A SYNTHESIS OF SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING DESIGN MODEL WITH         CONSTRUCTIONISM IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF NEW MEDIA IN        ...
develop instructional strategies or models compatible with learners’ desire in order to help in higher education studentsd...
Papert (1993) argued, “not very long ago, and in many parts of the world even today, young people would learn skillswhich ...
strategies that can enhance student motivation, improve participation, facilitate learning and social skills, stimulate hi...
Technologies and Applications for the Android OS. And Knowledge Content) for online learning and social network and thatwe...
Input                                                      Identify instructional goals and specification of objectives. ...
Brockett, R. G., & Hiemstra, R. (1991) Self-direction in learning: Perspectives on theory, research, and practice.      Ne...
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A Synthesis of Self-directed Learning Design Model with Constructionism in the Environment of New Media in Thai Higher Education

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A Synthesis of Self-directed Learning Design Model with Constructionism in the Environment of New Media in Thai Higher Education

  1. 1. A SYNTHESIS OF SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING DESIGN MODEL WITH CONSTRUCTIONISM IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF NEW MEDIA IN THAI HIGHER EDUCATION Suthin Rojprasert Ph.D. student, Learning Innovation and Technology Program, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok Thailand srojprasert@csus.edu, suthin999@yahoo.com, suthin.roj@dpu.ac.th, Jariya Neanchaleay Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok Thailand Jariya.nean@kmutt.ac.th Dr. Surapon Boonlue Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok Thailand surapon.boo@kmutt.ac.thConference: e.g. Atlanta, GA, Las Vegas, NV, etc.Paper Category: e.g. Full Paper, Extended Abstract, etc.Track: e.g. Business, Education, etc.ABSTRACTThe study presents a self-directed learning design model with constructionism appropriate in the environment of newmedia. The model intends to develop more effectively students’ creative thinking in Thai higher education. Thefoundation of the model come from information collected through interviewing followed by brainstorming, opinions fromexperts, and focus group discussion. The model consists of the following elements: identifying learning goals; analysislearners; design of lesson content; identification of learning activities; preparation of a learning environment supportsystem; and methods of learning assessment. Each input was analyzed to determine elements appropriate for self-directed learning design. The model is intended for use with new media in Thai higher education. The results of thisstudy will enable teachers to design curricula with social media technology in the instruction so students can be improvedeep learning.Keywords: Self-directed Learning, Constructionism, New Media, Creative Thinking, ThaiINTRODUCTIONThe Ministry of Education of Thailand has long fostered autonomous learning in educational practice. The Minister hasencouraged Thai educational institutions and agencies to provide substance and activities in line with learners’ interestsand aptitudes, while recognizing individual differences. The teaching and learning process should enable students todevelop at their own pace and to the fullest of their potentiality. To accomplish this goal, learning style must beconsidered. Appropriate teaching methods must match students’ learning style, especially in higher education. Self-directed learning, as autonomous learning, is the educational goal of the nation. Teachers and professors need to 1
  2. 2. develop instructional strategies or models compatible with learners’ desire in order to help in higher education studentsdevelop their creative and critical thinking.Globalization, the development of the information society, and the acceleration of the pace of life, combine in influencingpeople to design and implement network learning environments. Users have an urgent need for a more intelligent,efficient and personalized internet to enhance learning management, user experience, and promote resource sharing.The study of new learning technologies has attracted much attention from scholars and teachers, especially those inhigher education. The introduction of new media has made significant changes in education. Thai higher educationinstitutions provide online learning platforms with good network infrastructures. Using web 2.0 tools in higher educationprovide a synthesis of the research literature in the field and a series of illustrative examples of how these tools arebeing used in learning and teaching, draws out the benefits that these new technologies appear to offer, and highlightssome of the challenges and issues surrounding their use and exploring how web 2.0 tools can be used to supportevidence‐based practices in learning and teaching. The project has also produced two in depth case studies, which arereported elsewhere (Galley et al., 2010, Alevizou et al., 2010).Self-Directed Learning with ConstructionismStudent-centered learning is an approach to education focusing on the needs of students, rather than those of othersinvolved in the educational process. Information technology provides educational techniques to attract maintain studentattention leading to student assumption of responsibility for learning. The location, discovery, and analysis of informationnow shifts to the student, through the assistance of the professor. The new concept of learning, a phenomenon notlimited to time and place, allows teachers and students to get knowledge on their own, an activity called self-directedlearning (SDL). Knowles (1975) defined SDL as a process in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the helpof others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources forlearning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes. Brockett andHiemstra (1991) saw instructional methodology and learner personal characteristics coming together in an event wherethe learner assumes personal responsibility for the educational experience. When individuals have primary responsibilityfor planning, implementing, and evaluating their learning effort, Knowles (1975) views SDL as more aligned with ournatural tendencies and psychological development processes. Compelling evidence shows that proactive students learnmore and better than reactive learners, who stand passively waiting to be taught. Proactive students approach learningmore purposefully with higher levels of motivation, retain and apply what is learned better and longer than reactivelearners. As we mature and develop psychologically, an essential characteristic is the ability to accept increasing levelsof responsibility for our own lives and to become increasingly self-directed. Many of the new developments ineducational practices, including nontraditional study programs, universities-without-walls, and external degree programs,place a heavy responsibility on the learners to take initiative and develop abilities of self-directed inquiries. Participantsinvolved in these programs without the ability to self-manage their learning will lead to anxiety, frustration and failure.Self-directed learning, however, integrates self-management, social setting, resources, and actions. Students candevelop SDL, rather than enduring spontaneity. Academic staffs need to raise awareness of students role in their ownlearning and shift some of the responsibility for learning to the learners (Abdullah, 2001). The study of SDL has attractedmuch attention from scholars and teachers, especially those in higher education institutions. However an understandingof learner attributes and how the impact of learning theory in online learning contexts is equally important (Song and Hill,2007). Therefore, SDL is defined in this development of learning skills to gain control over and input into their ownlearning process and to accomplish their educational goals through their own engaged learning activities. Theenhancements of online technologies have provided more changes and variety pedagogical approach in the instructionaldesign model and self-directed learning is the basic ingredient for surviving and thriving and students with SDL are ableto learn more and believe to be more creative. 2
  3. 3. Papert (1993) argued, “not very long ago, and in many parts of the world even today, young people would learn skillswhich they could use in their work throughout life. Today, in industrial countries, most people are doing jobs that did notexist when they were born. The most important skill determining a persons life pattern has already become the ability tolearn new skills, to take in new concepts, to assess new situations, to deal with the unexpected. This will be increasinglytrue in the future: The competitive ability is the ability to learn” (Papert, 1993, p. vii).Seymour Papert’s Constructionism favors learning through the creation and sharing of artifacts. These theories bothquestion conventional, objectivist ideas, arguing that knowledge is not transmitted from one person to another as afinished product, but rather each individual acquires knowledge through personally meaningful experiences andreflections. Constructionism and constructivism thus value learning by doing, and engaging in hands-on, intrinsically-motivating, real-life tasks. Constructionism is based on two different senses of construction: people learn by activelyconstructing new knowledge; and constructionism reminds us that the best way to learn is to build something tangible-outside of your head-that is personally meaningful (Papert 1990). After that Papert (1999) says that knowledge is bestconstructed in a social context where the participants make something shareable. This view is consistent with thetheories of Vygotsky, Lave, Wenger and others. Constructionism particularly applies to learning with digital technology.The use of technology enables the creation of interesting things from which one learns.The basic goal of constructionism is to place emphasis on creativity and to motivate learning through activity. Learning isseen as more effective when approached as activity rather than passive involvement (Kafai and Resnick, 1996). Theimportance of these ideas can be found in the shift away from thinking about education as begin centered solely in themind of the teacher and more as a partnership between teaching and student. Therefore, self-directed learning iscelebrated with students working to solve problems and develop students’ creative thinking.Strategies of New Media by Web 2.0 Tool for SDLThe term “new media” are converging with digital media, specifically interactive media and media for socialcommunication. Besides new media means more than entertainment. World Wide Web–based modules combineanimation, voice and video clips, captions, and text to create accurate, well-organized, and pedagogically solidproductions. Therefore, the work was to isolate the specific digital production tools or online networks and interested inthe media ecology with social network sites, media fandom, and gaming of learning today and almost all situated in thesocial and activities rather than in contexts of explicit instruction. The use of social media implies, for example, thatlearners should be ‘active co-producers’ of knowledge rather than ‘passive consumers’ of content, and that learningshould be a ‘participatory, social process’ supporting personal life goals and needs (Lee and McLoughlin, 2010). Besideinternet applications is the web tools of contemporary social media are used by a lot of users. As such, the social mediais a sufficient critical mass of users and applications to be of genuine collective benefit and social significance.Although there are multiple interpretations of the term “Web 2.0”, it can be defined as a second generation,communicative form of the World Wide Web that emphasizes active participation, connectivity, collaboration and sharingof knowledge and ideas among users (McLoughlin and Lee, 2007). Web 2.0 applications support self-directed learningopportunities. Besides internet has various information sources for learning, it has applications to reproduce and enrichthe content.In addition, there has been considerable thought already given regarding the Internet’s impact on SDL. Draves (2002)lists various reasons why the Internet enhances learning, including such advantages as being able to learn at a peaktime of day, learning at your own speed, accessibility to much information, an ability to track personal progress, and thecapability to test personal learning efforts. He also believes cognitive learning via the Internet is actually better than in-person learning. Long (2001) likes the virtual world’s potential for learning to go “beyond problem solving to problemposing”. In addition, Kerka (1997) mentions the Internet’s time and place flexibility in supporting SDL. Ruelland (2003)likes the flexibility the e-world provides in the learning rhythm. Therefore web 2.0 tools can be used to develop learning 3
  4. 4. strategies that can enhance student motivation, improve participation, facilitate learning and social skills, stimulate higherorder cognitive skills, and increase self-directed learning (Redecker et al., 2009) and believes some SDL forms are wellsuited to the internet: self-directed learning is important to keep up with change and it is plausible to expect the demandsof a changing world to lead to greater amounts of self-directed learning.New Media in Higher EducationThe study of online learning has attracted much attention from scholars and practitioners, especially those in highereducation institutions (Hill, Wiley, Nelson, & Han, 2003; Hofmann, 2002). Present, the popularity of new media or socialnetworking sites has increased, colleges and universities have begun incorporating these tools into their learning mix toconnect with everyone, these networks were an appropriate or effective resource for students to use. Likewise teachersin many Higher Education Institutions are now looking beyond the traditional institutional virtual learning environment tothe wealth of new media and services which are freely available, many of which have significant educational potential,and teachers who are simply seeking effective ways to support students’ learning. Students’ general use of socialnetworking is intrinsically personal and informal, free from significant constraints. If teachers wish to make use of socialnetworks in education they will need to be very clear about acceptable content, language, tone and etiquette.The adoption of Web 2.0 tools at universities is associated with important challenges and an effective strategy to dealwith implementation problems may therefore include learning from experience, as well as open access to content andreliance on open platforms for knowledge sharing and creation (Freire, 2008). There are indications that studentsperceive benefits as well as difficulties arising from the use of Web 2.0 tools in university courses in comparison to theuse of traditional e-learning tools and classroom lectures (Kumar, 2009). Therefore, possibility to integrate studentartifacts that were created with Web 2.0 tools was investigated in relation to the use of wiki, blog, e-portfolio, onlinecommunity website, media sharing, and Moodle LMS.New media provides an opportunity for higher education to take a fresh look at designing a better educationalexperience. Residential programs, for instance, probably should focus on the educational activities. Then new medialearning materials could enhance the academy’s contribution to society by improving learning efficiency and expandinghigher education’s impact. Both the quantity and quality of learning could increase.SummaryThe model intends to develop more effectively students’ creative thinking in Thai higher education. The foundation of themodel come from information collected through interviewing followed by brainstorming, opinions from experts, and focusgroup discussion. A more comprehensive SDL model is needed to incorporate context as a contributor to the overallprocess.A Conceptual Model for SDL with constructionism via new mediaConceptual model for self-directed learning (SDL) with constructionism via new media, before interesting and readiness forSDL among undergraduate students. Learner have to make the self-planned and self-conducted learning projects, andchoose or influence the learning objectives, activities, resources, priorities and levels of energy expenditure than does theother directed learner and describes self-directed learning is an increase in knowledge and skill. Including acceptation forassessment, students are able to learn more, problem solving and believe to be more creative with constructionism. Besidestudents get knowledge on their own with “learning by making” and “learning by doing” for included students’ opportunitywere share idea and skills, creative and critical learning in classroom environment with new media. Because new media areconverging with digital media, specifically interactive media and media for social communication on web 2.0 (with 4
  5. 5. Technologies and Applications for the Android OS. And Knowledge Content) for online learning and social network and thatwere created with Web 2.0 tools was investigated in relation to the use of wiki, blog, e-portfolio, online community website,media sharing, and Moodle LMS. There are also some elements important for design in relationship causal for students’creative thinking. The following section introduces a conceptual model for self-directed learning with constructionism in theenvironment of new media. (see Figure: 1) Learning Environment Constructionism Self-Directed Learning New Media (Web 2.0 Application) Creative Thinking Figure: 1. A conceptual model for self-directed learning with constructionism in the environment of new media.ConclusionsThe major principles of that system, instructional system design for self-directed learning model with constructionism in theenvironment of new media. Elements of learning include from scholars: Klausmeier and Ripple (1971); Naruemon Sirawong(2005); Anirut Satiman (2007); Uthit Bamroongcheep (2008).The following sections illustrate these points by describing how the SDL concept is integrated into the model, design andimplementation of for self-directed learning with constructionism in the environment of new media. Show in Figure: 2. 5
  6. 6. Input  Identify instructional goals and specification of objectives.  Learner analysis.  Content analysis and design.  Determination of learning activities.  Learning environment resources Control  Evaluation of learning design  Steps of SDL with constructionism. F  Constructionism in the Learning Process Environment. E  Self-directed Learning.  Climate of learning environment. E - Autonomy.  Determination of teacher. - Positive orientation to the future.  Instruction model by self-directed learning with D - Internalized evaluation. constructionism in the environment of new media. B - Self-concept as effective Learner.  Activities reinforce of skills. - Initiative and freedom for learning.  Reinforcement. A - Self acceptance. - Love to learning.  Learning evaluation. C - Ability to apply learning and problem K solving skills. - Open mindedness for learning. Output  Learning evaluation of authentic assessment by portfolio.  Compare of students creative thinking score between before And after learning by SDL with constructionism in the environment of new media.  Learning achievement of students by SDL with constructionism in the environment of new media.  The students satisfaction toward the SDL with constructionism in the environment of new media. Figure: 2. SDL Model with constructionism in the environment of new media.The Promotion of learning as known as the knowledge is lifelong learning. Learner is important. The learners havefreedom to learn under their control. Lead to self-direct learning with constructionism and include self-discipline andresponsibility, and self-confidence. To be successful in self-study under the learning environment of new media that isconducive to learning appropriate. From the concept which can be deployed in higher education following.ReferenceAbdullah, M. H. (2001) Self-directed learning. ERIC Digest. Bloomington, IN: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication.Alevizou, P., Conole, G., Culver, J. and Galley, R. (2010) Ritual performances and collective intelligence: theoretical frameworks for analysing emerging activity patterns in Cloudworks. Proceedings of the 7th international conference in Networked Learning. Aalborg, Denmark, 3‐5 May 2010. http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fss/organisations/netlc/past/nlc2010/abstracts/PDFs/Alevizou.pdf ISBN 978‐1‐86220‐225‐2.Anirut Satiman (2007) The Effects of Online Project-Based Learning Activity Model on Self-Directed Learning and Learning Achievement of Higher Education Students. Doctoral dissertation, The Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand. 6
  7. 7. Brockett, R. G., & Hiemstra, R. (1991) Self-direction in learning: Perspectives on theory, research, and practice. New York: Routledge. Retrieved August 10, 2012, from http://www.distance.syr.edu/sdlindex.htmlDraves, W. (2002) How the Internet will change how we learn. Based on a paper initially presented to the Seventh Annual Teaching on the Community Colleges Online Conference, May 21-23, 2002. Retrieved August 10, 2012, from http://www.williamdraves.com/works/internet_change_report.htm.Freire, J. (2008) Universities and Web 2.0: Institutional challenges. eLearning Papers, no. 8. URL: http://www.elearningeuropa.info/files/media/media15530.pdf.Galley, R., Conole, G., Dalziel, J. and Ghiglione, E. (2010) Cloud works as a ‘pedagogical wrapper’ for LAMS sequences: supporting the sharing of ideas across professional boundaries and facilitating collaborative design, evaluation and critical reflection. LAMS European Conference, Oxford, 15-16th July 2010.Hill, J. R., Wiley, D., Nelson, L. M., & Han, S. (2003) Exploring research on Internet-based learning: From infrastructure to interactions. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (pp. 433-460). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Hofmann, M. (2002) The strength of non size-increasing computation, in ‘Proceedings of 17th Annual IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science’.Kerka, S. (1997) Distance learning, the Internet, and the World Wide Web (ERIC Digest). Retrieved October 11, 2007, from http://www.ericdigests.org/1997-1/distance.html.Klausmeier, H., & Ripple, R. (1971) Learning and human abilities, (3rd ed.), New York: Harper & Row.Knowles, M.S. (1975) Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers, New York: Association Press.Kumar, S. (2009) Undergraduate perceptions of the usefulness of Web 2.0 in higher education: Survey Development. In Proceedings of 8th European Conference on E-learning (ECEL), Italy. URL: http://plaza.ufl.edu/swapnak/ecel09Kumar.pdf.Kafai, Y., & Resnick, M. (Eds.) (1996) Constructionism in practice: Designing, thinking and learning in a digital world. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Long, H. B. (2001) A new era in teaching and learning (pp. 1-16). In H. B. Long & Associates. (2001). Self-directed learning and the information age. Boynton Beach, FL: Motorola University. Available only as an interactive CD-ROM. See http://sdlglobal.com/ for ordering information.McLoughlin, C., & Lee, M. J. (2007) Social software and participatory learning: Pedagogical choices with technology affordances in the Web 2.0 era. Proceedings ascilite , (s. 664-675). Singapore. www.mit.edu . OCW Stories. MITOPENCOURSEWARE:http://ocw.mit.edu/about/ocw-stories/maria-karamitsouNaruemon Sirawong (2005) The Development of Online Course Model on writing for Publication for Higher Education Level. Doctoral dissertation, The Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand.Papert, S. (1990) “An Introduction To The 5th Anniversary Collection.” In Harel, I. (Ed.). Constructionist Learning: A 5th Anniversary Collection Of Papers. Cambridge, MA: MIT Media Laboratory.Papert, S. (1993) The Childrens Machine: Rethinking School in the Age of the Computer. New York: Basic Books.Papert, S. (1999) Diversity in learning: A vision for the new millennium, Part 2. http://www.papert.org /articles/ diversity/DiversityinLearningPart2.html (accessed June 20, 2012).Ruelland, D. (2003) eLearning+, a support for the workplace. Pp. 235-242 in H.B. Long & Associates, Current developments in elearning & SDL. See: http://sdlglobal.com/ to order.Redecker, C., Ala-Mutka, K., Bacigalupo, M., Ferrari, A., Punie, Y. (2009) Learning 2.0: The Impact of Web 2.0 Innovations on Education and Training in Europe. Final Report. European Commission. URL: http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC55629.pdf.Song, L., Singleton, E. S., Hill, J. R., & Koh, M. H. (2004) Improving online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging characteristics. Internet & Higher Education, 7(1), 59-70.Uthit Bamroongcheep (2008) The Web-based Instruction Model Using the Constructionism for Creative Thinking Development. Doctoral dissertation, The Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand. 7

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