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  1. 1. Coal use in China By: Matt Farley and Richard He
  2. 2. History of Coal in ChinaCoal was mined in China starting asearly as 4th century AD, and extensivelyused after the 11th CenturyDuring the Great Leap Forward in 1950,State owned Coal mines fueled theCentralized Industrial ExpansionThe opening up and economic reform ofChina during the 1980’s gave rise to thenumber of privately owned coal mines
  3. 3. Contemporary Coal use in ChinaCoal extraction has tripled in China from 2000 to 2009There are currently 2,300 coal plants in ChinaUnofficial estimates put the total number of licensed coalmines at 26,111 and illegal coal mine at 23,500State Owned Coal Mines gradually going out of businessand taken over by Private Towns and Village Enterprises
  4. 4. Coal Production Worldwide
  5. 5. Geographical Distribution of Coal in ChinaMajor Production zone concentrated in Northern Shanxi Province bordering Inner Mongolia
  6. 6. Coal Consumption in ChinaCoal is used in 4 major sectors in China• Electricity Generation• Industrial Use- Steel Mills• Domestic Use- Provides Heating• International Trade- Exporting
  7. 7. Coal Powered Electricity PlantsCoal provides for 77% of China’s electricity or484GWThere are an estimated 2,300 coal poweredelectric plants in China
  8. 8. Social Cost of CoalSafety issues in CoalMines- “Your Rice bowlor Your Life”SOE (State OwnedEnterprise) Vs. TVE(Town VillageEnterprise)Detrimental HealthEffect of mining andBurning Coal
  9. 9. Safety issues in Coal Mines
  10. 10. Safety issues in Coal MinesCoal mining accounts for less than 4% of thebroadly defined industrial workforce but over 45%of industrial fatalities.Bad Safety Precautions (Safety Lamp andMechanized Ventilation)Most common type of accident are Explosions(71%)and Roof Falls48 per cent of China’s SOE mines have a high levelof gas, and the increasing depth of the mines hascontributed to the growing proportion of deaths dueto explosions.
  11. 11. SOE vs. TVESOE Mines more mechanized and had the potentialsubstantially to improve safetyTVE utilizes massive reserve army of labor toproduce cheap goods with low-cost technology tocompete in world and domestic markets. Workerspaid lower wages in working poor conditionsThe rise of the TVE sector has had majorimplications for the SOEs and their workers, bygreatly increasing competition and leading to a long-term decline in profits. The economic situation ofSOE mines, as of SOEs in general, has been one ofincreasing price competition from TVEs
  12. 12. Fatality Rates
  13. 13. Health Effect of Coal ConsumptionExposure to coal associated with lung cancer,cardio-respiratory diseases, and birth defects .Indoor air pollution from coal combustion resultsin a much higher concentrated environment fordiseases since many people are exposed toconsistent, high levels of carcinogens over theirlifetimes.Long-term exposure to these poisons may leadto chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), acute lower respiratory infection, andlung cancer
  14. 14. Health Effects of Burning CoalBurning coal produces pollutants Particulates, CO, SO2,NO2, arsenic, etcIndoor coal use is responsible for 420,000premature deaths/yrUrban outdoor air pollution accounts for 300,000premature deaths/yr
  15. 15. Environmental Aspects of Coal ConsumptionOutdoor air pollution is responsible for the premature deathof an estimated 470, 000 Chinese citizensCoal Pollutants in China result of both residential andindustrial coal burningThe economic cost of mortality and morbidity that resultsfrom outdoor air pollution in a typical Chinese city wasabout 10% of that citys GDP and is only expected to rise toabout 16% by the year 2020.Speeds up the “green house effects” caused by coalcombustion leads to the concentrations of ozone in ruralareas and dramatically decreases the AgriculturalproductivityPollutions from Coal combustion travels to as far as United
  16. 16. Environmental Aspects of Coal ConsumptionChinese coal use is amajor contributor to CO2emissions worldwide –14% in 2004Domestic air pollution isa big issueFew plants filter out SO2– cause of acid rain
  17. 17. Future OutlookCoal use in China will rise, though reserves mayrun out in as few as 47 yearsRegulation is reducing pollution and mineaccidentsChina is a world leader in green tech, includingclean coal Challenge is implementation
  18. 18. BibliographyRead, Thomas T (1939–40). "The Earliest Industrial Use of Coal". Transactions of the Newcomen Society 20: p. 119.Elspeth Thomson, The Chinese Coal Industry : An Economic History, London, New York, RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, 412 p.Wright, T. (2004). The political economy of coal mine disasters in china: "your rice bowl or your life". The China Quarterly, (179),629-646. of the 2000 Population Census of the People’s Republic of China (Beijing:Zhongguotongjichubanshe,2002),Vol.2,p.885;FuJianhua,“2001nianquanguomeikuanganquanshengchanzhuangkuangjidianxingshiguanlifenxi” (“The safety situation in China’s coal mines in 2001 and an analysis oftypical accidents”), hy20020408–1.htm (10 April 2002).Kate Hannan, Industrial Change in China: Economic Restructuring and Conflicting Interests (London: Routledge, 1998), ch. 2.“Zhongguomeikuangdesandaoanquanguanlinanti”(“Threedifficultproblemsfor safety management in China’s coal mines”), 21shijijingjibaodao (21st Century Economic Report), 9 July 2002, (9July 2002).Anita Chan, “Revolution or corporatism? Workers and trade unions in post-Mao China,” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs,No. 29 (January 1993), pp. 31–62.Nichols,IndustrialInjury,p.95;Dorman,MarketsandMortality,p.19;“Minerspay the price of privatization,” CLB, 4 April 2001, cle_pv.adp?article_id 􏰃 1168 (3 April 2002) .Environmental Health Perspectives. Household Air Pollution from Coal and Biomass Fuels in China: Measurements, HealthImpacts, and Interventions. Received July 3, 2006; Accepted February 27, 2007.Saikawa E, Naik V, Horowitz LW, Liu JF, MauzerallDL. Present and potential future contributions of sulfate, black and organic carbon aerosols from China to global air quality,premature mortality and, radiative forcing. Atmos Environ 2009; 43: 2814-22.Dockery DW, Pope CA III, Xu X, et al. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:1753-59.Wang X, Mauzerall DL. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: implications for future air pollution and energy