Learned prayers and ceremonies of his cult from parents and grandparents.
Helped keep the old beliefs and rituals alive despite attempts to convert the Indians to Catholicism by the Spanish.
Charged with heresy at the age of 90.
Stayed true to himself regardless of outside pressures.
Born in 1496
Born to a merchant father and a mother who was a priestess.
Considered to be a religious prodigy at a young age.
Jailed and sentenced to death for predicting the death of Moctezuma, lord of the Mexica-Aztec world.
Released and able to escape disease and violence in Tenochititlan.
Converted to Roman Catholic while still practicing old traditions and rituals.
Was banished to live in Seville under watch by the Inquisition.
Ship carrying Ocelotl was lost at sea.
Stayed true to his convictions despite the attempt to convert natives to European ways.
Juan De Morga and Gertrudis de Escobar
Born in 1627
Born a slave to a priest and slave girl.
Bought by Diego de Arratia who branded his face and beat him and treated him cruelly.
Tried to run away numerous times.
Asked the Holy Office for help.
Spoke of demons and devil worshipping in hopes of being taken from Arratia.
Was finally freed in 1650.
He never gave up despite needless cruelty and despair.
Born in 1645
Born a slave, yet somehow became free.
Sold into a life of slavery by her aunt.
Worked at a sugar plantation owned by Don Mateo de Lizama.
Ran away many time.s
Asked the Holy Office for help.
Andres Gamero de Leon, a priest, submitted her case to the tribuna.l
Was sentenced to a month in chains and was to be set free.
Lived her life unapologetically and on her terms.
Born in 1509 or 1510
First child and legitimate heir born to Moctezuma II and Teotlalco.
Married 5 times including to her uncle Cuitlahuac and her cousin Cuauhtemoc.
Baptized in the Catholic faith.
Given revenues and income from the town of Tacuba.
Gave birth to Cortes’ child.
Performed charity work.
Was an example of a Hispanicized woman.
Beatriz de Padilla
Born c. 1620
Housekeeper and mistress
Accused of killing one lover, Diego Ortiz Saavedra, and driving another insane.
Gave birth to 4 children, including one by Saavedra.
Society had a problem with a priest publicly showing love for a mistress and for making her his sole heir.
Was later acquitted of all charges.
She was a woman who made no apologies for the way she acted, unlike “respectable” white women.
Second generation Mexican born in Mexico City.
He was free, literate, and skilled.
He started his own freighting business.
Earned most of his living hauling wood to southern markets.
Earned the title of senor de recuas in 1604.
Was able to cross racial and social boundaries and became a successful businessman regardless of his origins.
Born c. 1557
He was highly educated and well traveled with a passion for astronomy and mathematics.
Printed the first book of his career as a printer in 1599.
Published his own book in 1606.
Appointed chief engineer to a drainage canal project in 1607 despite having no training as an engineer.
The drainage canal was a failure due to lack of expertise.
Briefly jailed for sabotaging his own project.
Still believed in his project at the time of his death despite his lack of success.
Tula, the Mythical Beginning Chapter 1
Tula was the home to the Toltecs, who are considered to be the inventors of art and tehcnology.
Toltecs worshipped many gods.
Nomads and settlers lived side by side and many immigrants came from the north.
Tula ebbed in power and eventually collapsed in the middle of the 12 th century.
A new group of Indians, called “Aztecs”, “Mexitin”, “Mexica”, arrived in the Valley of Mexico.
Texcoco became the center of refined civilization.
A Triple Alliance formed between Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tacuba in 1428.
The Triple Alliance eventually became the Aztec Empire.
The Empire Builders Chapter 2
Moctezuma I came into power in 1440.
After many years of famine, locusts, and flooding, Moctezuma decided to start a perpetual war with Puebla and Tlaxcala.
Prisoners of wars were to be sacrificed to appease the gods.
Laws were set in place to provide penalties for drunkenness, adultery, and thieves.
The Triple Alliance did not leave any military behind in the lands that they conquered.
Several revolts against the Aztecs took place, but to no avail.
Tributes paid by conquered lands increased the Aztecs wealth enormously.
Moctezuma died in 1465.
The Atzecs, Conquering Heroes Chapter 3
Ahuitzotl came into power in 1486.
He led a military campaign against provinces in revolt to obtain prisoners.
A monument started by Moctezuma I was nearing completion, calling for feasts and sacrifices.
Ahuitzotl led non-stop military campaigns and expansion to provide food for the gods.
The large influx of people meant that the city had to be continually upgraded.
The size of the Empire started to cause problems.
In 1503 Moctezuma II succeeded Ahuitzotl.
Human sacrifice had been around for thousands of years.
It was a way of disposing of dangerous prisoners such as leaders and warriors, as well as to appease their gods.
The Clash of Two Worlds Chapter 4
Prophecies told of Moctezuma’s defeat by a bearded white man.
In April of 1519 the Spanish landed in what would become Veracruz.
Moctezuma sent food, jewels, feathers and human sacrifices.
Moctezuma didn’t know how to react to the Spanish-welcome them or destroy them?
The Spaniards marched toward Tenochtitlan, making alliances along the way with disgruntled members of the Triple Alliance.
Moctezuma went to meet with Cortes in a display of great wealth and power.
After reaching the city, Moctezuma was seized and Cortes’ men attacked the Aztecs.
Cuauhtemoc, the last emperor of the Aztec empire, took over and attempted to attack the Spanish.
The Spanish fled and suffered heavy losses.
Cortes rallied his supporters and laid siege to the city for three months.
Tenochtitlan fell on August 13, 1521, with approximately 240,000 Aztecs dying.
Charles V ruled from Spain, with Cortes being appointed the governor and captain-general.
From Resistance to Collaboration Chapter 5
Cortes insisted that the Indians convert to Christianity.
The Spaniards raided temples, assassinated native priests, smashed statues, and burned the pyramids.
Monks came in and baptized hundreds of thousands of people.
Christianity discontinued the practice of polygamy causing thousands of second wives to be thrown on the street with their children.
Preachers Christianized children against reluctant parents.
Resistance was difficult due to lack of organization.
Little by little the resistance died down.
Moctezuma’s daughter was still a figure of importance and received revenues of the city of Tacuba.
Aztec warriors now served under the crown of Spain.
There was a late renaissance that flourished in Mexico.
Indians learned to read and write and even had the opportunity for higher learning.
Epidemics raged through the Indian population brought by the Spanish.
The Aftermath of the Conquests Chapter 6
The Indian way of life was shattered by the conquest.
Christianity took on different practices and gestures that allowed the Indians to keep a little of the old ways.
Many of the natives became bilingual and used this to their advantage.
Negative aspects of the Spanish culture, such as alcoholism, became a part of the Indians lives.
Money was wasted, fights broke out, and prostitution flourished.
Native people became craftsmen, sellers of food, and servants.
The modern world took a heavy toll on the Indians.
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
A Spanish explorer of the New World.
Born in 1490, he was a member of Spanish nobility.
Left Spain in 1527 as part of a royal expedition to occupy mainland North America.
He was one of only three men that survived out of 300 that landed in Florida.
After being lost in the swamp for months, a party of 242 men shipwrecked near Galveston Island.
After being enslaved for several years by various Native America tribes, he and three others were able to escape to Mexico City.
He traveled on foot through Texas, northeastern parts of Mexico and down the Gulf of California.
Along the way he developed a reputation as a faith healer and gained many followers.
After reaching New Spain he sailed back to Europe in 1537.
De Vaca wrote about his travels in a book entitled La Relación.
In 1540 he was sent to re-establish the settlement in Buenos Aires.
He had sympathies toward the natives and didn’t want to use them as labor, while the elite settlers did.
He lost support and was arrested for poor administration in 1544.
After being exonerated, he moved back to the colony.
He died a poor man around 1558.
The Black Legend
A term coined by Julian Juderias in 1914 regarding the anti-Spanish propaganda in the Early Modern Era.
It is said to be influenced by religious and national rivalries between Spain and other European nations during the 16 th and 17 th centuries.
One of the main elements of the Black Legend is the brutality of the Spanish Inquisition.
Many of the images of moats, chains, and torture came from Protestant propagandists who didn’t have any first hand knowledge of the events.
Moderns studies of documents show that the Spanish were no more cruel than any other legal systems of that time.
The Spanish colonization of the Americas is another element that helped propagate the Black Legend.
The Spanish are accused of forcibly and violently converting the Native Indians into Christianity.
The fact that King Phillip ll sent resources for building churches and that Queen Isabella I’s last will told authorities to treat the Indians with dignity and respect is often omitted from historical writings.
Spain also sent a
to the Americas to
Spanish Colonization of the Americas
The Spanish conquered, explored, and exerted political rule over much of the Western Hemisphere.
The motivations for expansion were trade and to spread Christianity to the indigenous people.
It lasted from 1492 to 1898.
In 1492, Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas.
He later returned to claim Hispaniola, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.
The first permanent settlement in the Americas mainland was in 1510.
In 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean and the surrounding mainland for Spain.
During the years of 1519-1521 Cortes waged war and took over the Aztec Empire.
The Spanish conquest of the Yucatan lasted 1551-1697.
In 1532 Francisco Pizarro and native allies ambushed and captured the Incan Emperor, Atahualpa.
This was the first step of Spain’s campaign to win control of the Incan Empire.
In the following years control was extended over the greater Andes region.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was founded in 1535, Viceroyalty of Peru in 1542, Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717, and the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata in 1776.
In 1809 New Granada declared independence from Spain.
Mexico declared independence in 1810 which started a war that lasted over 10 years.
All colonies except Cuba and Puerto Rico gained independence by the 1820s.
In 1898 the United States won their independence from Spain and claimed Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico.
The Spanish possession and rule of American colonies had ended.