Malcolm Gladwell He was born in England and graduated from the University of Toronto, Trinity College, with a degree in history. Malcolm Gladwell has been a staff writer with The New Yorker magazine since 1996. in 2005 he was named one of Time Magazine's 100 Most Influential People.
The 80/20 Principle
A Few Instances Afro – American Infusion & Whites Migrating Cellular Phone Kitty Genovese – stabbed in 1964 Midst of 38 neighbors watching In open daylight in a street of New York City
What’s The Reason? The anonymity and alienation of big-city life makes people hard and unfeeling. Latane and Darley’s experiment
Three Key Characteristics Contagiousness Little causes can have big effects Change happens not gradually but all at one dramatic moment
The law of the few Connectors Mavens Salesmen
Connectors People specialists Connect people from different parts of society Have extraordinary knack of making friends and acquaintances Are curious about meeting new people Manage to occupy many different worlds, subcultures & niches
Mavens Information specialists Accumulate knowledge Also known as ‘Market Mavens’ Motivated to help people by sharing information Its not how much they know, but how they pass it along, that sets them apart
Salesmen Exceptional persuaders Have some kind of persuasive & contagious trait which goes beyond words Mesmerize with their enthusiasm & charm Use subtle non verbal cues to capture mind of the prospect Can employ small factors to help them accomplish mammoth tasks
The Stickiness Factor SESAME STREET, BLUE’S CLUES AND THE EDUCATIONAL VIRUS
Joan Gantz Cooney
3, 4 & 5 year olds
Literacy through television
Gerald Lesser - Psychologist
Good teaching is interactive
Lloyd Morrisett, Markle Foundation
Television commercials ,live animation of Saturday morning cartoons, celebrities
Increased reading and learning skills of viewers
Nature of messenger
Quality of stickiness
Lester Wunderman & McCann Erickson – Columbia Record Club
TV Guide & Parade magazine
“Secret of the Gold Box”
Howard Levanthal – fear experiments
The Power of Context
Broken Window theory
New York City in the 1980s 2000 murders, 60000 serious felonies every year The condition of the subway system was chaotic Dimly lit platforms, surrounded on all sides by dark, damp graffiti covered walls Filthy and unclean coaches; no infrastructure to clean them Cases of fire somewhere in the system daily; derailment every week Fare-beating was commonplace, causing an annual loss of 150 million for the transit authority 15000 felonies on the system every year; harassment of passengers by petty criminals
Successful application of Broken Windows Theory Zero tolerance efforts to combat minor crimes such as fare-beating and vandalism on the New York subway led to a decline in more violent crimes city-wide
Case study: Rumors and Sneakers
In this case study-oriented chapter, Gladwell discusses the rise and decline of Airwalkshoes
The brand was originally geared towards the skateboarding subculture of Southern California, but sought to transcend this niche market and attain national name recognition
They succeeded in this endeavor with the help of an advertising agency with a unique understanding of the factors and variables that influence the public’s perception of "coolness."
Airwalk’s campaign The marketing campaign ruthlessly honed in on and exploited several timely avatars of coolness, such as Tibetan Buddhism, pachuco gang culture, and hipsters’ ironic embrace of preppy culture, rendering Airwalk shoes cool by association in the process The company’s unique strategy of offering unique products to boutique stores and a more mainstream shoe selection to department stores had long kept both cutting-edge hipsters and their more mainstream, impressionable counterparts content The marketing campaign revolved around what the innovators think and taking cue from them how and when this would hit mainstream.
What went wrong? Production problems Unfulfilled orders- hence loss of loyal customers the trendsetting model was followed for marketing but the product did not support it. The product which was earlier the cooles thing started to be a mainstream homogenised product. The product lost its momentum.
Case study : Suicide & Cigarette Smoking Studies suggest that suicide & smoking can be contagious. Suicides lead to more suicides Suicides stories are a kind of natural advertisement for a particular response to your problems. The death of people in highly publicized suicides give others “permission “ to die – serves as tipping point in suicide epidemics.
Case study : Suicide & Cigarette Smoking 4. Smoking epidemics begin in precisely the same way that the suicide epidemic in began : 5. In this epidemic , as in all others a select few are responsible for driving the smoking epidemic forward by contagious. 6. The smoking experience is so memorable and powerful for some people that they cannot stop smoking . The habit sticks (The Stickiness Factor) 7. The problem is that many of those teenagers end up continuing their cigratte experiment until they get hooked
Conclusion Starting epidemics requires concentrating resources in a few key areas(Connectors Mavens and Salesmen) The theory of Tipping Point requires that we reframe the way we think about the world i.e. the world, much as we want to, does not accord with our intuitions and those who are successful at creating social epidemics do not just do what they think is right.
Conclusion (Contd…) What we must underlie successful epidemics is a bedrock belief that change is possible, that people can radically transform their behaviors and beliefs in the face of the right kind of impetus. We are actually powerfully influenced by our surroundings and we are acutely sensitive to even the smallest details about our life.