Nation Report History 141 by Kristi Beria

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Nation Report History 141 by Kristi Beria

  1. 1. Nation Report: Haiti By Kristi Beria History 141
  2. 2. Haiti History <ul><li>In 1492, Columbus discovered the island of Hispaniola and claimed it for the Spanish Crown. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1697, the Spanish cede the western third of Hispaniola to the French, who then named it Saint Domingue. </li></ul><ul><li>African slaves were imported to help the planters grow tobacco, indigo, cotton, and cacao. </li></ul><ul><li>Saint Domingue becomes the richest colony in the world, with its capital city Cap Francois called the Paris of the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1780’s Saint Domingue produced approximately 40% of all the sugar and 60% of all the coffee consumed by Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>There were many slave rebellions that went on during this time, with the slaves outnumbering the whites that ran the colony. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were treated cruelly and were beaten, starved and even buried alive for minor infractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Many slaves ran away from their masters and joined together to form communities that would often raid the plantations. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Haiti History <ul><li>Saint Domingue had the largest and wealthiest free population of color in all of the Caribbean. </li></ul><ul><li>Many French slave owners had children with African slaves and these children, “mulattos” were able to inherit property. </li></ul><ul><li>In January of 1804 General Jean Jacques Dessalines declares himself emperor and proclaims the area as the independent Republic of Haiti. </li></ul><ul><li>Dessalines is eventually assassinated and the country is split into two rival regimes. </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Pierre Boyer is able to reunite the Haiti. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the former slaves refused to work on the plantations and by 1840 Haiti was no longer exporting sugar. </li></ul><ul><li>After many different rulers, the Constitution of 1867 spelled out progressive transitions in their government. </li></ul><ul><li>The economic and stability of the Nation was restored. </li></ul><ul><li>The sugar and rum industries located near Port-au-Princes were even, for awhile, a model for economic growth for Latin America countries. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Haiti Geography <ul><li>Haiti is located between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean on the western third of the island of Hispaniola. </li></ul><ul><li>The total area is 10,714 square miles which is slightly smaller than the state of Maryland. </li></ul><ul><li>There is 1,100 miles of coastline on Haiti. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very mountainous with fertile valleys interspersed throughout forming a rough terrain. </li></ul><ul><li>There are numerous islands that make up the total territory of Haiti including Tortuga and Les Cayemites. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many lakes and rivers that are located in Haiti including two salt water lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several natural resources that are available including copper, gold, marble, and calcium carbonate. </li></ul><ul><li>Haiti lies in the middle of a hurricane belt and had severe storms from June to October with occasional flooding and droughts. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the territories forest are being cleared to make room for crops and to be used for fuel. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Haiti Geography <ul><li>The climate of Haiti is generally a hot a humid tropical region. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite relative small size of Haiti it is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>As of 2009, the population was over 10 million people. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Haiti Culture <ul><li>The culture of Haiti has ties to both its French and African roots. </li></ul><ul><li>The music of Haiti is influenced by French, Spanish and American music with the drum being the most important instrument. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the music is taken from Vodou ceremonies and traditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Carnival is celebrated, as well as “rara” which takes place in more rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>90% of the people in Haiti are Catholic and 10% are Protestant, with many people still practicing voodoo. </li></ul><ul><li>Voodoo is a religion that was brought over from Africa and believes in supernatural spirits that have a great influence over the daily lives of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Voodoo was able to unite the slaves during the slave rebellions during Haiti’s early years. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Haitians don’t see being Christian and a practitioner of voodoo as a contradiction. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Haiti Culture <ul><li>Most households in Haiti are comprised of several generations of families. </li></ul><ul><li>Several large families will often form communities that work together to complete tasks such as building a house or farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Polygamy is not legal in Haiti, but men will often set up several households with different women. </li></ul><ul><li>There are very specific gender roles with men earning the money and women taking care of the household and children. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Haiti People <ul><li>For most of Haiti’s history, French was the official language, but 1987 Kreyol was made the official language. </li></ul><ul><li>Haiti is now one of the poorest countries in the world, with the rural farmers making less than $500 a day. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a large economic gap between the poor and the small group of wealthy elite with the middle class of Haiti continuing to expand. </li></ul><ul><li>The original population of Haiti were the Taino, an Arawakan people. </li></ul><ul><li>The arrival of Europeans brought disease to the indigenous people which brought them to near extinction. </li></ul><ul><li>A few were able to survive and build communities away from the Europeans, but the Taino eventually became an extinct population. </li></ul><ul><li>In the year 2000, 95% of Haitians were of Africa descent as a result of the importation of African slaves during the colonization. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Haiti People <ul><li>In January of 2010 the people of Haiti suffered devastation from a magnitude 7.0 earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 316,00 people died and most of the infrastructure of Haiti was destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>Over a million people were left homeless and had to set up makeshift communities among the rubble. </li></ul><ul><li>One year later, less than 5% of the debris has been cleaned up and people are still living in shantytowns. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers are still finding pulling out bodies from the rubble. </li></ul><ul><li>A cholera epidemic has killed 3,600 people. </li></ul><ul><li>Funds that had been pledged to help with clean up efforts have been slow to reach the needy. </li></ul><ul><li>Haiti is undergoing a political crises as three different people are fighting to control the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite this, the people of Haiti remain hopeful that aid will reach them soon. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sources <ul><li>http://www.everyculture.com/Ge-It/Haiti.html </li></ul><ul><li>http:// geography.about.com/od/haitimaps/a/haitigeography.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Haiti </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.language-works.com/Haiti/history.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/cb_haiti_earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/culture/monographs/haiti.php#s3 </li></ul><ul><li>https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html </li></ul>

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