Modern Latin America


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Modern Latin America

  1. 1. Modern Latin America By Kristi Beria History 141
  2. 2. Latin America’s Wars <ul><li>There were many reasons for war in Latin America during the 19 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Haiti went to war when the mixed races revolt against the rich white plantations owners, but the “pure” blacks eventually dominated. </li></ul><ul><li>Wars were fought over because of the class system that dominated in Latin America, which exalted the Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>Wars were fought over territorial boundaries and the Native Americans lands were taken from them. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the lands natural resources were fought over such as the Nitrate War. </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatives wanting a monarchy and liberals wanting a republic fought. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Latin America’s Wars <ul><li>All of the wars throughout Latin America’s history had economic impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States, Great Britain, and other countries that had a financial stake in Latin America would often intervene. </li></ul><ul><li>America and Great Britain also argued over transit across Latin America. </li></ul><ul><li>There were over 100 interventions in Latin America during the 19 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Many immigrants to Latin America, such as Irish, British, Americans, Belgians, Germans, and Italians often fought in the wars that took place during this time. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The French Intervention in Mexico, 1861-67 <ul><li>In 1861 Napoleon III intervened between the Mexican Liberals and Conservatives. </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to name Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria its emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>The government of Mexico was almost broke, owing 82.2 million pesos to foreign investors. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish, French, and British troops were all sent to Mexico by 1862 to collect the debt, but France had a secret agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>In March of 1862 4,000 French troops joined the 6,000 troops already present in Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>The French troops joined together with the Mexican Conservatives and engaged the Liberals in battle. </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller band of Liberal troops was able to defeat the French and Mexican Conservatives. </li></ul><ul><li>26,000 more French troops were sent to Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>The French were able to slowly defeat the Liberals at Puebla. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The French Intervention in Mexico, 1861-67 <ul><li>Archduke Maximilian was officially named emperor in 1864. </li></ul><ul><li>The French military, along with the Conservatives and other foreign troops, engaged and won many battles throughout Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States began leaving unattended weapons and ammunitions for the Mexican Liberals. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 3,000 American soldiers joined the Liberal Army. </li></ul><ul><li>1866 the United States made a show of force with 50,000 on the border of Mexico and ordered the French to leave. </li></ul><ul><li>The French army left Mexico City in February of 1867. </li></ul><ul><li>March 12 saw the last of the French troops leave Vera Cruz. </li></ul><ul><li>On May 14 th the Liberal Army took Mexico City without firing a single shot. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximilian was captured on May 15 th and was executed, along with several of his generals, on June 19 th . </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Second World: Mexico <ul><li>NAFTA was supposed to help Mexico pull itself out of the second world status. </li></ul><ul><li>When Mexico agreed to NAFTA, it meant that any chance they had at being independent from America were gone. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the fact that foreign investment has nearly quadrupled, more than 300 factories have closed sending the work to China. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a direct correlation to the spike in illegal immigration into America. </li></ul><ul><li>The economic gap in Mexico is steadily widening despite the efforts of the former mayor of Mexico City, Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador. </li></ul><ul><li>Gang violence has increased and drug wars are happening all over the country. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Second World: Mexico <ul><li>America will have to step up and help Mexico with training and education programs if they want the people of Mexico to stay in their own country. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish is rapidly becoming America’s second language and many border states are economically tied to Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Many elderly Americans are moving to Mexico to obtain affordable healthcare. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, millions of immigrants are coming to America to take advantage of the many social services funded by the taxpayers. </li></ul><ul><li>Many conservatives fear that America will become a “conglomerate held together by a regime.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Second World: Argentina and Chile <ul><li>During the 1920’s, Argentina was the seventh richest country in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Political corruption and arrogance have plagued the country. </li></ul><ul><li>At one point the government seized billions from pension funds and then had to quell massive riots. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2002, over half the population was below the poverty line. </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina suffers from low tax collections and a decentralized federal structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Few investors are willing to take the chance with Argentina and they have become dependent of agricultural exports to China. </li></ul><ul><li>The natural gas supply is steadily dwindling making Argentina desperate for new sources. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Second World: Argentina and Chile <ul><li>Chile is one of the most vibrant economies in Latin America. </li></ul><ul><li>Chile has a four lane highway, vineyards, engineering research centers, and glass skyscrapers. </li></ul><ul><li>The most recent governments of Chile have emphasized education and technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Incomes have increased since 1990 and only 15 percent of the country is below the poverty line. </li></ul><ul><li>Chile has free trade with America, the EU, and China. </li></ul><ul><li>Bolivia has access to its port through Chile, who, in return, get most of their oil and gas from them. </li></ul><ul><li>Chile protects its environment while, at the same time, is exploring hydroelectric power. </li></ul><ul><li>Chile is a economic and political model for the rest of Latin America. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mariano Azuela <ul><li>Azuela was born in Mexico in 1873. </li></ul><ul><li>He received a medical degree in 1899 at the University of Guadalajara. </li></ul><ul><li>Azuela eventually marries and had 10 children and publishes five novels by 1912. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1914 he joins one of Pancho Villa’s bands as a medical officer. </li></ul><ul><li>Azuela wrote many fictional stories of about the Mexican Revolution, including The Underdogs in 1915, that showed the plight of the Mexicans. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1942 Azuela received the Mexican national prize for literature. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1943 he became one of the founding members of Mexico’s National College. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1949 he received the Mexican national prize for Arts and Sciences. </li></ul><ul><li>Azuela died in 1952 of heart failure and was buried in The Rotunda of Illustrious Persons in Mexico City. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Carlos Slim Helu <ul><li>Carlos Slim is a Mexican born businessman and philanthropist. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008 Forbes magazine ranked Slim as the richest person in the world, ahead of Bill Gates. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the first Mexican to be at the top of the list. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2011 his fortune was estimated to $74 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>He is the chairman and CEO of Telemex, America Movil, and Grupa Carso. </li></ul><ul><li>Slim has bought and sold numerous companies over the years, making millions in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>He has given away billions to various non-profit groups that he has founded including the Carso Institutes for Health, Sports and Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Slim has earned the Entrepreneurial Merit Medal of Honor from Mexico's Chamber of Commerce. </li></ul>