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Research Paper

  1. 1. Graham 1Kristian GrahamOctober 14, 20114th periodMrs. CorbettSenior Project Title IX Women’s Sports Title IX stated that “No person in the U.S. shall, on the basis of sex be excluded fromparticipation in, or denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educationalprogram or activity receiving federal aid” (“About Title IX”). Before this law, women were notentitled to the same facilities, equipment, scholarships or opportunities as men. Although it tookmany years to achieve this, because of Title IX, women now have a chance to dream bigger andachieve more. Before Title IX, women struggled to be equal and to have the same rights as men.Women understood that they would have to take a stand to make a difference. Edith Green, arepresentative from Oregon, began this change and introduced the idea of Title IX stating thateducational institutions that receive federal funds had to provide equal opportunities in allactivities for girls and boys (“Gender Bias”). If it was not for Green’s realization that womenwere treated unfairly, women might not have received the same opportunities that they have beengiven. In the 60s and 70s, most women would not dare to dream about playing sports at anadvanced level; therefore, with Green’s courageous stand against society, the cards began to turnand impact women in a positive way that they would have never imagined. In 1975, after threeyears of provisions and reasoning, Title IX fulfilled the requirements to be signed into law (“TitleIX”). Women’s equal rights were finally beginning to look up because they were beginning to
  2. 2. Graham 2have their fair share in athletics. Women realized that they were now getting the chance to provethemselves athletically and show everyone they were capable of impacting sports in a positiveway. Although Title IX was called into action, there were certain aspects to keep in mind. Once Title IX came into effect, its focus was to give women a fair chance to prove andfurther themselves in education and athletics. Therefore, even though Title IX applies to a varietyof programs, “it has received the most attention for its impact on athletics, especially at thecollegiate level” (“Title IX”). These changes have given women the opportunity to play sports incollege by requiring schools to offer them access to supplies, equipment, scholarships, and otherthings that were previously reserved for men only. Allowing women to have a fair chance ofplaying sports in college gave them a chance to advance themselves in ways such as receivingscholarships or playing professionally. Furthermore, Title IX supplied a major boost to women’sopportunities to participate in sports across the nation and resulted in the expansion of women’sprofessional sports (“Gender Prejudice”). Before the introduction of Title IX, the idea of womenplaying professional sports would sound completely absurd. However, Title IX proved thatanything is possible. The 1979 Policy Interpretation stated that “Title IX regulation for athleticsrequires compliance in financial assistance, accommodation of interest and abilities, and otherprogram areas; the Policy Interpretation may also apply to club, intramural, and inter-scholasticathletic programs” (Kwon). As previously stated, Title IX has made a huge impact on womenscollege sports; however, Title IX took that action a step further. Not only did women have achance to be successful with their sport, but they also had the same right as men do to leisurelyparticipate in athletic activities. NOW, also known as the National Organization for Women,stated that “athletic scholarships for women were virtually non-existent prior to Title IX, but by2003, there was more than $1 million in scholarships for women at Division I schools”
  3. 3. Graham 3(“Education and Title IX”). Creating Title IX brought hope to women all across the UnitedStates by allowing them to participate and be successful in playing a sport that they loved.Allowing women to be eligible for scholarship money allowed many women to fulfill theirdreams and ambitions. Along with the equal opportunities that women now enjoy, rules andregulations were set to hold schools responsible for following the basis of Title IX. After enacting Title IX, legislatures had to develop a way to hold schools accountable. Tovalidate if a school’s athletic department was in compliance with gender equity laws, theDepartment of Education’s Office for Civil Rights, also known as the OCR, developed a three-prong approach (Holdsworth). This approach insured that schools follow the rules set forth byTitle IX. If the schools did not meet at least one of the criteria, they were not in agreement withthe stated law. The first prong stated that “to satisfy the first prong of the gender equity test, aschool must show that the athletic participation rates by gender are within five percent of theenrollment rate for that gender” (Holdsworth). This means that schools must monitor whether ornot the athletic participation was in sync with enrollment rates for a particular gender. If this wasnot in place, it would be difficult for girls to gain equal footing in an area such as athletics. Inaddition to the first prong, “schools may also be in compliance if they satisfy the second prong—providing evidence that the schools has a history and current practice of program expansion forgirls” (Holdsworth). Schools must prove that they were doing everything in their power to insurethat girls had the same privileges as the boys at that particular school. Also, because of this, girlswere receiving more opportunities to explore their talents and pursue post secondary options.The third prong stated that “the school must demonstrate that it offers an athletic opportunity forgirls if there is a sufficient interest and ability in a particular sport” (Holdsworth). This meansthat if there were more boys’ teams than girls’ teams at a school, and girls would like to create
  4. 4. Graham 4another sports team, then the school must be willing to accept their request. Therefore, schoolsshould show just as much respect to the girls and their wishes as they would the wishes of theboys. However, enforcing all of these rules for women and their equality has brought muchcontroversy into society. Despite the many successes of Title IX, standing up for womens rights and equalopportunities has brought forth many problems over the years. It was obvious that Title IX “hasplayed an important but controversial role in expanding athletic opportunities for women andgirls” (Kwon). Throughout history, men have felt superior to women. In more recent times, menfelt that women could not be successful in athletics, and they have not understood why womenwere given equal opportunities to play competitively. People have argued that the three-part testfor assessing Title IX compliance has created intense disagreement about the intent and purposeof Title IX, and that it presented limitations that discriminate against males and cause budgetdeficits for male athletics (Kwon). Men have strongly expressed that they did not agree with TitleIX and its regulations because Title IX negatively impacted men and their sports programs.However, men might be letting their outrage get in the way of their rational thinking, and if theycould step back and look at the big picture, they could realize that they were not being penalizedby Title IXs rules and regulations; women were only being brought to the same level as men.Other people argued that “since females are inherently less interested in playing sports thanmales, the test embodies a misinterpretation of Title IX” (Kwon). In reality, most people did nottake womens sports as seriously as they did mens. Therefore, people felt that women should nothave the same privileges and opportunities that men did in athletics. Even after thirty years, TitleIX stirred up quarrels and legal wrangling, and USA Wrestling’s Garry Abbott expressed that“it’s the slaughter season” during the spring (Maher). Once springtime came around, it was time
  5. 5. Graham 5to hand out new scholarships, and since women had to have their fair share, men complained thattheir programs were suffering. With an uproar of bickering and complaining, many feuds werepresent between many coaches and players for both men and women athletics because of theirfeelings against Title IX. Crawford, a track coach for men’s and women’s track at CaliforniaPolytechnic State University, stated that “Title IX has pitted men and women against one anotherand has created hard feelings among sports people; with Title IX, they righted a wrong withanother wrong” (Maher). Title IX was created in order to improve womens sports programs andhad no intentions of penalizing men and their athletics. However, men saw this law as a negativeimpact on society and believed that what was meant to benefit females had turned into mensmisfortune. Another controversial concern was the inequities in salaries for coaches of women’steams comparable to the coaches of men’s teams (Claussen). Allowing womens sports tocontinually grow meant more coaches and more money to be divided. This caused manyproblems because coaches expected to be paid the same as any other coach for any sport. Joplinexpressed that despite the gains in access to athletic participation for girls and women, athleticequity was not a reality; “for every $1 spent on women’s college sports, $3 is spent on men’s”(Joplin). This proved that even with Title IX, women sports were still not accepted as equal.Although women had the chance to succesfully acheieve their dreams, men still absorbed themajority of the fans’ attention. In the end, men still had the advantage and dominated in athletics. Without Edith Green’s apprehension of the unfairness presented in athletics between menand women, women would not be in the position that they were in today. With all of the rulesand regulations that Title IX presented, there was much controversy between women and men,coaches and players, and it relayed many problems in the athletic world. Nevertheless, without
  6. 6. Graham 6the acknowledgement of Title IX, women would not be represented fairly in sports at anyintercollegiate or collegiate level. Works Cited
  7. 7. Graham 7“About Title IX.” Gender Equity in Sports . N.p., 23 Feb. 2006. Web. 18 Nov. 2011. <http://bailiwick.lib.uiowa.edu/‌ge/‌aboutRE.html>.Claussen, Cathryn L. “Title IX Has Improved Sports Programs.” Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Gale Cengage Learning, 2011. Web. 17 Oct. 2011. <http://ic.galegroup.com/‌ic/‌ovic/‌ViewpointsDetailsPage/‌ViewpointsDetailsWindow? displayGroupName=Viewpoints&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=OVIC&action=e& windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CEJ3010691221&mode=view>.Comstock, Joni. “Statements from NCAA Officials Regarding Department of Education Title IX Announcement .” National Collegiate Athletic Association. N.p., 2011. Web. 17 Nov. 2011. <http://www.ncaa.org/‌wps/‌portal/‌ncaahome?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/‌ncaa/‌ NCAA/‌Media+and+Events/‌Press+Room/‌News+Release+Archive/‌2010/‌Official+Stateme nts/‌20100420+Title+IX+Statement>.“Education and Title IX.” National Organization for Women . N.p., 1995-2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://www.now.org/‌issues/‌title_ix/‌index.html>.“Gender Bias.” Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale Cenage Learning, 2001. Web. 17 Nov. 2011. <http://go.galegroup.com/‌ps/‌i.do?id=GALE %7CCX3406000278&v=2.1&u=cant48040&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w>.“Gender Prejudice.” Global Issues in Context. Gale Cenage Learning, 2007. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://find.galegroup.com/‌gic/‌infomark.do? &contentSet=EBKS&idigest=b527955b5caccdb4b4a2d40e86fe061a&type=retrieve&tabI D=T001&prodId=GIC&docId=CX2831400017&source=gale&userGroupName=cant480 40&version=1.0>.
  8. 8. Graham 8Holdsworth, Janet M. “Title IX.” Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale Cenage Learning , 2003. Web. 17 Nov. 2011. <http://go.galegroup.com/‌ps/‌i.do?id=GALE %7CCX3403200627&v=2.1&u=cant48040&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w>.Joplin, Linda. “Twenty-Five Years After Title IX: Women Gain in Steps, Not Leaps.” National Organization for Women . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://www.now.org/‌nnt/‌05-97/‌ titleix.html>.Kwon, Andrea. “Title IX and Girls’ Sports.” Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale Cenage Learning, 2006. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://go.galegroup.com/‌ps/‌i.do?id=GALE %7CCX3402800413&v=2.1&u=cant48040&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w>.Maher, John. “Title IX controversy; On law’s 30-year anniversary, men’s and women’s sports are still competing.” Global Issues in Context. Gale Cenage Learning, 24 June 2002. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. <http://find.galegroup.com/‌gic/‌infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC- Documents&idigest=b527955b5caccdb4b4a2d40e86fe061a&type=retrieve&tabID=T004 &prodId=GIC&docId=CJ87743649&source=gale&userGroupName=cant48040&version =1.0>.“Title IX.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition, 2011. Web. 14 Oct. 2011. <http://www.school.eb.com/‌eb/‌article-9125072>.
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