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Theme 4 part 2 The English in North America

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  • 1. Theme 4 English Colonies of North America Kristi Beria
  • 2. American Colonies 6 Virginia-Roanoke
    • In 1585, Sir Walter Ralegh sent 100 colonists, all men, to settle on a small island on the coast of North Carolina.
    • The soil was not fertile and capable of producing crops, but the colonists expected the Algonquin Indians that lived in the area.
    • At first the Indians provided food, but soon tired of the demanding settlers.
    • In the spring of 1586 Wingina, the local chief, refused to give more food.
    • Wingina and his deputy chiefs were killed in a surprise attack hoping to intimidate the rest of the Indians into providing more food.
    • Instead, this caused the surviving Indians to flee.
    • When English ships stopped by, the starving settlers quickly abandoned the colony.
    • Ralegh tried again in 1587 sending more colonists, including the first English families to settle in the Americas.
    • The settlers were supposed to be taken north to the Chesapeake Bay, but instead they were dropped off Roanoke.
    • The colony was found mysteriously abandoned in 1590 by a relief expedition sent by England.
    • There were no signs of attack by Indians or Spanish.
    • The colonists were assumed to have moved on to Croatoan, a nearby island.
    • There were reports that some white refugees had taken shelter in and Indian village, but had been killed by Powhatan, a powerful chief.
  • 3. American Colonies 6 Virginia-Jamestown
    • On April 26, 1607, English ships reached Chesapeake Bay.
    • They established a settlement beside the James River and called it Jamestown.
    • The colonists died in large numbers due to disease and hunger.
    • Nine months later, only 38 out of the original 104 were still living.
    • New colonists were continually sent to Jamestown to keep up the numbers, but people continued to die.
    • Between 1607 and 1622 10,000 people were sent to Jamestown but only 20% were still alive in 1622.
    • The colonists were exposed to malaria and salt poisoning in the summer.
    • Most of the colony consisted of vagrants that had been sent forcibly or adventurers looking to get rich quick.
    • Neither group of men was used to the manual labor that was needed in order to produce enough food to survive.
    • In there quest to find precious metals, the colonists gathered mica to load a ship to send to England, only to find out that it was worthless.
    • The colony was not equipped from the beginning to produce hardworking people or exportable crops.
  • 4. American Colonies 6 Virginia-Tobacco
    • In 1616 the colonists learned to raise tobacco.
    • The tobacco plants grew best in hot and humid conditions, it thrived in Virginia.
    • As the demand for tobacco grew, so did the need for land, which the colonists took at the expense of the natives.
    • The chief of the local Indians, Opechancanough, convinced the colonists that he was willing to convert to Christianity and to settle any land not in use by Indians.
    • In 1622, a surprise attack by the Indians killed 347 people, the settlers livestock, and burned the plantations.
    • The Virginians vowed to exterminate the Indians.
    • The colonists waited until right before the harvest to destroy the Indian villages and crops.
    • In 1623, the starving Indians were tricked into attending peace talks where they were poisoned.
    • The colonists were attacked again in 1644, and the colonists waged counterattacks and destroyed most of the surrounding Indian villages.
    • The colonists numbers and prosperity grew during the mid 1600’s due to the export of tobacco.
    • During the 1660’s tobacco accounted for 25 percents of the revenues by the English Crown.
  • 5. American Colonies 8 New England-The Great Migration
    • Puritans were seeking a place were they could practice their religion and get away from the “sinners” that plagued most of England.
    • The first Puritan emigrants crossed the Atlantic Ocean in the Mayflower and landed in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620.
    • The first settlement consisted of 102 colonists.
    • By 1630, 1,500 people lived in the Plymouth colony.
    • The colonists had an easier time getting themselves into a place where food was adequate than those that settled in other English colonies.
    • The Puritans started having disagreements over rules and how to run the colony.
    • During the 1630’s and 1640’s the colonists started to expand into the interior and started forming new colonies.
    • Southeastern New England became home to radical Puritan’s who felt that the rules had become too strict.
    • Puritan’s that found Massachusetts too easy on the rules founded Connecticut and New Haven.
    • Most of the Puritans were of the middle class who were hard workers who hoped to purify their church and bring about law and order with rules from the bible.
  • 6. American Colonies 8 New England-Family Life
    • The English expected all adults to marry and divide the various duties into male and female responsibilities.
    • The men did the hardest work-clearing lands, construction, tending to the crops-while women kept the home running-gardening, childrearing, preserving food.
    • The New English had a better understanding of marriage than back in the home country.
    • People were allowed to court and then ask their parents to approve to their marriage.
    • Parents didn’t dictate who their children should marry, but they did have the power to veto if they felt that it wasn’t a good arrangement.
    • In New England as in England, women were weren’t able to own land, vote, or hold office (unless an unmarried widow)
    • New English law expected the men to be kind and generous to their partner.
    • Compared to the old country women could obtain a divorce easier.
    • Puritanism considered men and women to be equal in spirituality, with women enjoying a little superiority to men.
    • The men weren’t allowed to be in the birthing chamber with their wives-instead the neighboring women and friends were there to help.
    • Women had an informal influence on the reputations of men in the community, with women often being called to testify in court.
  • 7. American Colonies 8 New England-Bible Commonwealth
    • The Puritans believed that it was their duty to build a model society in America that properly worshipped God.
    • Any struggle was considered to be a punishment from God for somehow disappointing him.
    • They stressed that all people were literate and therefore were able to read the bible and other religious texts.
    • In 1650, there was one minister to every 415 persons compared to one per every 3,239 in Virginia.
    • In order to educate orthodox Puritan ministers, Harvard College was founded in Massachusetts in 1636.
    • The Puritans felt that it was the job of the government to punish sinners.
    • Unfortunately, they were not able to keep their community free from “sinners” that came from the outside.
    • Religious heretics were convicted and exiled.
    • Colonists started to have disagreements over the interpretation of the bible and the way New England should be run.
    • The Puritans continued to prosecute witches past 1650 when the practice had mostly stopped in England.
    • Up until 1692, New England prosecuted 92 people of witchcraft and executed sixteen.
    • The Salem Witch Trials in 1692 saw the accusation of hundreds of people and the execution of 19 people.
  • 8. American Colonies 9 Puritans and Indians-Property
    • The colonists were shocked about the amount of land and food supply in New England.
    • They felt like God had given them this land as a reward for their pious behavior.
    • The New English felt that it was their duty to punish the “lazy” natives.
    • They decided that it was their right to decide the amount of land that the Indians needed, which got smaller in every passing year.
    • The colonists offered goods in trade for tracts of land from the Indians…the colonists felt they then owned the land, the natives thought they were sharing the land.
    • The colonists often punished the natives for trespassing.
    • When the Indians retaliated, the colonists felt that they were the victims.
    • The natives couldn’t believe how fast the colonists cleared the land to provide area for their livestock.
    • The livestock often ate the crops of the Indians.
    • As the colonists built permanent buildings, they made it less recognizable to the Indians.
    • The habitat for the wild animals and plants became smaller and smaller.
  • 9. American Colonies 9 Puritans and Indians-Pequot War
    • The first skirmish that occurred between the Puritans and Indians happened in 1636.
    • Colonials leaders told the Pequot they had to pay a tribute in wampum, give up several kids as hostages, and surrender captured colonists.
    • The Pequot’s refused, which caused the colonies of Connecticut, Plymouth, and Massachusetts to declare war.
    • The colonies were able to persuade the tribes of Narragansett and Mohegan to fight against the Pequot also.
    • In May of 1637 a Pequot village in the Mystic River Valley was attacked.
    • The village contained mostly women, children, and old men which the colonists and other Indians set on fire, killing all but five of the 400 inhabitants.
    • The Indian allies of the colonists were shocked at the brutality of the attack.
    • The New English felt justified in the killings despite criticism from Puritans in England.
    • The victory was seen as proof that God had found them worthy.
    • The rest of 1637 saw the killing or capture of the rest of the Pequot tribe.
    • An attempt at uniting all of the area tribes by chief of the Narragansett failed and ended in his capture and death.
  • 10. American Colonies 9 Puritans and Indians-King Philip’s War
    • The bloodiest war between the Indians and Puritans happened in 1675.
    • It was named after the Wampanoag chief known to the New English as King Philip.
    • The Wampanoag attacked the colonists after the executions of three Indians that had killed a praying town Indian.
    • The Indian victories over small colonial homesteads caused other bands of Indians with their own problems with the colonists to attack.
    • The Puritans then attacked neutral bands, such as the Narragansett, who were the largest and most powerful Indians in the regions.
    • Both sides used muskets as the primary weapons.
    • Using the lessons the natives had learned from the Puritans, they decimated entire families and completely destroyed all symbols of the English civilization.
    • The colonists felt it was their duty to God to kill all Indians, including ones that converted and lived in praying towns.
    • The colonists were able to ally with the Pequot and Mohegan making this a civil war.
    • The allied Indians turned the tide in the war, teaching the colonists how to attack on the Indians terms.
    • In 1676, the rebellion collapsed as a result of starvation and lack of ammunition on the Indians part.
    • The war devastated both the settlements and Indian villages.
    • The English lost about 1,000 colonists, while the Indians lost 3,000 people, almost a third of their population.