Self-directed Learning Readiness Study for Undergraduate Students: A Case Study of Principles and Art of Photography

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The study focused on learning condition and Self-directed Learning Readiness (SDLR) for undergraduate students and comparison of the opinions with different gender.101 random samples of undergraduate …

The study focused on learning condition and Self-directed Learning Readiness (SDLR) for undergraduate students and comparison of the opinions with different gender.101 random samples of undergraduate students were in the study. The questionnaires and SDLR were in the study instruments of learning condition involving instructors, instruction, media, measurement and evaluation and the suggestion in learning development. The data were analyzed by using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and t-test. The results showed that all aspects were at high level. Results from the data analysis of the students with SDLR were all in eight aspects at the high level. The comparison of difference based on gender was statistical significant difference at level .05.

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  • 1. Self-directed Learning Readiness Study for Undergraduate Students: A Case Study of Principles and Art of Photography Suthin Rojprasert.1,a*, Jariya Neanchaleay.2,b, Surapon Boonlue.3,c 1 Ph.D.student, Learning Innovation and Technology Program, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok Thailand 2, 3 Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok Thailand a* suthin.roj@dpu.ac.th, bJariya.nean@kmutt.ac.th, csurapon.boo@kmutt.ac.th Abstract The study focused on learning condition and Self-directed Learning Readiness (SDLR) for undergraduate students and comparison of the opinions with different gender.101 random samples of undergraduate students were in the study. The questionnaires and SDLR were in the study instruments of learning condition involving instructors, instruction, media, measurement and evaluation and the suggestion in learning development. The data were analyzed by using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and t-test. The results showed that all aspects were at high level. Results from the data analysis of the students with SDLR were all in eight aspects at the high level. The comparison of difference based on gender was statistical significant difference at level .05. Keywords Learning Condition, Self-directed Learning (SDL), Self-directed Learning Readiness (SDLR) 1. Introduction The National Educational reform Act A.D. 1999 and the amendments (Second National Education Act A.D. 2002) aim to build the capacity of students as smart and good, to make young people's quality of life and can adapt to change by encouraging in the concept of lifelong learning. Therefore, education must be based on that every student has the ability to have learning development [1]. Conditions of Learning, Gagné's contribution to conditions-based theory of the internal and external conditions of learning that support each type of learning outcome. "Internal conditions" are those cognitive processes that support the acquisition of particular categories of learning outcomes. "External conditions" are those instructional conditions provided by teacher, materials, or other learners that can facilitate the internal conditions necessary for learning. These external condition, vary according to type of learning. Not surprisingly, given Gagné's transition from behavioral to cognitive theory bases, be developed the external conditions model first [2], and Gagne's theoretical framework covers all aspects of learning, the focus of the theory is on intellectual skills. The theory has been applied to the design of instruction in all domains [3]. However, Conditions of Learning is an instructional design theory developed by Robert M. Gagné as an attempt to make teaching a systematic, rule-guided process [4]. Although first published and it is still fundamental in the fields of instructional design and instructional technology [5]; parts of it were included in newer theories, such as Instructional Transaction Theory [6]. Therefore outcomes or goal, have been decided upon, the instructor can begin to consider the best way to design the instruction to obtain those goals. Each of the learning outcomes can be met with specific conditions under which the lesson. These conditions are similar in design to Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive learning outcomes [7]. The child-centered instructional process reform or student-centered learning is an approach to education focusing on the needs of students, rather than those of others involved in the educational process. Furthermore at present, in progress the information technology are very powerful and attract the attention of students. As a result, helping deepen individual skills, encourage them to assume responsibility for their own learning and allow them to learn how to use and finding information. The concept of education has changed from old to the new concept of learning which is not limited to the time and place, teacher will be as facilitator, students get knowledge on their own, call self-directed learning (SDL).
  • 2. According to Knowles [8]. studying in which individuals have primary responsibility for planning, implementing, and evaluating their learning effort and the importance of Selfdirected Learning is explained by Knowles, who states that: 1) There is compelling evidence that proactive students learn more and better than reactive learners, who stand passively waiting to be taught. Proactive students approach learning more purposefully with higher levels of motivation, retain and apply what is learned better and longer than reactive learners. 2) SDL is more aligned with our natural tendencies and psychological development processes. As we mature and develop in psychologically, an essential characteristic is the ability to accept increasing levels of responsibility for our own lives and to become increasingly self-directed. 3) Many of the new developments in educational practices, including nontraditional study programs, universitieswithout-walls, and external degree programs, place a heavy responsibility on the learners to take initiative and develop abilities of self-directed inquiries. Participants involved in these programs without the ability to self-manage their learning will lead to anxiety, frustration and failure. Moreover, Guglielmino [9] theorized that “self-direction in learning can occur in a wide variety of situations, ranging from teacher-directed classroom to self-planned and selfconducted learning projects.” She further states that it is the personal characteristics of the learner (i.e., attitudes, values, beliefs, and abilities). That “ultimately determine whether self-directed learning will take place in a given learning situation. The self directed learner more often chooses or influences the learning objectives, activities, resources, priorities and levels of energy expenditure than does the other-directed learner” and describes self-directed learning is an increase in knowledge, skill or performance pursued by any individual for personal reasons employing any means, in any place, at any time and at any age [10]. Therefore, selfdirected, lifelong learning is the basic ingredient for surviving and thriving in a world of change. Students must be able to learn and re-learn in the system. To survive in the fast pace era, students with high SDL are able to learn more and believe to be more creative. Whereas, students without the initiative of learning always facing problems in learning. According to Guglielmino there are eight factors related to self-directed learning readiness: “love of learning, self concept as an independent learner, ability to handle risk, ambiguity, and complexity in learning, creativity, seeing learning as an ongoing lifelong process, taking the initiative in learning, understanding one’s self, and being responsible for one’s learning. These factors suggest that some personality factors may relate to self-directed learning” [11]. In 1991, Guglielmino designed a self-scoring format for the instrument and Roberson [12] states that many researchers refer to similar works that have laid to the foundation of self-directed learning and due to the complexity of self-directed learning; researchers have re-structured their discourse of SDL. Around these three parameters: an individual, learner’s dispositions and activities characterizing self-directed approaches, relevant cultural goals or educational philosophy, the social, historical, and educative environmental conditions influencing selfdirected learning. From the above theories, the researcher as lecturer in Principles and Art of Photography found that instructors always emphasizing the traditional lecture-discussion and memorization of large amounts of information rather than the development of the ability and skills to independently knowledge, therefore, SDL is defined by researcher as a learning situation which allows student to develop personal competencies through experiences as an individual. Researcher developed the instrument to assess readiness for self directed learning by using theory of Lucy Guglielmino (1977) the Self-directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) for measuring the attitudes, abilities and characteristics which comprise of readiness to engage in self-directed learning with adaptation to suit the learning environment to develop of conceptual framework of learning in undergraduate students from Faculty of Communication Arts at Dhurajit Pundit University. 2. Research Methodology 2.1 Purpose of the study The main purpose of the research was to study learning condition and self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) for undergraduate students and comparison the opinions with different gender students of the SDLR. 2.2 Research Design This research was descriptive to measure readiness for self-directed learning among undergraduate students of Principles and Art of Photography. The study plan involved gathering of information about learning condition and selfdirected learning readiness from the sample by using the Taro Yamane’s formula with the simple random sampling and differences in results in the measurement according to genders and self-directed learning readiness scores. 2.3 The sample of the study The subjects of this study was done on the sample group of 101 (50 males, and 51 females) were from the Principles and Art of Photography (course CA210) in the first semester of the 2011 academic years of Communication Art program at Dhurajit Pandit University, Bangkok, Thailand. 2.4 Research Instrument A variety of scales have been developed to measure readiness for SDL and this study was conducted in 2 stages. Stage 1 the study instruments were questionnaires of learning condition involving teachers, preparation, teaching,
  • 3. using the instructional media, measurement and evaluation and the suggestion in learning development. Content Validity (Index of Item-Objective Congruency, IOC) of the checklist of students, characteristics were validated by three content experts who met the researcher’s criteria as specialized and had experiences in the field of education, academics and graduated at Master Degree level. Next, the researcher conducted a pilot study by using 30 students at Dhurajit Pandit University for utilization of checklists. Furthermore, the statistical reliability of the checklist of student, characteristics were confirmed with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency for the checklist. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.957. Stage 2 the study instrument consisted of questionnaires with 52 items which were adopted Self-directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) designed by Lucy Madsen Guglielmino and amendments to suit the educational conditions of the undergraduate students in Dhurajit Pundit University. The Likert scale was used in the questionnaire namely: 1 as Strongly Disagree, 2 as Disagree, 3 as Somewhat Agree, 4 as Agree and 5 as Strongly Agree. Evidence of reliability for the SDLRS was recently reviewed and summarized. The reported reliability data for internal consistency were split-half and coefficient alpha between 0.957 and 0.974. 3. Results of the Study 101 random samples of the undergraduate students in the first semester of the academic year 2011, from Faculty of Communication Arts at Dhurajit Pundit University, were the sampling group which used the Taro Yamane’s formula [13], with the random sampling, the researcher used clear criteria (e.g., experience and prior knowledge) for selecting the sample and that should fit to achieve the study. Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the sample (n = 101) Demographic Gender Males Females Experience in Photography Yes No n % 50 51 49.5 50.5 12 89 11.9 88.1 Table 1 presented the demographic characteristics of the sample. With respect to gender, there were almost of 51 females and 50 males. Moreover, 88.1% of the students reported there had no previous experience in photography. Table 2. Descriptive statistics of total score learning condition level of the Study (n=101) Factors Mean SD Instructor 4.30 .48 Instructional Activities .49 .61 High Instructional Materials and Media 4.16 4.10 Learning Measurement and Evaluation 4.19 .56 High 4.18 .47 High Total Interpretation High High Interpretation of the average value shall use the following criteria:Mean score 4.50-5.00 Very High. Mean score 3.50-4.49 High Mean score 2.50-3.49 Medium Mean score 1.50-2.49 Low Mean score 1.00-1.49 Worst Table 2 presented learning condition level of the study. The collection data was analyzed through a survey. Total score learning condition of aspects were at the high level.
  • 4. Table 3 Descriptive statistics of total score self-directed learning readiness of the Study (n=101) Factors Open-mindedness for learning Concept of themselves as efficient learners Initiative and freedom for learning Responsibility for self-learning Passion for learning Creativity Optimism about future Ability to apply learning and problem-solving skills Total Mean 4.04 3.84 3.80 3.87 3.94 3.57 3.90 3.92 3.86 SD .55 .56 .62 .59 .52 .68 .62 .58 .53 Level of learning readiness High High High High High High High High High Table 3 presented the total score self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) of the students. All eight aspects were at the high level. Table 4 Descriptive statistics of comparison of self-directed learning readiness of difference based on gender. Factors Open-mindedness for learning Concept of themselves as efficient learners Initiative and freedom for learning Responsibility for self-learning Passion for learning Creativity Optimism about future Ability to apply learning and problem-solving skills Total * p < .05 Males Mean SD. 4.06 .53 3.95 .54 3.95 .60 3.95 .62 4.03 .49 3.72 .72 3.94 .61 4.01 .56 3.95 .52 Females Mean SD. 4.02 .57 3.73 .56 3.66 .61 3.80 .56 3.86 .55 3.42 .62 3.86 .64 3.83 .59 3.77 .54 Sig. (2-tailed) t-test .723 .045 .014 .231 .106 .019 .511 .110 .087 .636 *2.027 *2.413 1.206 *1.632 *2.379 .651 *1.613 *1.728 Table 4 presented comparison of self-directed learning readiness of difference based on genders. All variables were measured by frequency variables for demographic data and characteristics variables in order to find out what are the characteristics of difference based on genders. There is statistical significant difference at level .05, 4. Conclusion The study showed that learning condition and Selfdirected Learning Readiness (SDLR) for undergraduate students and the comparison of the opinions with different gender of faculty of Communication Art students at Dhurajit Pandit University. The collection data was analyzed to provide an overview which weren’t have knowledge and experiences in Photography. The total score learning condition of aspects were at the high level, but there were the difficulty in some content of subject and it wasn’t supported in large group activities learning. The study results were instructor responsibility to teach, attention, opportunity, listen to the opinions of students and have regularly utilized instructional media in the instruction with reasons for problem-solving and emphasizing facilitation of learning. Therefore instructor with some optimum conditions for learning and suggest a facilitating role. The evaluation was based on both content and learning process using test items. The process of self-directed learning and the best ways to facilitate the skills and attitudes of self-direction in learn. The data was collected by the questionnaires based on Guglilmino’s Self-directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) and the amendments suit the educational conditions of the undergraduate students. The study revealed that the undergraduate students of Communication Arts, were at a high level. Durr, R., L. M.Guglielmino and P. J. Guglielmino [14] suggested high level of readiness in self-directed learning is important to make effective use of self-directed learning. Besides, the comparison differences gender of opinions among the self-directed learning readiness, were statistical significant difference at level .05. 5. References [1] Commission, Office of the National Education. Education in Thailand 2002/2003. Bangkok: Amarin Printing and Publishing, 2003. [2] Gagné, R.M. The Conditions of Learning and Theory of Instruction . . s.l. : (4th Edition), 1985. [3] Gagné, R.M. & Driscoll, M.P. Essentials of Learning for Instruction (2nd Edition). . New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc, 1988. [4] R., Zemke. Toward a science of training Training 36 (7) 32–36.36. 1999.
  • 5. [5] M.D., Merrill. Suggested self-study program for instructional systems development (ISD) . [Online] 2000. [Cited: November 17, 2004.] http://www.id2. usu.edu/MDavidMerrill/IDREAD.PDF.. [6] M.D., Merrill. Instructional Transaction Theory (ITT): Instructional Design Based on Knowledge Objects. M. David Merrill Instructional effectiveness consultant. [Online] Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah New Jersey, 2011. http://mdavidmerrill.com /Papers/InstructionalTransactionTheoryReigeluth.pdf. [7] Bloom, B.S. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals: Handbook I, Cognitive Domain. New York: Longmans, Green & Company, 1956. [8] Knowles, M. Self-directed Learning: A Guide for Learners and Teachers. New York: Association Press, 1975. [9] Guglielmino, L.M. Development of the Self-directed Learning Readiness Scale. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Georgia, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 38, 6467A. . 1977. [10] Gibbons, M. The Self-directed Learning Handbook: Challenging Adolescent Student toExcel. San Francisco, : Jossey-Bass Publishers., 2002. [11] Ware, J. Creating a Responsive Environment (2nd edition). London : David Fulton, 2003. [12] Roberson, D.J. Masters of Adaptation: Learning in Late Life Adjustments. Baywood Publishing Company, New Jersey : International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 2005, Vols. 6(4), 265-291. [13] Yamane, T. Statistic: An Introductory Analysis. 3 rd ed. . New York : Harper and Row, 1973. [14] Durr, R., L. M. Guglielminio and P. J. Guglielmino.Self-Directed Learning Readiness and Occupational Categories. Corporate Contact Information, Cambridge, UK : ProQuest Education Journals, 1996, Vols. 7(4): 349-358.