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IB Learning Perspective Review


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Hey, this is the same thing as the other one except it talks about Psychoanalytical which I don't think we have to know , but it's also really good !

Hey, this is the same thing as the other one except it talks about Psychoanalytical which I don't think we have to know , but it's also really good !

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  • 1. IB - The Learning Perspective Introduction The study of how humans learn has dominated behaviorism. Behaviorism developed simultaneously in Russia and in the United States, becoming a major force in psychology in the first part of the 20th century. Traditionalist behaviorists believed that all organisms learn in the same way, and that all learning could be explained by the processes of classical and operant conditioning. Psychologists working within this perspective have investigated the ways in which behavior changes, usually using laboratory experiments, and often using non-human animals. In this unit students will examine the foundations of behaviorism, and then they will look at how the learning perspective has developed over the last fifty years, taking into consideration cognitive, biological and social factors that contribute to learning. You need to be able to: Describe and evaluate the cultural context and development, the conceptual framework, the methodology, and the application of the learning model. It was developed in the United States in the ‘50s. It was a firm contrast to Freud’s psychoanalytical concepts because it relied solely, utterly, and firmly on empiricism (experimental method). See “Key concepts/Ideas” and “Key theorists and their contributions” Describe and evaluate theories and empirical studies within this perspective. See “Key theorists and their contributions” Explain how cultural, ethical, gender, and methodological considerations affect the interpretation of behavior from a learning perspective. The different learning styles of people, cultures, and genders can affect interpretation of a behavior as some might not respond to the reward or punishment. Genders and cultures could also respond differently to a stimulus or have a different reaction to the stimulus making the outcome of a generalized public unclear. Also the fact that different cultures value and fear different things. If a culture or a certain gender is taught to fear something, it will probably be easier to develop a phobia to it and be harder to rid a person of that phobia. Compare theories, empirical studies and the conceptual framework of this model with the other perspectives.
  • 2. Learning Psychoanalytical People develop through conditioned with People develop through their stimuli, rewards, and punishments developmental sexual stages Learning focuses on behavior due to the Psychoanalytical focuses on behavior with environment finalized or unfinalized psycho-sexual stages Focuses on the experimental method and Uses case studies observational Dreams are not empirical Dreams important in analysis Only focuses on reason for simple behavior Mainly used for therapeutic purposes and some predictive value of behavior Identify and explain the strengths and limitations of learning theory explanations of behavior. See “Strengths and weaknesses” Explain the extent to which free will and determinism are integral in this perspective. The learning perspective is a very deterministic science. Actually, this is one of the main assumptions of behaviorism. Behaviorists believe that all behavior is trained, conditioned, reinforced, and essentially reflexive. Hence, free will is basically impossible if looked at through the lenses of an extreme behaviorist. This is because behaviorists decide to be reductionist, reducing everything down to only observable behavior. Is this a strength or a weakness? (See also “Strength and weakness” section) Explain the extent to which learning can be explained by alternatives to traditional behaviorist approaches. Assess the extent to which cognitive, biological, and environmental factors contribute to explanations of behavior within the learning perspective Historical Development and Cultural Context o Criticisms of the Psychodynamic perspective o Emphasis on scientific study o Darwin's influence on animal research As most of the approaches in psychology we can also argue that we can find the origins of the learning perspective back from the ancient Greece times. The environmentalism / nurture, which is one of the basic thoughts expressed in the learning perspective. This discussion about nature vs nurture continues in to all times in Europe and it confronts with the idea of dualism (a man consists of a soul and a body that can be studied separately) which was brought up by the French philosopher Descartes .But more recently we can say that at the turn of the 20th century is where we can find what most influenced the learning perspective. At this time psychologist tended to use either the experimental study or the introspective analysis to study their approaches. But both of them had many limitations due to the fact that at this time they didn’t had X-rays, or EEGs and all of those advanced researched methods. This pushed William James to come out with the idea of functionalism (psychologists should focus on how behavior relates to its purpose). Which leads us up to parsimony, one of the basic assumptions of the learning
  • 3. perspective. What parsimony basically says is that researcher should seek the simplest possible explanation for any event. If we look from this point of view we can also say that the learning perspective was a reaction to introspection making it also a reaction to psychodynamic. Assumptions • Empiricism (The view that experience, especially of the senses, is the only source of knowledge.) • Determinism (The philosophical doctrine that every state of affairs, including every human event, act, and decision is the inevitable consequence of antecedent states of affairs.) • Parsimony (In learning perspective they are all the things that can be seen, behaviorists do not infer, they observe.) • Though we are born with a genetic endowment which is the root of our instinctual behaviors, the majority of behavior is learned from the environment after birth. • Psychology should investigate the laws and products of learning. • Behavior is determined by the environment, since we are the total of all our past learning experiences, free will is an illusion. • Only observable behaviors should be studied if psychology is to be objective. • There is an innate predisposition to learning. • Learning can take place in the absence of reinforcement. The main idea of the learning perspective is to focus on the relationship between the environment and behavior. The learning perspective mainly does not pay much attention to internal invents such as biological or cognitive processes. Because of the idea of Parsimony, this principle only seeks for processes that can be observe directly and simply. Also because the learning perspective concentrates on the explanation of how human learns, this perspective particularly focuses on the idea of associationism. Which supports the idea that human learns by associating and making connections between ideas and events. Learning: changes in behavior as a result of experience. Key Concepts and Ideas • Animals can be conditioned to be in o Classical and operant conditioning anyway o The Law of Effect (Thorndike) o Operant conditioning, and o Social Learning Theory (Bandura; classical conditioning. Berkowitz) • Social learning theory introduced insight, o Learned helplessness (Seligman) latent learning, and models o Instinctual drift (Breland & • Insight: When, after encountering a Breland) problem for some time, new ideas arise in order to solve it • Latent Learning: Concepts may be learned but not used until reinforcer is added.
  • 4. • Models: Subjects learn from watching other people and copying the ways they behave. • Overview: Perhaps the most well known Behaviorist is B. F. Learning can be defined as the process leading to Skinner (1904-1990). Skinner followed much of relatively permanent behavioral change or Watson’s research and findings, but believed that potential behavioral change. In other words, as internal states could influence behavior just as we learn, we alter the way we perceive our external stimuli. He is considered to be a Radical environment, the way we interpret the incoming Behaviorist because of this belief, although nowadays stimuli, and therefore the way we interact, or it is believed that both internal and external stimuli behave. John B. Watson (1878-1958) was the first influence our behavior. to study how the process of learning affects our behavior, and he formed the school of thought Behavioral Psychology is basically interested in how known as Behaviorism. The central idea behind our behavior results from the stimuli both in the behaviorism is that only observable behaviors are environment and within ourselves. They study, often in minute detail, the behaviors we exhibit while worthy of research since other abstraction such as controlling for as many other variables as possible. a person’s mood or thoughts are too subjective. Often a grueling process, but results have helped us This belief was dominant in psychological learn a great deal about our behaviors, the effect our research in the United Stated for a good 50 years. environment has on us, how we learn new behaviors, and what motivates us to change or remain the same. Key Theorists and Their Contributions Ivan Pavlov He was the first experimenter to research classical conditioning. In what started as a simple, physiological experiment with a dog, turned out to be the discovery of what came to be known as conditioning, more specifically, classical conditioning. -He was performing some experiments on a dog, and found that he could “condition” the dog to salivate on the sound of a bell. After repeatedly ringing the bell, and introducing food. Eventually, the bell alone was sufficient to make the poor pup drip. James Watson He was the pioneer psychology theorist that translated the ideas of Pavlov’s classical conditioning to humans. -His famous work is little Albert. He conditioned poor little Albert to reject white fluffy things by continually including LOUD NOISES upon the introduction of the white fluffy thing. Soon enough, the fluffy white thing alone would make little Albert upset. This research introduced the idea of stimulus generalization. Not only the white bunny (for example) would scare the poor baby. White fluffy pillows, etc could also raise fear from Al. Watson was confident that if you gave him a child, he could make him into
  • 5. anything (criminal, business man, etc.) B.F. Skinner He brought a new face into the world of behaviorism. Operant Conditioning is very similar to classical conditioning. But in include reinforces. After a response occurs, due to a certain stimulus, reinforces (positive or negative) are inserted that will increase or diminish the probability that the behavior may occur again. -His famous work is the Skinner box where he would condition, pigeons, mice, and even his own daughter to learn anything he wanted them to. Albert Bandura He gave us the concepts of Social Learning. With the help of the bobo doll experiment he showed us how there can be latent learning that is not seen until a reinforcer is included. Little babies learned to either hit, or not hit a bobo doll, but only the ones that saw the “model” receive no reinforcement or positive reinforcement for beating up the doll actually engaged in that activity. He also came up with the concept of insight learning, which dealt with monkeys finding ingenious ways to arrive to a solution (getting a banana). John Watson, Edward Thorndike, B F Skinner, Ivan Pavlov, Albert Bandura, Martin Seligman, Edward C. Tolman, Wolfgang Kohler. Attitude Toward Determinism Behaviorism thoroughly embraced the idea of determinism. Key researchers such as Watson, and Skinner believed that the environment could be changed to mold an individual to behave in any way they please. In the rough words of James Watson “Give me 5 babies and I’ll make one a businessman, a cook, a football star, an actor, and a criminal. The definition of determinism is: The philosophical doctrine that every state of affairs, including every human event, act, and decision is the inevitable consequence of antecedent states of affairs. Behaviorism states that everything is learned due to the environment. Thus, determinism is a key idea. It happens to be one of the learning perspective’s main assumptions. The learning perspective view towards behavior does not support determinism. As we already know determinism is the idea that our behavior is innate, and in most of the cases it is believed that it is something that we are born with so it is not able to learn it but just it develops inside of us. One example of a perspective that supports this idea will be the biological perspective, since it focus more on how the organisms of the humans dictates our behavior. But in the learning perspective, we can argue that it does not supports the idea of determinism in anyways since it focus on how we learn our behaviors. One of the basic assumptions that we looked at in the beginning of the paper, states
  • 6. Learning: changes in behavior as a result of experience. Also the learning perspective focuses on how the environment takes control over our learning. We can see this on Bandura’s social learning theory as well as the classical conditioning and operant conditioning. In social learning theory we looked at how children learn their behavior by modeling the adults or social models. In classical conditioning we looked at how the stimulus from the outside can dictate our behaviors. And in operant conditioning we saw how we are likely to do certain behaviors depending on its outcomes. Therefore we can see and conclude that the social learning theory does not support at all the determinism idea of the human’s behaviors. Methods • Experimental – scientific method • Observation – direct and effect • Interview – surveys etc. • Verbal Protocol – thinking aloud • Reliability - external and internal • Ecological validity • Use of animals in research • Ethical considerations Applications (Where and how is this perspective used with specific examples) o One example of classical One special and very powerful example of classical conditioning in use is in animal conditioning is taste aversion. Taste aversion is a training. Pet trainers today mostly case where an organism learns to have an aversion use classical conditioning to train to the taste or smell or other characteristics of animals, as it is more humane than some food or drink. For example, after consuming previous methods. Many trainers too much alcohol, it’s not unusual for someone to use a small clicking device that associate the smell or even sight of the alcohol they click while giving the animal with the sickness that resulted from consuming the a treat. That animal then associates alcohol. the clicking sound with the treat, much like Pavlov’s dogs. · Another application of classical conditioning works with advertising. For example, many beer o Bullying reduction programs ads prominently feature attractive young women o Systematic desensitization wearing bikinis. The young women (Unconditioned Stimulus) naturally elicit a
  • 7. (Wolpe) favorable, mildly aroused feeling (Unconditioned Response) in most men. The beer is simply associated with this effect. The same thing applies with the jingles and music that accompany many advertisements. Ethical Issues Their choice of method - especially verbal • Learning styles protocol • Maybe you're not a social person • Confusion of the participant • Right to withdrawal • Cultural difference between participant and observer • Experiments that require intrusive devices, like the cutting of the corpus callosum, make it • Behavior that the participant’s culture may difficult for the participant withdrawal afterwards deem as normal, might be considered unusual by the observer’s, or vice versa. • Deceiving the participant • Gender issues “The researcher must decide what can be published without consent and must be aware that the people studied will not be able to recall everything they have divulged or done during the experiment” Evaluation of the Strengths and Weaknesses
  • 8. Strengths Weaknesses Strictly empirical using scientific method as Does not account for acquisition of first language means of information • Does not account for random behavior • Applicable to training simple animal and • Does not account for interaction between human behaviors people • Gave information about insight in all animals As we can see from all the description of the • Methods could be used in school to teach perspective, we can understand that the learning students perspective is manly based on the de idea of looking at the interactions between an organism and its environment. But because this perspective concentrates too much on analyzing what we can see from the outside it lacks to study consciousness and internal subjective states. Some critics say that treating the organism like a black box means that one ignores the mental processes that are central to human behavior. But many behaviorist responded to this by simply saying that such events are scientifically unknowable, and in case do not cause behavior. But today we know that those things are not scientifically unknowable because today we have many technologies such as the CAT scan etc. to investigate what is happening inside the organism which dictates some of our behaviors. Also the learning perspective does not believe that behavior is determined, but by ignoring some stuff that are going inside our body just because we are not able to see them does not necessary mean that it doesn’t exist. Also in cases where the root of the problem is a brain damage or some damage in an organism, the cause of the abnormal behavior can’t be fully describe by the learning perspective. On the other hand we can also argue that many of the experimental methods that are used in the research of the learning perspective are based on animal research so we can’t generalize the same results that we get for a rat the same for a human. Many of the weaknesses of this perspective is based on the fact that the learning perspective focuses too much in the idea of parsimony. • Behaviorism was very scientific, with high levels of reliability. • The approach is reductionist - explaining a great deal of phenomena using only a few simple principles. • It has many practical applications which have been very effective. • Heavy reliance on animal research - discounts the qualitative difference between humans and non-human animals.
  • 9. • Ignores important mental processes involved in learning. • Highly deterministic. • Questionable ecological validity • Key Terms anticipatory feelings of sickness elicited by cognitive a mental representation in the brain of the layout of nausea stimuli that are associated with map an environment and its features receiving chemotherapy treatments classical learning in which a neutral stimulus continuous every occurrence of the operant response results in conditioning acquires the ability to produce a reinforceme delivery of the reinforcer response (Ivan Pavlov) nt cognitive a kind of learning that involves fixed- learning mental pro a kind of learning that interval a reinforcer occurs following the first response that involves mental processes alone; schedule occurs after a fixed interval of time may not require rewards or overt behavior conditioned feeling fear or pleasure when fixed-ratio emotional experiencing a stimulus that initially schedule a reinforcer occurs only after a fixed number of response accompanied a painful or pleasant responses made by the subject event conditioned new response elicited by a imprinting inherited tendencies or responses that are displayed response conditioned stimulus; similar to the by newborn animals encountering certain stimuli (CR) unconditioned response conditioned a formerly neutral stimulus that has insight a mental process marked by the sudden solution to a stimulus (CS) acquired the ability to elicit the problem; the "ah ha" phenomenon same response as UCS does contiguity explains classical conditioning as negative removing a reinforcing stimulus (allowance) after theory occurring because two stimuli are punishment response; decreases chances of response recurring paired closely together in time discriminatio learning to make a particular negative an aversive stimulus whose removal increases the n response to some stimuli but not to reinforceme likelihood of the preceding response occurring again others nt extinction failure of a conditioned stimulus to partial a situation in which responding is reinforced only elicit a response when repeatedly reinforceme some of the time presented without the UCS nt generalization tendency for a stimulus that is positive similar to the original conditioned reinforceme the presentation of a stimulus that increases the stimulus to elicit the same nt probability of a behavior occurring again response law of effect if actions are followed by a preparedne pleasurable consequence or ss an innate or biological tendency of animals to reward, they tend to be repeated (prepared recognize and attend to certain cues and stimuli (E. L. Thorndike) learning) learning a relatively enduring or permanent punishment a consequence that occurs after behavior and change in behavior that results decreases chance of that behavior occurring again from experience with stimuli neutral some stimulus that produces a reinforceme a consequence that occurs after behavior and stimulus response, but does not produce the nt increases the chance of that behavior occurring again reflex being tested preparedness biological readiness to associate schedule of a rule that determines how and when the occurrence some combinations of conditioned reinforceme of a response will be followed by a reinforcer and unconditioned stimuli nt spontaneous tendency for the conditioned shaping a rule that determines how and when the occurrence recovery response to reappear after being of a response will be followed by a reinforcer extinguished stimulus explains classical conditioning as a superstitiou any behavior that increases in frequency because of
  • 10. substitution neural bonding of a neutral and an s behavior accidental pairing with the delivery of a reinforcer unconditioned stimulus systematic procedure in which a person variable- a reinforcer occurs following the first response after a desensitizatio eliminates anxiety-evoking stimuli interval variable amount of time has gone by n by relaxation; counterconditioning schedule taste-aversion associating sensory cues (smells, variable- learning tastes, sound, or sights) with ratio a subject must make a variable or different getting sick, then avoiding those schedule cues unconditione an unlearned, innate, involuntary d response physiological reflex that is elicited (UCR) by the unconditioned stimulus unconditione some stimulus that triggers or d stimulus elicits a physiological reflex, such (UCS) as salivation or eye blink 1. EXAM SHORT ANSWER and ESSAY QUESTIONS 2. a. Outline one psychological question which may be explained using the learning perspective. [3 marks] b. Evaluate the effectiveness of the learning perspective explanation of the psychological question identified in part (a). [5 marks] May 2003 3. “Theories challenging traditional learning theory make the assumption that learning is more than a series of stimulus-response associations.” With reference to this statement, assess the extent to which cognitive and/or biological factors contribute to explanations of behavioural change within the learning perspective. [20 marks] May 2003 4. Identify and evaluate one contribution of the learning perspective to the scientific study of behaviour. [8 marks] Nov 2003 5. Consider ways in which the learning perspective has produced recommendations for change in lifestyles. [20 marks] Nov 2003 6. “An assumption can be defined as a belief or idea that psychologists studying behaviour from a particular perspective hold in common.” a. Outline one assumption from the learning perspective. [3 marks] b. Explain how one empirical study from the learning perspective illustrates the assumption you have identified in part a). [5 marks] May 2004 7. a. Outline one explanation of learning from the traditional behaviourist approach. [6 marks] b. The learning perspective still offers explanations of behavioural change. To what extent have cognitive or biological factors
  • 11. extended traditional explanations of behaviour within the learning perspective? [14 marks] May 2004 8. a. Describe one study in which environmental factors contribute to explanations of behaviour within the learning perspective. [4 marks] b. Explain how the findings of the study described in part a) have helped psychologists to understand behavioural change. [4 marks] Nov 2004 9. a. Some research studies within the learning perspective are seen as ethically contentious. With reference to such research studies, describe relevant ethical considerations. [8 marks] b. To what extent have ethical considerations affected the interpretation of behaviour within the learning perspective? [12 marks] Nov 2004 10. Describe how one historical or cultural condition helped to give rise to the learning perspective. [8 marks] May 2005 11. a. Use empirical studies to illustrate two research methodologies used within the learning perspective (e.g. experiments, observations, case studies). [10 marks] b. Compare the strengths and limitations of two methodologies used in the learning perspective. [10 marks] May 2005 12. a. Identify one assumption from the learning perspective. [2 marks] b. Explain how one assumption from the learning perspective is illustrated by one theory or study. [6 marks] Nov 2005 13. Examine the extent to which the concept of free will relates to the learning perspective. [20 marks] Nov 2005 14. “The influence of biological factors has extended traditional behaviourist explanations of behaviour within the learning perspective”. Explain this statement making reference to one relevant study from the learning perspective. [8 marks] May 2006
  • 12. 15. Assess the effectiveness of learning perspective explanations for either one psychological or one social question. [20 marks] May 2006