Theme 3 part 1

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Theme 3 part 1

  1. 1. Theme 3 Part 1Theme 3 Part 1 Portuguese Empire in thePortuguese Empire in the AmericasAmericas Kristi BeriaKristi Beria
  2. 2. Antonio de GouveiaAntonio de Gouveia  Born in 1528Born in 1528  Spent youth in the Azores, moved toSpent youth in the Azores, moved to Lisbon, Portugal at the age of 20.Lisbon, Portugal at the age of 20.  MaleMale  PortuguesePortuguese  PriestPriest  He was made a subdeacon thenHe was made a subdeacon then ordained to the holy priesthood atordained to the holy priesthood at Saint Anne’s.Saint Anne’s.  It is not known how he preparedIt is not known how he prepared himself for the priesthood since therehimself for the priesthood since there isn’t a seminary in the Azores.isn’t a seminary in the Azores.  He studied theology and medicine inHe studied theology and medicine in Rome.Rome.  Against church law he served for aAgainst church law he served for a short time as a mercenary soldier.short time as a mercenary soldier.  After being shipwrecked nearAfter being shipwrecked near Barcelona he practiced medicine as aBarcelona he practiced medicine as a means to earn a living.means to earn a living.  He claimed to have the power toHe claimed to have the power to become invisible.become invisible.  He spent time as a member of the Society ofHe spent time as a member of the Society of Jesus but left in 1556Jesus but left in 1556  He was arrested by the Inquisition in 1557He was arrested by the Inquisition in 1557 on charges of superstition, divination,on charges of superstition, divination, witchcraft, and commerce with the Devil.witchcraft, and commerce with the Devil.  He spent 4 years awaiting a decision.He spent 4 years awaiting a decision.  He was eventually suspended of holy ordersHe was eventually suspended of holy orders and forbidden to practice medicine.and forbidden to practice medicine.  After many more arrests, he was eventuallyAfter many more arrests, he was eventually sent to Brazil.sent to Brazil.  On expeditions he was notorious for cruelOn expeditions he was notorious for cruel behavior towards those who welcomed him.behavior towards those who welcomed him.  He was eventually sent back to Lisbon andHe was eventually sent back to Lisbon and spent many more years in jail.spent many more years in jail.  Antonia de Gouveia was a conniving andAntonia de Gouveia was a conniving and violent man who lived unrepentantlyviolent man who lived unrepentantly regardless of the consequences.regardless of the consequences.
  3. 3. Catarina De Monte SinayCatarina De Monte Sinay  Born 1680Born 1680  Bahia, BrazilBahia, Brazil  FemaleFemale  BrazilianBrazilian  NunNun  Had been raised to be a nun.Had been raised to be a nun.  Her father was a scribe of the municipal courtHer father was a scribe of the municipal court who passed the business on to her brother,who passed the business on to her brother, who ran it into the groundwho ran it into the ground  She was always sure of her calling to becomeShe was always sure of her calling to become a nun.a nun.  She had a sharp mind and was able to becomeShe had a sharp mind and was able to become very wealthy while living a modest lifestyle.very wealthy while living a modest lifestyle.  She gave loans to people and made moneyShe gave loans to people and made money from them.from them.  She owned five residential properties thatShe owned five residential properties that she rented out.she rented out.  Catarina also sold sweets and pastries.Catarina also sold sweets and pastries.  On her death bed, she made sure to includeOn her death bed, she made sure to include her servants in her will along with leavingher servants in her will along with leaving the church a large sum of money.the church a large sum of money.  She also made sure that her sisters wouldShe also made sure that her sisters would be taken care of.be taken care of.  She died in 1958.She died in 1958.  Catarina was able to devoteCatarina was able to devote her life to the Lordher life to the Lord while maintainingwhile maintaining the part of herself thatthe part of herself that was interested inwas interested in business.business.
  4. 4. Francisca: Indian SlaveFrancisca: Indian Slave Born in 1700Born in 1700  AmazonAmazon  FemaleFemale  PortuguesePortuguese  SlaveSlave  Grew up in the village of the Manao chiefGrew up in the village of the Manao chief Amu.Amu.  The need for servants led to slave huntingThe need for servants led to slave hunting expeditions.expeditions.  Chief Amu gave his daughter, Rosaura, toChief Amu gave his daughter, Rosaura, to Ancleto da Costa Rayol and Francisca wasAncleto da Costa Rayol and Francisca was included as a companion to Rosaura.included as a companion to Rosaura.  This was not a legal transaction.This was not a legal transaction.  Da Costa Rayol then sold Francisca toDa Costa Rayol then sold Francisca to Anacleto Ferreira even though she wasAnacleto Ferreira even though she was technically a free person.technically a free person.  She worked for 20 years in the service ofShe worked for 20 years in the service of Dona Anna de Fonte.Dona Anna de Fonte.  After 20 years, Francisca petitioned for herAfter 20 years, Francisca petitioned for her freedom.freedom.  Several witnesses came to testify on behalfSeveral witnesses came to testify on behalf of Francisca, but they were consideredof Francisca, but they were considered unreliable.unreliable.  She was given freedom by a chief justice,She was given freedom by a chief justice, but his ruling was reversed.but his ruling was reversed.  She returned to work for de Fonte.She returned to work for de Fonte.  Despite having survived many horrors,Despite having survived many horrors, Francisca’s spirit was never broken andFrancisca’s spirit was never broken and allowed her to attempt to get her freedomallowed her to attempt to get her freedom back.back.
  5. 5. Origins of the PortugueseOrigins of the Portuguese EmpireEmpire The beginning of the Portuguese EmpireThe beginning of the Portuguese Empire starts with the gradual Christian re-starts with the gradual Christian re- conquest of the Iberian Peninsula from theconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors.Moors.  Portugal then declared itself anPortugal then declared itself an independent country in 1249, but wasn’t aindependent country in 1249, but wasn’t a stable independence until 1411.stable independence until 1411.  It then focused it’s efforts on the lands ofIt then focused it’s efforts on the lands of North Africa in order to Christianize theNorth Africa in order to Christianize the area and establish new trade.area and establish new trade.  Prince Henry the Navigator supported andPrince Henry the Navigator supported and financed exploration of the Atlantic Coastfinanced exploration of the Atlantic Coast of Africaof Africa  The islands of Madeira were reached inThe islands of Madeira were reached in 1420 and the Azores in 1427.1420 and the Azores in 1427.  Both were settled and started producingBoth were settled and started producing wheat to export to Portugal.wheat to export to Portugal.  Senegal and Cape Verde Peninsula wereSenegal and Cape Verde Peninsula were reached in 1445 as a result of newreached in 1445 as a result of new technologies in ship building.technologies in ship building.  The expansion of sugarcane in Madeira inThe expansion of sugarcane in Madeira in 1455 soon made it the largest producer of1455 soon made it the largest producer of sugar.sugar.  The continued exploration of the coast ofThe continued exploration of the coast of Africa allowed for successful slave andAfrica allowed for successful slave and gold trades.gold trades.  The Treaty of Tordesillas ended a disputeThe Treaty of Tordesillas ended a dispute between Portugal and Spain regarding thebetween Portugal and Spain regarding the dividing of the world outside Europe.dividing of the world outside Europe.  Vasco de Gama discovered India in 1498.Vasco de Gama discovered India in 1498.  In 1505 the Portuguese government wasIn 1505 the Portuguese government was established in India.established in India.  The Portuguese had control of tradeThe Portuguese had control of trade Indian Ocean for almost a century.Indian Ocean for almost a century.  By 1511 Portugal was trading with ChinaBy 1511 Portugal was trading with China and Southeast Asia.and Southeast Asia.  1542 brought Jesuit missionaries to spread1542 brought Jesuit missionaries to spread Christianity.Christianity.  By 1619, Portugal dominated the tradeBy 1619, Portugal dominated the trade industry between Asia andindustry between Asia and Europe and betweenEurope and between regions of Asia itself.regions of Asia itself.
  6. 6. Colonial BrazilColonial Brazil Colonial Brazil spans 1500 and 1815.Colonial Brazil spans 1500 and 1815.  In 1500, Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed BrazilIn 1500, Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed Brazil in the name of Portugal.in the name of Portugal.  They soon began harvesting brazilwood usingThey soon began harvesting brazilwood using native labor in exchange for European items.native labor in exchange for European items.  The help of European adventurers was heavilyThe help of European adventurers was heavily relied on by Portugal since they lived with therelied on by Portugal since they lived with the natives and knew the language.natives and knew the language.  The first colonial villages were in place byThe first colonial villages were in place by 1530 in order to keep France from colonizing1530 in order to keep France from colonizing the area.the area.  15 captaincies were established between 153415 captaincies were established between 1534 and 1536, but only two were successful.and 1536, but only two were successful.  In 1549 a central government was establishedIn 1549 a central government was established and Jesuit missionaries were brought in toand Jesuit missionaries were brought in to convert the natives to Roman Catholicism.convert the natives to Roman Catholicism.  Relations were strained between theRelations were strained between the indigenous people and the Portuguese.indigenous people and the Portuguese.  The Portuguese were successful in expellingThe Portuguese were successful in expelling and defeating several attempts at Frenchand defeating several attempts at French colonization.colonization.  The period of sugar-based economy is calledThe period of sugar-based economy is called “The Sugarcane Cycle”.“The Sugarcane Cycle”.  Both native and black slaves worked theBoth native and black slaves worked the sugarcane fields.sugarcane fields.  There are reports of runaway slaves creatingThere are reports of runaway slaves creating settlements in the inland regions of Brazil.settlements in the inland regions of Brazil.  Gold was discovered at the end of the 16Gold was discovered at the end of the 16thth century which prompted a gold rush to thecentury which prompted a gold rush to the inland areas.inland areas.  Diamonds were also discovered in 1729.Diamonds were also discovered in 1729.  The areas near the gold mines were organizedThe areas near the gold mines were organized into villages and prompted urban expansion.into villages and prompted urban expansion.  Several settlements were established inSeveral settlements were established in Southern Brazil in the late 17Southern Brazil in the late 17thth and 18and 18thth centuries.centuries.  The late 1700’s brought several attempts byThe late 1700’s brought several attempts by Brazilians to gain independence fromBrazilians to gain independence from Portugal.Portugal.  In 1815 the Congress of Venice created theIn 1815 the Congress of Venice created the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and theUnited Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarve which allowed Brazil to be elevatedAlgarve which allowed Brazil to be elevated to the same status as Portugal.to the same status as Portugal.
  7. 7. Portuguese DiscoveriesPortuguese Discoveries  1336-Possible first expedition to the Canary1336-Possible first expedition to the Canary Islands.Islands.  1412-First expeditions to African Coast.1412-First expeditions to African Coast.  1420-The Island of Madeira is discovered and1420-The Island of Madeira is discovered and colonized.colonized.  1434-Cape Bojador is sailed around1434-Cape Bojador is sailed around eliminating the myth of the “Dark Sea”.eliminating the myth of the “Dark Sea”.  1446-Northern part of Portuguese Guinea is1446-Northern part of Portuguese Guinea is reached.reached.  1458-The first island of Cape Verde is1458-The first island of Cape Verde is discoverdiscover  1471-The equator is crossed.1471-The equator is crossed.  1472-Land of Cod (Newfoundland) is reached.1472-Land of Cod (Newfoundland) is reached.  1488-The Indian Ocean is reached.1488-The Indian Ocean is reached.  1498-The African Coast is sailed around with1498-The African Coast is sailed around with arrival in India.arrival in India.  1500-Brazil is discovered.1500-Brazil is discovered.  1506-Portuguese sailors land on Madagascar.1506-Portuguese sailors land on Madagascar.  1513-The first trading ships reach China.1513-The first trading ships reach China.  1529-The eastern hemisphere is divided1529-The eastern hemisphere is divided between Portugal and Spain.between Portugal and Spain.  1542-The coast of California is1542-The coast of California is discovered.discovered.

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