Theme 3 Part 1Theme 3 Part 1
Portuguese Empire in thePortuguese Empire in the
Kristi BeriaKristi Beria
Antonio de GouveiaAntonio de Gouveia
Born in 1528Born in 1528
Spent youth in the Azores, moved toSpent youth in the Azores, moved to
Lisbon, Portugal at the age of 20.Lisbon, Portugal at the age of 20.
He was made a subdeacon thenHe was made a subdeacon then
ordained to the holy priesthood atordained to the holy priesthood at
Saint Anne’s.Saint Anne’s.
It is not known how he preparedIt is not known how he prepared
himself for the priesthood since therehimself for the priesthood since there
isn’t a seminary in the Azores.isn’t a seminary in the Azores.
He studied theology and medicine inHe studied theology and medicine in
Against church law he served for aAgainst church law he served for a
short time as a mercenary soldier.short time as a mercenary soldier.
After being shipwrecked nearAfter being shipwrecked near
Barcelona he practiced medicine as aBarcelona he practiced medicine as a
means to earn a living.means to earn a living.
He claimed to have the power toHe claimed to have the power to
become invisible.become invisible.
He spent time as a member of the Society ofHe spent time as a member of the Society of
Jesus but left in 1556Jesus but left in 1556
He was arrested by the Inquisition in 1557He was arrested by the Inquisition in 1557
on charges of superstition, divination,on charges of superstition, divination,
witchcraft, and commerce with the Devil.witchcraft, and commerce with the Devil.
He spent 4 years awaiting a decision.He spent 4 years awaiting a decision.
He was eventually suspended of holy ordersHe was eventually suspended of holy orders
and forbidden to practice medicine.and forbidden to practice medicine.
After many more arrests, he was eventuallyAfter many more arrests, he was eventually
sent to Brazil.sent to Brazil.
On expeditions he was notorious for cruelOn expeditions he was notorious for cruel
behavior towards those who welcomed him.behavior towards those who welcomed him.
He was eventually sent back to Lisbon andHe was eventually sent back to Lisbon and
spent many more years in jail.spent many more years in jail.
Antonia de Gouveia was a conniving andAntonia de Gouveia was a conniving and
violent man who lived unrepentantlyviolent man who lived unrepentantly
regardless of the consequences.regardless of the consequences.
Catarina De Monte SinayCatarina De Monte Sinay
Born 1680Born 1680
Bahia, BrazilBahia, Brazil
Had been raised to be a nun.Had been raised to be a nun.
Her father was a scribe of the municipal courtHer father was a scribe of the municipal court
who passed the business on to her brother,who passed the business on to her brother,
who ran it into the groundwho ran it into the ground
She was always sure of her calling to becomeShe was always sure of her calling to become
a nun.a nun.
She had a sharp mind and was able to becomeShe had a sharp mind and was able to become
very wealthy while living a modest lifestyle.very wealthy while living a modest lifestyle.
She gave loans to people and made moneyShe gave loans to people and made money
from them.from them.
She owned five residential properties thatShe owned five residential properties that
she rented out.she rented out.
Catarina also sold sweets and pastries.Catarina also sold sweets and pastries.
On her death bed, she made sure to includeOn her death bed, she made sure to include
her servants in her will along with leavingher servants in her will along with leaving
the church a large sum of money.the church a large sum of money.
She also made sure that her sisters wouldShe also made sure that her sisters would
be taken care of.be taken care of.
She died in 1958.She died in 1958.
Catarina was able to devoteCatarina was able to devote
her life to the Lordher life to the Lord
while maintainingwhile maintaining
the part of herself thatthe part of herself that
was interested inwas interested in
Francisca: Indian SlaveFrancisca: Indian Slave Born in 1700Born in 1700
Grew up in the village of the Manao chiefGrew up in the village of the Manao chief
The need for servants led to slave huntingThe need for servants led to slave hunting
Chief Amu gave his daughter, Rosaura, toChief Amu gave his daughter, Rosaura, to
Ancleto da Costa Rayol and Francisca wasAncleto da Costa Rayol and Francisca was
included as a companion to Rosaura.included as a companion to Rosaura.
This was not a legal transaction.This was not a legal transaction.
Da Costa Rayol then sold Francisca toDa Costa Rayol then sold Francisca to
Anacleto Ferreira even though she wasAnacleto Ferreira even though she was
technically a free person.technically a free person.
She worked for 20 years in the service ofShe worked for 20 years in the service of
Dona Anna de Fonte.Dona Anna de Fonte.
After 20 years, Francisca petitioned for herAfter 20 years, Francisca petitioned for her
Several witnesses came to testify on behalfSeveral witnesses came to testify on behalf
of Francisca, but they were consideredof Francisca, but they were considered
She was given freedom by a chief justice,She was given freedom by a chief justice,
but his ruling was reversed.but his ruling was reversed.
She returned to work for de Fonte.She returned to work for de Fonte.
Despite having survived many horrors,Despite having survived many horrors,
Francisca’s spirit was never broken andFrancisca’s spirit was never broken and
allowed her to attempt to get her freedomallowed her to attempt to get her freedom
Origins of the PortugueseOrigins of the Portuguese
EmpireEmpire The beginning of the Portuguese EmpireThe beginning of the Portuguese Empire
starts with the gradual Christian re-starts with the gradual Christian re-
conquest of the Iberian Peninsula from theconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the
Portugal then declared itself anPortugal then declared itself an
independent country in 1249, but wasn’t aindependent country in 1249, but wasn’t a
stable independence until 1411.stable independence until 1411.
It then focused it’s efforts on the lands ofIt then focused it’s efforts on the lands of
North Africa in order to Christianize theNorth Africa in order to Christianize the
area and establish new trade.area and establish new trade.
Prince Henry the Navigator supported andPrince Henry the Navigator supported and
financed exploration of the Atlantic Coastfinanced exploration of the Atlantic Coast
of Africaof Africa
The islands of Madeira were reached inThe islands of Madeira were reached in
1420 and the Azores in 1427.1420 and the Azores in 1427.
Both were settled and started producingBoth were settled and started producing
wheat to export to Portugal.wheat to export to Portugal.
Senegal and Cape Verde Peninsula wereSenegal and Cape Verde Peninsula were
reached in 1445 as a result of newreached in 1445 as a result of new
technologies in ship building.technologies in ship building.
The expansion of sugarcane in Madeira inThe expansion of sugarcane in Madeira in
1455 soon made it the largest producer of1455 soon made it the largest producer of
The continued exploration of the coast ofThe continued exploration of the coast of
Africa allowed for successful slave andAfrica allowed for successful slave and
gold trades.gold trades.
The Treaty of Tordesillas ended a disputeThe Treaty of Tordesillas ended a dispute
between Portugal and Spain regarding thebetween Portugal and Spain regarding the
dividing of the world outside Europe.dividing of the world outside Europe.
Vasco de Gama discovered India in 1498.Vasco de Gama discovered India in 1498.
In 1505 the Portuguese government wasIn 1505 the Portuguese government was
established in India.established in India.
The Portuguese had control of tradeThe Portuguese had control of trade
Indian Ocean for almost a century.Indian Ocean for almost a century.
By 1511 Portugal was trading with ChinaBy 1511 Portugal was trading with China
and Southeast Asia.and Southeast Asia.
1542 brought Jesuit missionaries to spread1542 brought Jesuit missionaries to spread
By 1619, Portugal dominated the tradeBy 1619, Portugal dominated the trade
industry between Asia andindustry between Asia and
Europe and betweenEurope and between
regions of Asia itself.regions of Asia itself.
Colonial BrazilColonial Brazil Colonial Brazil spans 1500 and 1815.Colonial Brazil spans 1500 and 1815.
In 1500, Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed BrazilIn 1500, Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed Brazil
in the name of Portugal.in the name of Portugal.
They soon began harvesting brazilwood usingThey soon began harvesting brazilwood using
native labor in exchange for European items.native labor in exchange for European items.
The help of European adventurers was heavilyThe help of European adventurers was heavily
relied on by Portugal since they lived with therelied on by Portugal since they lived with the
natives and knew the language.natives and knew the language.
The first colonial villages were in place byThe first colonial villages were in place by
1530 in order to keep France from colonizing1530 in order to keep France from colonizing
the area.the area.
15 captaincies were established between 153415 captaincies were established between 1534
and 1536, but only two were successful.and 1536, but only two were successful.
In 1549 a central government was establishedIn 1549 a central government was established
and Jesuit missionaries were brought in toand Jesuit missionaries were brought in to
convert the natives to Roman Catholicism.convert the natives to Roman Catholicism.
Relations were strained between theRelations were strained between the
indigenous people and the Portuguese.indigenous people and the Portuguese.
The Portuguese were successful in expellingThe Portuguese were successful in expelling
and defeating several attempts at Frenchand defeating several attempts at French
The period of sugar-based economy is calledThe period of sugar-based economy is called
“The Sugarcane Cycle”.“The Sugarcane Cycle”.
Both native and black slaves worked theBoth native and black slaves worked the
sugarcane fields.sugarcane fields.
There are reports of runaway slaves creatingThere are reports of runaway slaves creating
settlements in the inland regions of Brazil.settlements in the inland regions of Brazil.
Gold was discovered at the end of the 16Gold was discovered at the end of the 16thth
century which prompted a gold rush to thecentury which prompted a gold rush to the
inland areas.inland areas.
Diamonds were also discovered in 1729.Diamonds were also discovered in 1729.
The areas near the gold mines were organizedThe areas near the gold mines were organized
into villages and prompted urban expansion.into villages and prompted urban expansion.
Several settlements were established inSeveral settlements were established in
Southern Brazil in the late 17Southern Brazil in the late 17thth
and 18and 18thth
The late 1700’s brought several attempts byThe late 1700’s brought several attempts by
Brazilians to gain independence fromBrazilians to gain independence from
In 1815 the Congress of Venice created theIn 1815 the Congress of Venice created the
United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and theUnited Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the
Algarve which allowed Brazil to be elevatedAlgarve which allowed Brazil to be elevated
to the same status as Portugal.to the same status as Portugal.
Portuguese DiscoveriesPortuguese Discoveries
1336-Possible first expedition to the Canary1336-Possible first expedition to the Canary
1412-First expeditions to African Coast.1412-First expeditions to African Coast.
1420-The Island of Madeira is discovered and1420-The Island of Madeira is discovered and
1434-Cape Bojador is sailed around1434-Cape Bojador is sailed around
eliminating the myth of the “Dark Sea”.eliminating the myth of the “Dark Sea”.
1446-Northern part of Portuguese Guinea is1446-Northern part of Portuguese Guinea is
1458-The first island of Cape Verde is1458-The first island of Cape Verde is
1471-The equator is crossed.1471-The equator is crossed.
1472-Land of Cod (Newfoundland) is reached.1472-Land of Cod (Newfoundland) is reached.
1488-The Indian Ocean is reached.1488-The Indian Ocean is reached.
1498-The African Coast is sailed around with1498-The African Coast is sailed around with
arrival in India.arrival in India.
1500-Brazil is discovered.1500-Brazil is discovered.
1506-Portuguese sailors land on Madagascar.1506-Portuguese sailors land on Madagascar.
1513-The first trading ships reach China.1513-The first trading ships reach China.
1529-The eastern hemisphere is divided1529-The eastern hemisphere is divided
between Portugal and Spain.between Portugal and Spain.
1542-The coast of California is1542-The coast of California is