and also reduce jobsite wastewhich are frequently at risk of unseen – an ideal partner for the already eco-cold joints and honeycombing even friendly ICF system.though the surface of the concrete israrely seen. Even though ICFs have been used in the construction industry for decades, theirDespite these benefits, there are popularity and use is growing worldwide.challenges when it comes to effectively Selecting the right waterproofing productwaterproofing ICF structures with for these systems is crucial. Regardlesstraditional membranes. Although of which method you choose, select aboasting good tensile strength, external high quality, dependable product – andmembranes can be compromised by When waterproofing ICFs with external adhere to good concrete practices – toa single tear, making them vulnerable waterproofing systems the excavation needs ensure your ICF structure will remainto damage during backfilling and to be scaled up. Leading to higher costs as permanently dry.compaction. If the membrane is well as a possible restriction on the size of basement you can build on a given plot.punctured or torn, the damage isimpossible to detect from within the Krystol® Magazine 11
  • 12. Kryton NewsA Big Year for Kryton Understanding Kryton International Inc. is marking a major milestone in 2011. This year our CEO Kari Yuers celebrates 20 outstanding Kryton years with the company. Kari joined her family’s concrete waterproofing company in 1991 and has held various Customers leadership roles with the company in the last two decades. Under her leadership Kryton is always looking for ways as CEO, the company’s revenues have to improve themselves. Looking grown, market reach has expanded to improve the service to their key and it has been named the one of the audience groups, Kryton knew the first best companies to work for in British step towards achieving this goal was Columbia for three consecutive years. to listen. In order to learn more about Congratulations Kari! the individual needs of these groups, Kryton conducted an extensive market research program which was led by an independent consulting firm based in Chicago. Kryton wanted to knowA Coast to Coast Kryton what their customer’s concerns were, what challenges they faced, and what factors were crucial to their success.Kryton International Inc. is a proud the prairies. Arrow Construction Products The researchers were able to obtainCanadian company that has had success is a great fit for Kryton in the Atlantic current and unbiased information fromin western markets for years. When the Provinces. With five branches across these groups.recession hit, and construction slowed Eastern Canada, they are well known fordown, Kryton’s strategic response was to their great customer service and are very Although it was a time and resourceexpand. The idea was to plan ahead by active in the market. consuming program, the findings weredeveloping a foundation in Central and well worth the investment. KrytonEastern Canada so that when the industry has undertaken to provide the toolsbegan to recover our presence would be and resources along with relevantstrong; catching more fish by casting a information to each audience segment.wider net. Delivering on customer needs is core to Kryton’s business model. So whetherFor Kryton, finding the right distributor you are a contractor, owner, architect oris extremely important as they drive the engineer, Kryton has the right solutionproduct forward, impact the quality of the to help you.technical support and must collaboratewith all of the other groups in the project.All these factors and more are consideredwhen Kryton selects their distributionpartners. After a thorough search, Krytonhas found four new distributors who meet Canada continues to build innovativetheir criteria. buildings and infrastructure from coast to coast. Kryton has now expanded ourIn Ontario, Form and Build Supply distribution relationships to be able torepresents Kryton with their five offer solutions to every major citylocations throughout Southern Ontario across the nation. Kryton is nowand their sub distribution partners protecting concrete structures from thein other areas such as with Alpine Pacific to Atlantic Oceans as well as fromConstruction Supplies in Ottawa. In many bodies of water and high waterManitoba and Saskatchewan, Nu West tables in between. If you are buildingConstruction Products stepped forward concrete structures and are trying to keepas the company that would take on water in, out or both, Kryton is yourKrystol products and push them across Canadian solution. 12 www.kryton.com
  • 13. Ask a Kryton Expert!Preventing Concrete CorrosionDeteriorating concrete structures area major problem around the world.Largely attributed to the corrosion ofsteel reinforcement, concrete structuresbuilt to last 50 to 100 years routinely needsubstantial repairs and rehabilitationduring their service life. Why aretraditional preventative measuresfor corrosion not sufficient? Moreimportantly, what is the solution? Krytonexpert, Alireza Biparva, explains.How Corrosion HappensConcrete normally provides reinforcing Proper curing helps to minimize shrinkage and cracking.steel with excellent corrosion protection.Due to the high alkalinity of the concrete, Under the best conditions, the It is important to use a concrete mixthe steel reinforcing bars are passivated penetration of moisture, chlorides and with low permeability and to use anby an iron oxide film that protects the carbon dioxide is slow, the passive layer appropriate amount of concrete cover forsteel. However, the passive layer can break is protected and corrosion is minimal. the application. Additionally, the concretedown over time due to atmospheric Concrete’s ability to resist corrosion should be placed, consolidated and curedcarbon dioxide. Through a process called depends largely on the permeability of following ACI guidelines to minimizecarbonation, the concrete’s pH is lowered the concrete and the thickness of concrete shrinkage and cracking. With gooduntil the passive layer becomes unstable. cover over the reinforcement. However, if materials and workmanship, concreteThe passive layer can also be rapidly cracks are present, aggressive agents can can resist the development of corrosivebroken down by aggressive chemicals quickly reach the depth of the steel and conditions, which increases the durabilitysuch as chloride, which are present in initiate corrosion. of structures and reduces lifetimecoastal environments and used in deicing maintenance costs.chemicals. Once the passive layer is Traditional measures to mitigatecompromised, steel reinforcement will corrosion have proven to be less effectivecorrode if there is moisture and oxygen than desired. Excessively thick concretepresent at the surface of the steel. cover over the reinforcing steel is vulnerable to cracking and corrosion inhibitors such as calcium nitrite provide only temporary protection. Epoxy coated reinforcement was once thought to be a solution but has proven unreliable in field applications. The problem is these systems do nothing to prevent the conditions that cause corrosion from developing in the first place. So what is the solution? Preventing Corrosion In all cases, the penetration of water into concrete is a critical factor in the corrosion of steel reinforcement. Water acts as a carrier for chloride ions and is also required for corrosion to occur. Therefore, the first line of defense against corrosion is to prevent the Alireza Biparva, Cementious MaterialsExtreme corrosion can result in major leaks. penetration of water. Specialist at Kryton International Inc. Krystol® Magazine 13
  • 14. Kryton in Australia and New ZealandThe global construction industry has had its fair share of the next year, particularly in the earthquake-affected regioneconomic challenges over the last three years. Australia and New surrounding Canterbury. In addition, 75 per cent of architectsZealand’s industries are no exception. But an increasing demand in New Zealand surveyed by international property andfor resources-based construction as well as progress on major construction consultants Davis Langdon are expecting newinfrastructure projects has started to turn the tide. business to increase – a sign of more construction activity on the horizon.According to a survey by Australian Industry Group andAustralian Constructors Association, the value of construction Kryton has been operating in Australia for more than 30 yearsprojects in the country will rise by almost eight per cent in 2011 and New Zealand’s construction industry for almost a decade.and 2012. In New Zealand, the restoration and refurbishment With industry steadily growing, Kryton will continue to be a keysectors are predicted to contribute the most to growth over player in the region for years to come. Te Wharewaka O Poneke (Canoe House), Taupo, New Zealand Sitting on reclaimed land along the waterfront in central Wellington, the Te Wharewaka O Poneke (Canoe House) is a new development that will serve as an entertainment centre for the Rugby World Cup in September and October 2011. Showcasing the rich history of Maori art and culture, the venue will include exhibition and function areas, a café and offices. It will also host powhiri (a Maori ritual ceremony), carvings, cultural performances and interactive historic displays. More than 1,100 kg of Kryton’s Krystol Internal Membrane (KIM) was used to waterproof 1,600 cubic metres of concrete in the slab and surrounding concrete landscape. With its location adjacent to the ocean, KIM was the optimal choice for this project where water exposure or ingress is a concern.Westfield Shopping Centre, Sydney, AustraliaOnce completed, this high-end boutique shopping centre will house 130fashion and food specialty stores including some the biggest style iconssuch as Gucci, Hugo Boss, Mulberry and DKNY, as well as Australianretailers CUE, Wanted Shoes, Zimmerman and Carla Zampatti.On the recommendation of contractors, Kryton’s Krystol WaterproofingSystem was selected to waterproof the basement walls, lift pits, watertanks and cool-rooms. To date 350 cubic metres of KIM have been usedfor the project, which began on November 19, 2009 and continues today. Australian Red Cross Blood Services, Melbourne, Australia The Australian Red Cross Blood Services purchased a 16,500 square metre former warehouse for their Melbourne operations but stringent modifications were needed before the building would be able to house the blood bank. The consulting engineers chose Kryton’s waterproofing system because it was seen as the best solution for the job. To date, the project team has used more than 200 cubic metres of KIM to waterproof the substation, plant-room, switch room and trenches. The project is running on schedule and due to complete later this year. 14 www.kryton.com
  • 15. IKEA Store, Princes Highway Tempe, Sydney, Australia The 37,000 square metre store (equivalent to 20 football fields) with parking for 1,775 cars, sits on a 2.3 hectare site located southwest of Sydney’s central business district. Like all IKEA stores, the building is a two-level rectangular shaped building that includes a showroom, restaurant, children’s play area, warehouse, Swedish food market, office space, public amenities and loading dock. Upon completion, the building will be the Southern Hemisphere’s biggest IKEA Store and is expected to attract between two and three million visitors annually. Making the store unique, the building is being constructed on an old garbage dump site. As a result, methane gases exist underneath a portion of the new structure. A 700 metre methane gas wall is being constructed to allow ventilation of the gases. Based on a previous experience, the team of contractors chose Kryton products for waterproofing the below-grade areas, lift pits, travelators pits, basement sections and water tank. Just over 100 cubic metres of KIM-treated concrete were used to waterproof the below-grade areas of the new store.Sea World Penguin Exhibit,Gold Coast, AustraliaSea World’s new Penguin Encounter exhibit is home to a large waddle ofKing Penguins, the world’s second largest penguin species. The designerswanted to create an environment that looked as natural as possible, whileretaining the required engineering attributes. The ambient summertemperature in sub-tropical Queensland is close to 40 degrees Celsius,but the penguins’ water is chilled to two degrees Celsius.The constantmovement at the waterline creates both significant physical wear on theconcrete structure as well as temperature variation.Kryton’s KIM was chosen as a solution for waterproofing the artificialrock in the exhibit. KIM’s self-sealing ability means that despitetemperate changes, the wearing effects of the waterline and penguinsclawing at the rock, the waterproofing will remain durable and reliablefor the lifetime of the structure.Australia & New Zealand DistributorsKryton has exclusive distributors throughout Australia & New Check out www.kryton.com to see other areas where KrytonZealand. Contact any of them to find out more about how distributors are changing concrete construction for the better,Kryton’s waterproofing products can save you time and money. throughout the Americas, Europe, Middle East, India andOr contact Alain Lok, Kryton’s Asia-Pacific Regional Manager at Asia-Pacific.alain@kryton.com or by phone at +1-604-324-8280. New Zealand New Zealand Australia AUTHORIZED (Auckland) (Wellington and South Island) (NSW, VIC, ACT, QLD, WA) DISTRIBUTOR Fraser Brown & Stratmore Ltd. Fraser Brown & Stratmore Ltd. Krystol Group Pty Ltd. Contact: Mr. Denis Marra Contact: Mr. Hamish Stratmore and Contact: Mr. Aaran Duncan Tel: (649) 535-3139 Mr. Craig Meiklejohn Tel: (612) 9545-3111 Website: www.fbsltd.co.nz Tel: (644) 567-8436 Website: www.krystol.com.au Email: denis@fbsltd.co.nz Website: www.fbsltd.co.nz Email: aaran@krystol.com.au Email: hamish@fbsltd.co.nz Krystol® Magazine 15
  • 16. Concrete Waterproofing that Works!KIM® resists hydrostatic pressure up to 140m.Using KIM® in your concrete can save you time andmoney and replace the need to use costly and timeconsuming surface applied membranes that canoften prove to be unreliable. Since 1973 Kryton hashelped architects, engineers and builders create dry,waterproof concrete using Krystol Technology.Our waterproofing admixture, KIM®, is faster, morereliable and costs 25% less than using traditionalwaterproofing systems. KIM® is backed by theindustry’s longest warranty.For more information on the longest standing Custom bags for added quality controlcrystalline waterproofing admixture jobs in theworld, visit us online at www.kryton.com orcall us at 1-800-267-8280 or+1-604-324-8280. Certified to CERTIFICATE No 05/4217 NSF/ANSI 61 ® At the Lab. In the Field. By Your Side.