Principles ofBiological Science I Laboratory           BSC110L      Kristen Covino       covinok@gmail.com            JST ...
Science                 A Way of Knowing• Systematic knowledge of the world gained through  observation and experimentatio...
BiologyLiving         Study ofStudy of Life
Epistemological Cycle                     Study of Understanding                        Scientific Method                 ...
Scientific Method1. Observation   Male Red-winged Blackbirds have red wing epaulet,   expose epaulet when defending territ...
Scientific Method hypothesis                  Hypothesis – possible explanation for the observed facts;                   ...
Hypothesis: Males have red wing epaulet as a signal of threat to other malesPrediction: Males without a red epaulet will n...
hypothesis                                                   Scientific Method                prediction     question     ...
Hypothesis: Males have red wing epaulet as a signal of threat to other malesPrediction: Males without a red epaulet will n...
Types of Observation /Description• Good science depends very heavily on careful  observations and accurate descriptions.• ...
hypothesis                prediction                                  Scientific Method     question                  expe...
Results – Red-winged Blackbird Experiment                                                                                 ...
hypothesis                                     prediction                                                      Scientific ...
Conclusion               Red-winged Blackbird Conclusion    Males without red epaulet are considered less of a threat to  ...
Topic 13                    (pages 127-129)How to Write a Scientific Report
What is the point of a   Parts of a scientific    scientific paper?       paper:• Communicate information  on your experim...
Abstract• A summary of the experiment and its results   – 5-7 sentences (2-3 background, 1-2 methods, 2-3     results, 1-2...
Materials and Methods • Describe what you did and the materials that you   used so someone else could replicate the   expe...
Graphs• Labels: Title, x-axis, y-axis• Key (optional and depends on the type of data)• Legend (always, Always, ALWAYS!!)  ...
Graphs• Labels: Title, x-axis, y-axis• Key (optional and depends on the type of data)• Legend (always, Always, ALWAYS!!)  ...
Graphs• Labels: Title, x-axis, y-axis• Key (optional and depends on the type of graph)• Legend (always, Always, ALWAYS!!) ...
Discussion• 2-4 well written paragraphs• What do you think your results mean?• Did you support or reject your hypothesis? ...
Literature Cited• In the Literature Cited section:Author, Date. Title. Journal. Volume: Pages.Ex) Smith, A., 1995. Hogsuck...
Literature Cited• You must cite at least 3 references from  scientific journals in your lab reporthttp://www.lib.usm.edu/f...
Today/this week...• Sign Safety Awareness Agreement• Sign e-mail list/”seating” chart• Handouts: Topic 1 supplement & guid...
Next Time...• Graphs from Exercise 1-4, pgs 15/16 (extra credit  for computer generated graphs)• QUIZ (Topics 1 & 13… & 2)...
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  • Define science. As many or as few words as you want! For our purposes, the short and sweet definition “a way of knowing” encompasses all of that. - “Way” and “Systematic” – insinuate process (scientific method)
  • How we obtain knowledge
  • Hypothesis explains the phenomenon you are interested in investigating
  • What is the dependent, independent, control variables, control, how replicate
  • What is the dependent, independent, control variables, control, how replicate
  • More information to help with two of the exercises later in class Way of gathering data that can be most clearly communicated, effective in getting point across, and repeatable - quantitative As scientists, we want to AVOID qualitative
  • Number consecutively as they appear in text, independent: x-axis, dependent: y-axis Title: Table – above / Figure - below Line graphs vs. Bar graphs
  • Pages 15 & 16 may be taken home and turned in next week!
  • Quiz – be on time! Worth 20 points! Detailed questions from this week – exercises and lecture, Vague questions from Topic 2 (pages 17 – 22) Lab report – will give handout of guidelines and suggestions. Follow it and checklists within lab manual!
  • Topic 1

    1. 1. Principles ofBiological Science I Laboratory BSC110L Kristen Covino covinok@gmail.com JST 810
    2. 2. Science A Way of Knowing• Systematic knowledge of the world gained through observation and experimentation• Systematic enterprise of gathering knowledge about the world and organizing that knowledge into testable laws and theories• Any systematic knowledge that is capable of resulting in a correct prediction or reliable outcome• Exercise 1-1
    3. 3. BiologyLiving Study ofStudy of Life
    4. 4. Epistemological Cycle Study of Understanding Scientific Method hypothesis prediction questionconclusion(accept or reject) experiment observation (gathering data) results
    5. 5. Scientific Method1. Observation Male Red-winged Blackbirds have red wing epaulet, expose epaulet when defending territory Question: Is the red epaulet exposed as a signal or threat to other males? Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus ) Male Female
    6. 6. Scientific Method hypothesis Hypothesis – possible explanation for the observed facts; leads to a testable PREDICTION question observation Red Epaulet as a Threat SignalHypothesis: Males have red wing epaulet as a signal of threat to other males Prediction: Males without a red epaulet will not be considered a threat to other males
    7. 7. Hypothesis: Males have red wing epaulet as a signal of threat to other malesPrediction: Males without a red epaulet will not be considered a threat to other males Experiment Hansen and Rohwer (1986) • Manipulated the size of epaulet (double, half, black, normal) • Placed dummy bird in another bird’s territory • Counted the number of times the territorial male hit the dummy bird (hitting dummy bird, signaled the dummy bird was a threat) Double Half Normal Black
    8. 8. hypothesis Scientific Method prediction question experimentobservation (gathering data) Experiment – designed to test the prediction1. Define Variables independent variable - variable that is manipulated/changed in the experiment dependent variable – variable being measured, counted, or observed; changes according to the level of the other variable control variables – variables kept constant during the experiment 2. Outline a Procedure Sequence of steps for the experiment (can be designed from published work, collaborations, novel ideas) Replication of the procedure Include a Control – independent variable is held at an established level or omitted
    9. 9. Hypothesis: Males have red wing epaulet as a signal of threat to other malesPrediction: Males without a red epaulet will not be considered a threat to other males Experiment Hansen and Rohwer (1986) • Manipulated the size of epaulet (double, half, black, normal) • Placed dummy bird in another bird’s territory • Counted the number of times the territorial male hit the dummy bird (hitting dummy bird, signaled the dummy bird was a threat) Double Half Normal Black
    10. 10. Types of Observation /Description• Good science depends very heavily on careful observations and accurate descriptions.• Qualitative vs. quantitative descriptions – Qualitative – can be biased, subjective, influenced by opinion or prior experience (examples – color, smell, general size description such as “big”) – Quantitative – can be verified by anyone, objective, nothing left to judgment (example – exact size measurements, weight, facts about distinguishing marks)• Exercise 1-2
    11. 11. hypothesis prediction Scientific Method question experimentobservation (gathering data) Results – organization and summary of data collected results - Present data collected in tables and figures - help in analyzing and interpreting your results - help a reader or viewer understand your results - no overlap of information among table and figures - Summary of data should be written precisely and accurately, NO fluff Tables and Figures Data Points Title Figure or Table # (with a caption describing content) Y-axis & X-axis labeled (include units if appropriate) Legend (if appropriate)
    12. 12. Results – Red-winged Blackbird Experiment Response to Wing Epaulet Size 8 6 Number of Hits (per ten minutes)Table 1.1 Number of hits on mounted red-winged blackbirdby territory owner in relation to the size of the red epaulet 4of the mount Size of Epaulet Number of Hits 2 Double 7 Normal 4 Half 2.2 0 Double Normal Half Black Black 1.8 Wing Epaulet Size Figure 1. Number of hits on mounted red-winged blackbird by territory owners in relation to the size of the red epaulet of the mount.
    13. 13. hypothesis prediction Scientific Method questionconclusion experiment(accept of reject) observation (gathering data) Conclusion – explanation of results, accept or reject hypothesis, discuss future research results We do NOT prove a hypothesis, we state that the results support our hypothesis Rejecting the hypothesis is just as important as finding support for a hypothesis
    14. 14. Conclusion Red-winged Blackbird Conclusion Males without red epaulet are considered less of a threat to territorial males than males with a red epauletSuggests that the red epaulet is used by males as a signal of threat Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus )
    15. 15. Topic 13 (pages 127-129)How to Write a Scientific Report
    16. 16. What is the point of a Parts of a scientific scientific paper? paper:• Communicate information on your experiment in a Abstract clear and concise way Introduction Materials and Methods• Present results to Results scientific community Discussion and/or peers Literature Cited
    17. 17. Abstract• A summary of the experiment and its results – 5-7 sentences (2-3 background, 1-2 methods, 2-3 results, 1-2 conclusions)Introduction (2-4 WELL WRITTEN paragraphs)• Background information• Goal of your experiment• State Hypothesis• *Cite literature*
    18. 18. Materials and Methods • Describe what you did and the materials that you used so someone else could replicate the experiment • Paragraph form!! No lists!! • Omit unnecessary information – i.e. “We labeled the tubes, “tube 1”, “tube 2”…” “We made graphs using Excel…” Results• General trends in data, NO RAW DATA!• Don’t explain data, just present in paragraph form• Represent data in tables and graphs
    19. 19. Graphs• Labels: Title, x-axis, y-axis• Key (optional and depends on the type of data)• Legend (always, Always, ALWAYS!!) One variable graph Figure 1: The number of cars parked in the USM 4 th streetExercise 1-4 parking lot on 24 August, 2011 separated by color.
    20. 20. Graphs• Labels: Title, x-axis, y-axis• Key (optional and depends on the type of data)• Legend (always, Always, ALWAYS!!) One variable graph Figure 2: The number of cars parked in the USM 4 th street parkingExercise 1-4 lot on 24 August, and 25 August 2011 separated by color.
    21. 21. Graphs• Labels: Title, x-axis, y-axis• Key (optional and depends on the type of graph)• Legend (always, Always, ALWAYS!!) Two variable graphExercise 1-4 Figure 3: Mass of 10 books on my bookshelf compared to the number of pages in each book.
    22. 22. Discussion• 2-4 well written paragraphs• What do you think your results mean?• Did you support or reject your hypothesis? – You cannot prove a hypothesis, if you say this, you will make me angry!• Future questions?• *Cite literature*
    23. 23. Literature Cited• In the Literature Cited section:Author, Date. Title. Journal. Volume: Pages.Ex) Smith, A., 1995. Hogsucker diet survey. Fish Food. 18: 25-30.• In the text (Introduction/Discussion):The diet of Hypentilium etowanum, the Alabama hogsucker, consists mainly of insect larvae and small crustaceans (Smith, 1995).Smith (1995) found that the diet of the Alabama hogsucker consists mainly of insect larvae and small crustaceans.
    24. 24. Literature Cited• You must cite at least 3 references from scientific journals in your lab reporthttp://www.lib.usm.edu/find_items/article_database s.htmlOther hints:• Use the rubric to guide you• Length is not as important as QUALITY• Grammar and spell-check!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!• Have someone else read it, or read it aloud• Make it look professional: 10/12pt, normal font choice• PUT YOUR NAME ON IT!!!
    25. 25. Today/this week...• Sign Safety Awareness Agreement• Sign e-mail list/”seating” chart• Handouts: Topic 1 supplement & guide to writing scientific papers• Complete Exercises 1-1 , 1-2, & 1-3• TURN IN lab manual pages 11 – 14• Online plagiarism tutorial (due by Friday 5pm)http://www.lib.usm.edu/legacy/plag/plagiarismtutorial.php
    26. 26. Next Time...• Graphs from Exercise 1-4, pgs 15/16 (extra credit for computer generated graphs)• QUIZ (Topics 1 & 13… & 2)• Topic 2 (Hypotheses and Experiments)• Lab Report (start on it now)
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