IB - The Cognitive Perspective

Cognitive psychology is concerned with how people acquire, store, transform, ...
1.   Processes within the person are considered central to the understanding
2.   These mediat...
Cognitive’s definition of learning:                    Basic Model of Memory
      •   The process of gathering informatio...
important than what they know.”                        memory capacity representing a meaningful
Wolfgang Kohler: (1887-19...
•     verbal protocols

               (Where and how is this persp...
•      Collusion
                                                                  •      Competence to stand trial
sensory      an initial process that holds                  retroactive
memory       information in raw form for a brief  ...
(b) Describe one application of findings obtained from the empirical study outlined in part (a). [4

•   QUESTION 8...
QUESTION 18: (a) Outline one theoretical explanation of behavior from the cognitive
perspective. [6 marks]

(b) Discuss ...
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IB Cognitive Perspective Review


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Hey guys, this is a really good overview of the Cognitive Perspective. It has all of the key concepts and theorists and what the theorists did in their research and how it contributed to cognition. It's good and plus its arranged into charts :)

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Transcript of "IB Cognitive Perspective Review"

  1. 1. IB - The Cognitive Perspective Introduction Cognitive psychology is concerned with how people acquire, store, transform, use and communicate information. Cognitive psychologists rejected the behaviorist assumption that mental events or states were unsuitable for scientific research. In this unit students will examine the model-based approach often employed by the cognitive perspective. Issues of ecological and construct validity will be explored with regard to the methods employed by the perspective. Memory is the topic which we will study in depth. You need to be able to: Describe and evaluate theories and empirical studies within this perspective. Compare theories, empirical studies and the conceptual framework of this model with the other perspectives. Identify and explain the strengths and limitations of cognitive explanations of behavior. Explain the extent to which free will and determinism are integral in this perspective. Assess the extent to which concepts and models of information processing have helped the understanding of cognition. Assess claims that this perspective lack ecological validity, and be able to consider alternative research methods. Describe and evaluate the cultural context and development, the conceptual framework, the methodology, and the application of the cognitive perspective. Explain how cultural, ethical, gender, and methodological considerations affect the interpretation of behavior from a cognitive perspective. Historical Development and Cultural Context Challenges to behaviorism The use of the computer model The development of brain scan technology
  2. 2. Assumptions 1. Processes within the person are considered central to the understanding behaviour. 2. These mediating processes operate in an organized and systematic way, not by trial and error. 3. Focuses on the mental processes and on determining the role that mental processes play in determining emotions and behaviour. 4. Deepened understanding of memory, psycholinguistics, and the development of intelligence. 5. Mental processes can and should be investigated scientifically. 6. Cognitive processes actively organize and manipulate information that we receive - humans are not passive responders to their environment. Soft determinism. 7. Non-human animals may be used to help understand human behavior. 8. Models of psychological functions can be proposed. (Do not only learn this one basic assumption - it is often the least flexible for answering a paper I prompt.) Key Concepts and Ideas
  3. 3. Cognitive’s definition of learning: Basic Model of Memory • The process of gathering information • Sensory memory - A modality specific and organizing it i9nto mental transient form of memory, which serves as schemata. a buffer between the senses and short term Cognitive’s definition of memory: memory. • The retention and use of prior learning • Short term memory - The component of memory which handles retention over Cognitive Equilibrium: relatively brief intervals of up to • A state of mental balance. approximately 15 seconds. Stores visual information and sounds Relearning Long term memory • In memory an improvement in performance which occurs by • The component of memory which is reviewing, despite the inability to recall involved with retention over relatively long or recognize information. periods. Related to type of information and how it is encoded Priming Processes • A phenomenon whereby a thought or memory increases the activation of Memory process associated thoughts of memories. • Encoding/interpretation: the immediate Mental set or schema (Tolman) representation of a stimulus; involves selection, comprehension, abstraction and • The method an individual uses to integration organizes their perception of a particular situation such as a problem • Channels Latent Learning (Tolman) • Depth • A term used by Tolman used to • Schema Activation describe situations in which learning is Elaboration/Rehearsal: distinct from the performance. The manner in which the stimulus is kept alive in the Insight Learning (Kohler) working memory. • Insight learning is a sudden change in the way one organizes a problem situation typically this is characterized by a change in behaviour from random responding to rule-based responding. Key Theorists and Their Contributions Jean Piaget: (1896- 1980) Miller (1956) • Was the major pioneer of cognitive • Is best known for his work in determining theory. Chunking for the Short term memory • “ How children think is much more • Chunk: The basic measure of Short term
  4. 4. important than what they know.” memory capacity representing a meaningful Wolfgang Kohler: (1887-1967) unit, such as random letters number or words. • Was founder of the Gestalts theory. Hermann Ebbinghaus • His studies with Apes led him to a view of problem solving as an active process • Developed techniques for the experimental of insight and on determining the role study of memory and forgetting. that mental processes play in Endel Tulving’s determining emotions and behaviour. • Known for the three distinct forms of long Edward Tolman: (1886-1959) term memory • Developed a concept of “Purposive • Procedural memory: Stores “how to” behaviourism” which emphasised the information such as how to play a piano. distinctions between learning and • Semantic memory: Involves general performance and viewed learning in knowledge of how the world, such as terms of the formation of hypothesis knowing the capital of Japan. and cognitive maps. • Episodic memory: Contains personal • Helped to lay the foundations for the experiences cognitive approach General theorists to know: Hermann Memory Research (some are biological): Atkinson Ebbinghaus, F. C. Donders, Tversky and & Shiffrin, Craik & Lockhart, Endel Tulving, Kahnemann, Jean Piaget, Leon Festinger, Flourens & Lashley, Glanzer & Cunitz, Frederic Bartlett, Aaron Beck, Albert Ellis. Thompson, Brown & Kulik, Milner, Morris, Maguire, Joe Martinez (bio), Cole & Scribner, Elizabeth Loftus, Miller. Attitude Toward Determinism Behavior is “freely determined”: there is some selection and interpretation of stimuli and some decision and choice, but these operate within the constraints of the existing system. Methods Strengths and limitations of methods • experiments • ecological validity • interviews
  5. 5. • verbal protocols Applications (Where and how is this perspective used with specific examples) Memory The Cognitive Interview to improve eye-witness How the mind works testimony • Mental Maps How we learn RET & Cognitive restructuring therapy in the treatment of depression. Ethical Issues • use of human participants for research • use of non-human participants for research Evaluation of the Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths: Limitations: • Has revolutionised developmental • Doesn’t take into account the person, the psychology by focusing attention on self active mental processes. • Doesn’t explain complete behaviour • We now understand the types of • Doesn’t take into account the physiological thinking that are possible at various aspects of our bodies. ages. • The legal question of intent • Unable to explain complex cognitive, emotional, and perceptual dimensions of human development. • Incomplete picture of developmental influences. • Focuses too much on the individual child, focuses to little on the social context. • Seriously underestimates the role of biological and genetic influences. • Contributory negligence
  6. 6. • Collusion • Competence to stand trial • Eye witness testimony Key Terms chunking combining separate items of amnesia loss of memory caused by a blow or damage to the information into a larger unit, then brain or by drug use or by severe psychological remembering the unit as a whole stress declarative memories for facts or events cognitive a technique for questioning eyewitnesses by having memory (scenes, stories, faces, etc.); interview them imagine and reconstruct details of event fully conscious and retrievable echoic a form of sensory memory that forgetting the inability to retrieve, recall, or recognize memory holds auditory information for one information that was stored in long-term memory or two seconds effortful transfer of information from short- forgetting measures amount of previously learned information encoding term into long-term memory by curve that subjects can recall or recognize across time working hard to do so eidetic the ability to examine material for interference imagery 10-30 seconds and retain a a common reason for forgetting; recall of a particular detailed visual image for several memory is blocked by other related memories minutes elaborative making meaningful associations long-term a neuron becoming more sensitive to stimulation after rehearsal between information to be learned potentiation it has been repeatedly stimulated and information already (LTP) encoding making mental representations of method of encoding technique that creates visual associations information so that it can be placed loci between memorized places and items to memorize or put into our memories flashbulb vivid recollections, usually in great network arranging nodes so concrete information is at bottom memories detail, of dramatic or emotionally hierarchy of hierarchy, with abstract ideas at top level charged incidents of great interest iconic a form of sensory memory that network says we store related ideas in separate categories or memory holds visual information for about a theory files called nodes, all linked together in a network quarter of a second interference results when new information nodes enters short-term memory and memory files that contain related information overwrites information already organized around a specific topic or category there long-term peg method a mnemonic device in which a person first memorizes the process of storing almost memory a list of objects and then forms mental images linking unlimited amounts of information those objects ("peg words") to a list of names to be over long periods of time memorized maintenance simply repeating or rehearsing the proactive when old information (learned earlier) blocks the rehearsal information rather than forming any interference remembering of new information (learned later) new associations photographic the ability to form sharp, detailed recall memory visual images of a page, then to retrieving previously learned information without the recall the entire image at a later aid of or with very few external cues date primacy- better recall of information recognition identifying previously learned information with the recency effect presented at the beginning and at help of more external cues the end of a task procedural memories for performing motor repression a Freudian mental process that automatically hides memory tasks, habits, conditioning; not emotionally threatening information in unconscious conscious or retrievable repression process of pushing memories of retrieval threat or trauma into the cues mental reminders we create by forming vivid mental unconscious, from which it cannot images or creating associations between information be retrieved
  7. 7. sensory an initial process that holds retroactive memory information in raw form for a brief interference when new information (learned later) blocks the period of time (instant to several retrieval of related old information (learned earlier) seconds) short-term another process that can hold only source a memory error that results when a person has (working) a limited amount of information (7 misattributi difficulty in deciding where a memory came from memory items) for short period (2-30 sec) on storing the process of placing encoded state- information into relatively dependent easier to recall information when in same emotional permanent mental storage for later learning or physiological state or setting as when first learned recall tip-of-the- tongue despite great effort, temporary inability to recall phenomeno information we absolutely know is in our memory n EXAM SHORT ANSWER and ESSAY QUESTIONS • QUESTION 1: a) Describe one cognitive explanation of human behavior, making reference to one empirical study. [4 marks] b) Describe one strength and one limitation of this explanation of human behavior. [4 marks] • QUESTION 2: a) Explain one psychological or social question (for example, aggression, or gender differences) from the cognitive perspective. [10 marks] b) Compare the cognitive explanation of the question selected in part a) with the explanation offered by one other perspective you have studied for this paper. [10 marks] • QUESTION 3: (a) Outline one assumption of the cognitive perspective. (2 marks). (b) Identify one key concept based on the assumption outlined in part (a) and explain the relationship between the two. (6 marks) • QUESTION 4: Describe and evaluate methodologies used in the cognitive perspective (e.g. experiments, interviews, verbal protocols). (20 marks) • QUESTION 5: Choose one cognitive research study that could be considered to be controversial. a) Outline the method used in the chosen study. [4 marks] b) Explain why the study is considered controversial. [4 marks] • QUESTION 6: Assess the extent to which one concept or model of information processing has helped in understanding cognition. [20 marks] • QUESTION 7: (a) Outline one empirical study within the cognitive perspective. [4 marks]
  8. 8. (b) Describe one application of findings obtained from the empirical study outlined in part (a). [4 marks] • QUESTION 8: Referring to experiments and alternative research methods (e.g., verbal protocols, interviews) assess claims that some research within the cognitive perspective lacks ecological validity. • QUESTION 9: Identify one study from the cognitive perspective, and explain one strength and one limitation of the research method used in the study. (8 marks) • QUESTION 10: Evaluate the contribution of the cognitive perspective to the scientific study of behavior. (20 marks) QUESTION 11: Explain one historical or cultural condition that gave rise to the cognitive perspective. [8 marks] QUESTION 12: (a) Describe a cognitive explanation of one psychological or social question. [10 marks] (b) Evaluate the cognitive explanation described in part (a). [10 marks] QUESTION 13: (a) Describe one assumption on which the cognitive explanation of human behavior is based. (4 marks) QUESTION 14: (a) Describe one model of information processing that helps in the understanding of one aspect of human cognition. (10 marks) (b)Using psychological theory and/or research, evaluate the model described in part (a) of this question. (10 marks) QUESTION 15: (a) With reference to one research study, describe the main features of one method of investigation used by cognitive psychologists [4 marks] (b) Outline one strength and one limitation of this method [4 marks] QUESTION 16: To what extent is determinism integral to the cognitive perspective? Illustrate your answer using relevant theories and studies [20 marks] QUESTION 17: (a) Briefly describe the method used in one empirical study from the cognitive perspective. [4 marks] (b) Outline one ethical strength and one ethical limitation of the method described in part (a). [4 marks]
  9. 9. QUESTION 18: (a) Outline one theoretical explanation of behavior from the cognitive perspective. [6 marks] (b) Discuss strengths and limitations of the theoretical explanation of behavior outlined in part (a). [14 marks]