<ul><li>Microscope , instrument used to obtain a magnified image of minute objects or minute details of objects. </li></ul>The MICROSCOPE
Kinds of Microscope <ul><li>A scanning probe microscope uses a probe to scan the surface of a sample and provides a three-dimensional image of atoms or molecules on the surface of the object. The probe is an extremely sharp metal point that can be as narrow as a single atom at the tip. </li></ul>
Light Microscope: This is the oldest, simplest and most widely-used form of microscopy. Specimens are illuminated with light, which is focused using glass lenses and viewed using the eye or photographic film. Specimens can be living or dead, but often need to be stained with a colored dye to make them visible. Many different stains are available that stain specific parts of the cell such as DNA, lipids, cytoskeleton, etc. All light microscopes today are compound microscopes , which means they use several lenses to obtain high magnification. Light microscopy has a resolution of about 200 nm, which is good enough to see cells, but not the details of cell organelles. There has been a recent resurgence in the use of light microscopy, partly due to technical improvements, which have dramatically improved the resolution far beyond the theoretical limit.
Electron Microscope. This uses a beam of electrons, rather than electromagnetic radiation, to "illuminate" the specimen. This may seem strange, but electrons behave like waves and can easily be produced (using a hot wire), focused (using electromagnets) and detected (using a phosphor screen or photographic film). A beam of electrons has an effective wavelength of less than 1 nm, so can be used to resolve small sub-cellular ultra structure. The development of the electron microscope in the 1930s revolutionized biology, allowing organelles such as mitochondria, ER and membranes to be seen in detail for the first time. There are two kinds of electron microscope. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) works much like a light microscope, transmitting a beam of electrons through a thin specimen and then focusing the electrons to form an image on a screen or on film. This is the most common form of electron microscope and has the best resolution. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) scans a fine beam of electron onto a specimen and collects the electrons scattered by the surface. This has poorer resolution, but gives excellent 3-dimentional images of surfaces
A timeline covering the history of microscopes. <ul><li>Circa 1000AD – The first vision aid was invented (inventor unknown) called a reading stone. It was a glass sphere that magnified when laid on top of reading materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Circa 1284 - Italian, Salvino D'Armate is credited with inventing the first wearable eye glasses . </li></ul><ul><li>1590 – Two Dutch eye glass makers, Zaccharias Janssen and son Hans Janssen experimented with multiple lenses placed in a tube. The Janssens observed that viewed objects in front of the tube appeared greatly enlarged, creating both the forerunner of the compound microscope and the telescope . </li></ul><ul><li>1665 – English physicist, Robert Hooke looked at a sliver of cork through a microscope lens and noticed some "pores" or "cells" in it. </li></ul><ul><li>1674 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek built a simple microscope with only one lens to examine blood, yeast, insects and many other tiny objects. </li></ul>
Leeuwenhoek was the first person to describe tiny cells and bacteria invented and he invented new methods for grinding and polishing microscope lenses that allowed for curvatures providing magnifications of up to 270 diameters, the best available lenses at that time. 18th century – Technical innovations improved microscopes, leading to microscopy becoming popular among scientists. Lenses combining two types of glass reduced the "chromatic effect" the disturbing halos resulting from differences in refraction of light. 1830 – Joseph Jackson Lister reduces spherical aberration or the "chromatic effect" by showing that several weak lenses used together at certain distances gave good magnification without blurring the image. This was the prototype for the compound microscope. 1872 – Ernst Abbe , then research director of the Zeiss Optical Works, wrote a mathematical formula called the "Abbe Sine Condition". His formula provided calculations that allowed for the maximum resolution in microscopes possible.
1903 – Richard Zsigmondy developed the ultramicroscope that could study objects below the wavelength of light. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1925. 1932 – Frits Zernike invented the phase-contrast microscope that allowed for the study of colorless and transparent biological materials for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1953. 1931 – Ernst Ruska co-invented the electron microscope for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986. An electron microscope depends on electrons rather than light to view an object, electrons are speeded up in a vacuum until their wavelength is extremely short, only one hundred-thousandth that of white light. Electron microscopes make it possible to view objects as small as the diameter of an atom. 1981 – Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer invented the scanning tunneling microscope that gives three-dimensional images of objects down to the atomic level. Binnig and Rohrer won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986. The powerful scanning tunneling microscope is the strongest microscope to date
Ancient peoples noted that objects seen through water appeared larger. The first century Roman philosopher Seneca recorded the fact that letters seen through a glass globe full of water were magnified. The earliest simple microscopes consisted of a drop of water captured in a small hole in a piece of wood or metal. During the Renaissance, small glass lenses replaced the water. By the late seventeenth century, the Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek built outstanding simple microscopes using very small, high-quality lenses mounted between thin brass plates. Because of the excellence of his microscopes, and the fact that he was the first to make observations of microscopic organisms, Leeuwenhoek is often incorrectly thought of as the inventor of the microscope.
The compound microscope made its first appearance between the years 1590 and 1608. Credit for this invention is often given to Hans Janssen, his son Zacharias Janssen, or Hans Lippershey, all of whom were Dutch spectacle makers. Early compound microscopes consisted of pairs of lenses held in a small metal tube and looked much like modern kaleidoscopes. Because of the problem of chromatic aberration (the tendency of a lens to focus each color of light at a slightly different point, leading to a blurred image) these microscopes were inferior to well-made simple microscopes of the time
The earliest written records of microscopic observations were made by the Italian scientist Francesco Stelluti in 1625, when he published drawings of a bee as seen through a microscope. The first drawings of bacteria were made by Leeuwenhoek in 1683. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, numerous mechanical improvements were made in microscopes in Italy, including focusing devices and devices for holding specimens in place. In England in 1733, the amateur optician Chester Moor Hall discovered that combining two properly shaped lenses made of two different kinds of glass minimized chromatic aberration. In 1774, Benjamin Martin used this technique in a microscope. Many advances were made in the building of microscopes in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Electron microscopes were developed in the 1930s, acoustic microscopes in the 1970s, and tunneling microscopes in the 1980s
HOW MICROSCOPES ARE MADE? <ul><li>The Manufacturing Process </li></ul><ul><li>Making the hardware components </li></ul><ul><li>1 Metal hardware components are manufactured from steel or steel and zinc alloys using precision metalworking equipment such as lathes and drill presses. </li></ul><ul><li>2 If the external body shell of an inexpensive microscope is plastic, it is usually a light, rigid plastic such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. ABS plastic components are made by injection molding. In this process the plastic is melted and forced under pressure into a mold in the shape of the final product. The plastic is then allowed to cool back into a solid. The mold is opened and the product is removed. </li></ul>
Making optical glass 3 The proper raw materials for the type of optical glass desired are mixed in the proper proportions, along with waste glass of the same type. This waste glass, known as cullet, acts as a flux. A flux is a substance which causes raw materials to react at a lower temperature than they would without it. 4 The mixture is heated in a glass furnace until it has melted into a liquid. The temperature varies with the type of glass being made, but is typically about 2550°F (1400°C). 5 The temperature is raised to about 2800°F (1550°C) to force air bubbles to rise to the surface. It is then slowly cooled and stirred constantly until it has reached a temperature of about 1800°F (1000°C). The glass is now an extremely thick liquid, which is poured into molds shaped like the lenses to be made. 6 When the glass has cooled to about 600°F (300°C), it is reheated to about 1000°F (500°C). This process, known as annealing, removes internal stresses which form during the initial cooling period and which weaken the glass. The glass is then allowed to cool slowly to room temperature. The pieces of glass are removed from the molds. They are now known as blanks.
9 The lenses are moved to a polishing machine. This is similar to the grinding machine, but the tool is made of pitch (a thick, soft resin derived from tar). A pitch tool is made by placing tape around a curved dish, pouring in hot, liquid pitch, and letting it cool back into a solid. A pitch tool can be used about 50 times before it must be reshaped. It works in the same manner as a grinding tool, but instead of an abrasive the slurry contains a polishing substance (usually cerium dioxide). The lenses are inspected after polishing and the procedure is repeated as necessary. Polishing may take from half an hour to five hours. The lenses are cleaned and ready to be coated. 10 The lenses are coated with magnesium fluoride. They are then inspected again, labeled with a date of manufacture and a serial number, and stored until needed.
Making the mirror 11 If a mirror is included, it is made in a way similar to the way in which a lens is made. Unlike a lens, it is cut, ground, and polished to be flat rather than curved. A reflective coating is then applied. Aluminum is heated in a vacuum to produce a vapor. A negative electrostatic charge is applied to the surface of the mirror so that it attracts the positively charged aluminum ions. This allows a thin, even coating of metal to be applied. A protective coating of silicon dioxide is then applied. Like a lens, the mirror is inspected, labeled, and stored
<ul><li>Assembling the microscope </li></ul><ul><li>12 All of the final assembly of the microscope is done by hand. The workers wear gloves, masks, and gowns so that dirt does not damage the lenses or the internal mechanisms of the microscope. First the </li></ul>lenses are placed in the steel tubes, which make up the bodies of the eyepiece and the objective. These tubes are manufactured in standard sizes, which allow them to be assembled into a standard size microscope.
13 The focusing mechanism of most microscopes is a rack and pinion system. This consists of a flat piece of metal with teeth on one side (the rack) and a metal wheel with teeth (the pinion), which controls the movement of the rack. The rack and pinion direct the objective so that its movement toward or away from the object being observed can be controlled. In many microscopes, the rack and pinion are attached to the stage (the flat metal plate on which the object being observed rests) and the objective remains stationary. After the rack and pinion system is installed, the knobs that control it are attached. 14 The external body shell of the microscope is assembled around the internal focusing mechanism. The eyepiece (or two eyepieces, for a binocular microscope) and objective (or a rotating disk containing several different objectives) are screwed into place. Eyepieces and objectives are manufactured in standard sizes that allow many different eyepieces and objectives to be used in any standard microscope.
15 If the microscope contains a mirror, this is attached to the body of the microscope below the opening in the stage. If it contains a light bulb instead, this may be attached in the same place (to shine light through the observed object) or it may be placed to the side of the stage (to shine light on top of the object). Some professional microscopes contain both kinds of light bulbs to allow both kinds of observation. If the microscope contains a camera, it is attached to the top of the body. 16 The microscope is tested. If it functions correctly, the eyepiece and objective are usually unscrewed before packing. The parts of the microscope are packed securely in close-fitting compartments lined with cloth or foam. These compartments are often part of a wood or steel box. The microscope is then placed in a strong cardboard container and shipped to consumers.
PROPER HANDLING OF A MICROSCOPE: -Carry the microscope with both hands --- one on the arm and the other under the base of the microscope. -One person from each group will now go over to the microscope storage area and properly transport one microscope to your working area. -The other person in the group will pick up a pair of scissors, newsprint, a slide, and a cover slip. -Remove the dust cover and store it properly. Plug in the scope. Do not turn it on until told to do so. -Examine the microscope and give the function of each of the parts found below.
Magnification is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not in physical size. Magnification is also a number describing by which factor an object was magnified. When this number is less than one it refers to a reduction in size, sometimes called minification . Typically magnification is related to scaling up visuals or images to be able to see more detail, increasing resolution , using optics , printing techniques, or digital processing . In all cases, the magnification of the image does not change the perspective of the image